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foon after its opening, revenged Branitzki was also defeated by a itself. An order was made for body of Russians; and these two divesting him of the post of crown lords, the only very considerable general. Branitzki denied their persons who opposed the Ruffian power ; drew together into one nomination, were obliged to fly body a great part of that army, of out of their country, and to take which they had attempted to de- fhelter in the Turkish dominions, prive him, but which still faith- where they particularly value fully adhered to him : augmented themselves on protecting the unit by levies, and prepared to fortunate ; and thefe noble fugimaintain himself by force ; pofseff- tives found refuge where Charles ed, as it should feem, by a spirit XII. had found it. of despair and fury, having no In the mean time the Poles propower to the least adequate to the ceeded with great tranquillity in height of his attempt. Prince ordering their own affairs, correctRadzivil, 'on his part, was also up ing whatever they judged amiss in in arms, and with the same ob- the preceding reign, and bringing stinacy, and no greater strength, back their government to its pristruggled against the election. mitive institution and first prin

The ambassadors of France, ciples. This is their usual meSpain, and the empire, finding thod during an interregnum ; and, their political intrigues of no more in consequence of their enquiries, force towards obstructing the elec- they not only make several new tion, than the hostile attempts of laws, but settle their pacta conprince Radzivil and count Bra- venta, which is a solemn compact,

nitzki were likely to be, by which, in substance, the king June 7th, retired from the diet and engages himself, upon oath, to 1764.

left Poland, declaring maintain the republic on the footthat they had not been sent to ing upon which it was delivered a 'party, but to the whole' re- into his hands; and to take no public.

fteps, by which the freedom of An action at length, happened the country may be endangered,

between prince Radzivil, and the elective nature of the July 3d. and the Russian troops, crown charged to an hereditary

wherein the Poles, hav- fucceffion. There are other ing fought a long time, with their visions of detail, but this is the usual irregular bravery, were, as fpirit of that compact. usual, defeated by the Ruffians. The diet and the kingdom be

The spirit of Poland appeared ing freed, in the manner we have strongly in all the circumstances of seen, from all those, who were this action. The princess Radzi- the declared opposers of Poniavil, but newly married, and a towski, the election was foon confister of that prince, both of them cluded in favour of that prince, young and beautiful, fought on

with an unanimity unknown in the horseback with fabres, and encou

annals of Poland. His own great • raged the soldiery both by their qualities, his popularity in his words and their example.

country, his powerful connections,

the

crown.

the favour of the prince primate, “and it is but reasonable. The and the countenance of the great “ latter being the mere effect of potentates of the north, smoothed

consanguinity, no more is look: his way to the throne, which he “ed for (though much more is ascended with the most auspicious “ to be wished) from him, than

's appearances, and to the general what men are endowed with in fatisfaction, on the 7th of Sep- common ;

but from a man extember, by the name and titles of “alted, by the voice of his equals, Stanislaus Auguftus, king of Po- “ from a subject to a king, from a land, and Grand Duke of Lithua- man voluntarily elected to reign nia.

over those by whom he was choSoon after his election, he re- “ sen, every thing is expected that ceived letters of congratulation can possibly deserve and adorn a from all the courts by whom his “ Gratitude to his peocause had been espoused. The ple is the first great duty of such most remarkable is that from the “a monarch, for, to them alone, king of Prussia, written with his “ (under providence) he is indebted majesty's own hand. From the " that he is one.

A king, who is matter and the occasion, as well as “ fo by birth, if he acts derogatory the character of the writer, it is “ to his station, is a satire only on extremely worthy of being in-' “ himself; but an elected one, who serted at length. Nothing can “ behaves inconsistent with his be more glorious than a communi- dignity, reflects difhonour also cation of such sentiments in the in- on his subjects. Your "majesty, tercourse between sovereigns. I am sure, will pardon this

“ Your majesty must reflect that “ warmth. It is the effusion of the as you enjoy a crown by elec

“ sincerest regard.

The amiable “ tion, and not by descent, the part of the picture is not so much “ world will be more observant of “a lesson of what you ought to

your majesty's actions than of “ be, as a prophecy of what your any other potentate in Europe; '! majesty will be.”

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CH A P. IV.

WHILST

Disturbance in Russia.. Prince Ivan. He is visited by the Empress.

A guard is set upon him. Scheme of Mirowitz. Is put on guard in the castle of Schlusselburgh. Seizes the governor. Attacks the prince's gủards. Prince Ivan murdered, Mirowitz surrenders. Is executed. THILST the emprefs of Ruf many of its neighbours, was not

fia was employed abroad in securè of its own duration for a disposing of crowns, at home her moment. Every breath of a conthrone seemed to be tottering un- spiracy seemed to shake it ; and der her; and that vast power, such was the critical state of that which extended to the remotest empire, that the designs of the obparts of Asia, which awed all Eu- fcurest person in it were not with: rope, and absolutely governed so out danger.

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In the course of this summer, an ly neglected by the present emevent of this nature happened in press. The very first object, which Ruffia, which is deserving of a occurred to her amidst the cares of place in history from the extraor- her new and yet unsettled

governdinary circùmstances which attend- ment, was to examine into the ftate ed it; though so extremely myste- and qualifications of this royal pririous and unaccountable in many foner, whose fingular fáte the departiculars, that we despair of af- plored, and whose misfortunes she fording any clear fatisfaction to was resolved as far as possible to althe reader concerning them. They leviate : in this particular, far exshall be related according to the ceeding the generosity of her prematerials we possess.

deceffor, who thought enough had When her present imperial ma- been done in permitting him to live. jesty came to the throne of Russia She even condescended personally in so extraordinary a manner, it to visit this unfortunate prince, in was very necessary that she should order to form a judgment of his untake every step to secure her safety, derstanding and talents. To her and carefully reconnoitre every great surprise the found him to the avenue by which she might pof- last degree deficient in both. She fibly be attacked. In this search observed in him a total privation of an opening appeared, through sense and reason, with a defect in which a way might be easily made his utterance, that even had he any to new revolutions.

thing rational to utter, would have The reader, who is at all con- rendered him entirely unintelligible. versant in the Russian history, The empress, the characteristic of will readily recollect, that Ivan, or whose nature is benevolence and John, son of Anthony prince of compassion, who had lamented with Brunswick Wolfenbuttle, and the so many tears a bad husband, whom princess Anne of Mecklenburgh, she was obliged to depose, was now succeeded to the empire of Russia to the last degree affected by the on the death of the empress Anne marks of incapacity and weakness Iwanowna, in 1739. This prince, which appeared in a competitor to proclaimed and deposed in his her crown. Confoling herself, howcradle, too young to be sensible ever, as well as she was able, she of the great revolution of which gave directions that he should be he was the object, remained in treated with great care and tenderconfinement and obscurity from ness, though his condition rendered that period. Most people were him incapable of perceiving, and even ignorant whether he was alive much more of acknowledging those or dead.

But the late empress, striking marks of her humanity. with a magnanimity not common Extending her tenderness yet furin her fituation or her country, ther, that in his unfortunate cir. whilft Ihe removed him from the cumstances he should not be moeyes and attention of the people, lested, the ordered a guard to be permitted to live a person who had placed over his person, under the worn her crown.

command of two trufty officers, This perfon, however, was of and with ftri&t injunctions, that too much importance to be entire. none should approach him.

approach him. Under

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this guard he remained in the and ordered the foldiers to load castle or fortress of Schlusselburgh with ball. Berenikoff, governor not far froin Peterburgh.

of the fortress, alarmed with the All persons, however, were not so noise caused by these motions, ran thoroughly convinced of the inca- out of his apartment to inquire into pacity of this prince. He was now the reason of this disturbance. arrived at the age of twenty-four He was answered by a blow with years, and he might evidently be the butt end of a musket on his made an instrument, or at least a head, which laid him pretence, for exciting dangerous ground, commotions. His plausible title to Mirowitz having wounded and the crown, of which he had been secured the governor, loft no time formerly in poffeffion, his long suf- to improve his advantage. He ferings without any other guilt than advanced furiously at the head of that possession and that title, his his troop, and attacked the handyouth, and even the obscurity ful of soldiers who guarded prince which attended his life, (and which, Ivan. He was received with fpitherefore, gave latitude for conjec- 'rit by the guard, who quickly ture and invention) formed very repulsed him. These confpiraproper materials for working on the tors, at the same time the most minds of the populace.

desperate and the most timid of Actuated by such notions, a per- mankind, were obliged to retire, son of no consideration but from though they had not a single man the boldness of his attempts, one killed, or even : wounded in the Mirowitz, a second lieutenant in slightest manner. the regiment of Smoleniko, formed Thus disheartened without any a design of setting this prince at loss, they did not, however, deliberty, and of putting him at the fift from their enterprize. But head of a party. In pursuance of not daring to charge again with this design he tampered with some musquetry, Mirowitz ordered a of the soldiers of the garrison of piece of cannon to be brought from Schluffelburgh, whom he gained the ramparts, and they prepared to over to his project. He then desired batter the place. to be put on guard, though out of The commanders of the guard his turn ; probably because his re- which' was set on the prince, on gular turn did not coincide with seeing this formidable preparative, the time in which his associates thought it expedient to take counwere to be on guard.

fel together. And first, they held it This extraordinary step seems impossible to resist such a superior not to have excited any suspicions force, as that which they had lately in a governor, who was entrusted beaten off. Then they took into with so very important and critical consideration the dreadful consea charge. Mirowitz obtained his quences which must inevitably July 15th, fequeft ; and every thing ensue to the public peace and the 1764.

being prepared for the fafety of the empire, if their pri

attempt, at two in the soner should be enlarged ; and, morning he suddenly cailed up the lastly, they set before their eyes main-guard, formed it into a line, the punishinent, that would be

inflicted

ance.

22

nficted on them by the laws, in daring a project, seemed to lose all case their charge fould be taken sense and courage in a moment. from them, though against their He did not urge forward to revenge will, and after all possible resift- either himself, or the prince whose

death he brought on, whilft he On this consultation, they came fought his liberty, and whole body to the dreadful resolution of affaf- lay before him mangled in that finating the unfortunate prince, manner, which has in many inover whose life they were to watch, stances served to inflame, but never unterrified with the dangers which before to quiet the minds of the manifestly waited this horrid act, mutinous and discontented. Neidirectly hanging over them from ther did he or his associates endeaa desperate force, which (to give vour to save themselves by flight; any colour to their proceeding) but all of them, with the utmott they must have concluded irresisti- calmness, surrendered themselves ble.

captives to the governor, who was Those who pretend to be par- at this very time their prisoner. ticular in the detail of this dark It cannot be expected that the transaction, relate, that prince authors of this narrative should be Ivan was in his bed and alleep, able to remove all the difficulties, when the captain of the guard which, whatever systém may be entered his chamber. The first followed to solve them, naturally blow was but flight, and served must arise in the minds of the reada only to rouze him from his sleep. ers of this melancholy and astoAttacked in this sudden manner, nishing transaction. and wholly unprepared for defence, The

empress, who was extreme. be, notwithstanding, made a vigo- ly affected at the news of fo tragimous struggle for his life, and even cal an event, omitted no means to broke the sword of the assassin; clear herself from all suspicion of but, another coming in to the af- having the least share in it. It is hstance of the former, they soon true, that she profited in this inoverpowered him, and laid this stance by the defeated machinaunfortunate prince dead at their tions of her enemies. But there is feet.

no reason from any part of her When they had perpetrated this conduct to conclude, that the Ruffact, they took the dead body, and fian court could have connived at, exposed it, reeking with blood, and much less have encouraged, an at. pierced with ten stabs, to the eyes 'tempt of that nature. The trial of the conspirators, with these of the conspirators was remitted words : “ There is your emperor, to the senate ; they condemned let him now head you.”

Mirowitz to death, and he was This fight, which might natu- publicly executed, in pur- Sept. rally be expected to augment the fuance of his sentence.

26th. fury, at the same time that it The inferior actors in this completed the despair, of the as- design did not suffer death, but sailants, produced quite a contra- were subjected to other punishry effect. Mirowitz, who had the ments perhaps not

less severe. spirit to contrive and execute so The officers, who put the prince Vol. VII,

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