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“ the questions, which the con- commission was first presented to “ science of every member puts to them, and until his character was « him, who is thus placed be- by them recognized. “tween the king and his people, The duke, who is the grandson “ under the eyes of a God, who of James II. of England, took his “ who is the terrible avenger of all seat in parliament in quality of “ falsehood and prevarication. By. peer of France, and caused the “ registering a money edict, every edict to be registered. The par“ member makes himself answer. liament, on their fide, passed an “ able to his conscience for the arret, declaring the register void, “ truth of these affirmations, thus and forbidding all obedience to the “ discharging the conscience of edict. This arret, in his turn, Fitz “ the prince from any 'reproach James caused to be erased. Things « of violence or oppression, at the

to extremities, “ same time that he confirms the guards were set upon 'the houses “people in the essential princi- of some of the principal magi

ples of love, gratitude, respect, strates, and the rest were 'threaten« and submission to their sove- ed with the same restraint. But Wireign.”

these patriots, rather provoked Nothing can be more just, or than terrified with this rigour, and conceived in a more noble manner. animated by the conflict, which At Thoulouse, at Grenoble, at Be- now arose between law and milifançon, they pursued the fame tary power, were far from remitmeasures, and held the same lan- ting of the firmness of their proguage.

ceedings. On the contrary, they The court was alarmed at this rose under the oppression, and opposition ; but did not, however, this act of violence drew from immediately give up its point. them further and more powerful It had recourse to the direct power exertions of the spirit of liberty, of the crown, which had, not than had ever hitherto appeared in long since, been, or was at least France. deemed, irresistible.

They sent

Whilst they were struggling in down the governors of the several this manner, the neighbouring parprovinces with orders in the king's liament of Provence took fire; name to register the edicts by and, engaging in the cause of their force, and to cause them to be brethren of Thouloufe, drew up reobeyed.

monstrances to the king, in a stile The duke of Fitz. James was sent glowing with resentment and into Thoulouse ; Monsieur du Mesnil dignation, and in a spirit which no to Grenoble ; and the duke of words can adequately express but Harcourt to Rouen.

In these they represent The parliament of Thoulouse, “the dreadful spectacle presented firm to their first resolves, deter- “ to the people : desolation enmined to give the governor an early “ tering the sanctuary of justice, impression of their spirit. They “ the liberty of the magistrates strictly enjoined the magistrates "oppressed, their voices stifled,

honours as go-

“their safety violated, their forvernor of the province, until his “ tunes buried under the ruins of


their own.

not to

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" the law, and the supreme right strance, it is declared, that the “of registering acknowledged in said court has ordered, “ that the appearance to render them ac- “ said duke of Fitz James shall be

complices or vi&tims of a pro- “bodily taken and seized, where“ject of destruction, and the in- " foever he may be found in the « ftruments of arbitrary power. “ kingdom, and brought to the pri

“ And, more especially the un- “ fons of the court ; and, in case he " heard of outrage, which, in the “cannot be apprehended, his ef

capital of Languedoc, the mi- “ tates and effects shall be seized, “ nisters of the laws have expe- or put under the administration "rienced, and, in their persons, “ of a legal commiffary, according “the body of the magiftracy, the " to the ordinances, &c."

whole nation, and the throne The proceedings of the duke of itself, whose power and majesty Harcourt in Normandy were al

are equally wounded by tyran- together fimilar to those of the “ nical acts, which exhibit to duke of Fitz James in Languedoc ;. « astonished France force armed the resistance on the part of the " against the laws, of which it parliament was equally spirited, "should be the support ; justice and the arret to apprehend their “in bondage ; a subject erecting governor so exactly the same, that " himself into despotism ; and all it would be almost à repetition of “ this under the reign of a mo- the former proceedings to relate it. "narch, the father of his people, Monsieur du Mesnil imitated " and the protector of mankind. the conduct of the other two

“That, if his parliament, in governors, and shared the same " the abyss of their grief and af- fortune. The parliament of Gre

fliction, can yet employ them- noble did not in the least fall “ selves in other objects, it is an short of the brave example of

effort of their zeal, supported their brethren in Rouen and Thou-
by the firmeft confidence, that louse.
the remembrance of such an The event of these violent dis-

event shall not be transmitted putes, we may alınost call them
" to posterity, without an exam- convulsions, in the state of France,
" ple capable of revenging the is not yet known to the compilers
“glory of the king, the public li- of this work with fulficient clear-
"berty, and the laws.

ness ; nor, if our accounts were The legal vengeance, which this more satisfactory, would it be to remonttrance threatened, the par- our present purpose to relate it liament of Thoulouse, az soon as it more at large, as we mean no more could assemble, began to execute. than to cxhibit to the reader a faithThey came to a resolution of appre- ful picture of the spirit, which has hending their governor, acting with risen to fo high a degree in a counthe authority, and under the im- try hitherto distinguished by a pasmediate direction, of the crown, five acquiescence in the will of and proceeding against him as a its sovereignis.

From hence the criminal. An arret ap- reader may be enabled to form 1763."' peared, in which, after

a judgment of the influence it may a bitter complaint, in have upon the political conduct of the tenor of the preceding remon- that great nation.


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Dec. 11th,

Much more is to be expected France finds it her interest to cons from the event of these dissen- tinue punctul in her observance tions in France, than from the of the peace, Spain will scarcely internal movement of the affairs take any step, by which it may in Russia. Whatever turn affairs, be violated. . Thus, much advanmay finally take in the latter tage may be derived from a concountry, we know it can scarcely junction, which in every


parlead to any constitutional altera- ticular we may have so much folid tion. The government may be reason to lament. more or less firm, but still it will That France will, on her part, be the same government. The seriously endeavour to fulfil her natural powers of the country may engagements, we are satisfied ; not be increased or diminished in their only from the considerations al-, exertion, but this will produce no ready mentioned, but from another alteration in their principle. But proof thereof very strong and what effect the growth of freedom, unequivocal; the payment of so which is a capital revolution, may large a fum for the subsistence of have in France, it is impossible her prisoners. The disbursement distinctly to point out, though it of money from one rival state cannot be indifferent.

to another does not look very like In regard to her own real hap- a preliminary step to a war between piness, there is no doubt but such them. a change inuft tend greatly to aug- But at the same time it is ment it; but, with regard to her extremely difficult to determine, external strength, and to the figure to which nation a continuance she may make in the political fyf- of the peace will prove the most tem, which is all that we here advantageous ; as this depends 'confider, it is extremely difficult upon the natural powers of each to determine, whether the change nation, and those permanent rewill be to her advantage or detri- sources, which will enable it to ment. Without liberty, Great Bri- get the better of the accidental tain would dwindle into a con- waste of strength, which it suffertemptible state ; possessed of free- ed in the war. Much, too, will dom, France might, possibly, be- depend on the care and capacity of come less formidable.

the ministers in each nation to proAs to Spain, that court, to all fit of these resources, and to turn appearance, ftill remains, and is the opportunities of peace to the likely to remain, entirely subject to most profitable account. To the influence of French councils. culate the force of one of these

The personal character and dif- principles, and to guess at the expolitions of one, who ttands high ertion of the other, requires more in that state, may possibly cause knowledge of men and facts, than some irregularity in her proceed- can be acquired in our fituation. ings ; but, in the main, we may It may not be an easy task in be fully aflured, that, as long as any.


Election of a king of Poland. Parties there. Conduct of the neighbouring powers. Poniatowski recommended by Russia and Prussia. Opposition to the foreign troops. Protest against the diet of election. Branitzki divested of his command. He and Radzivil defeated and driven out of Poland. Ambassadors of France and Austria retreat. Poniatowski elected.

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THE last year concluded with of the latter party ; the former was

the preparations for the elec- embraced by Muscovy, Prussia, tion of a king of Poland, in which and Turkey ; two of these powers fo many powers were interested, having previously fixed upon a perand which was, almoft, the single fon, whose pretensions they depoint, that threatened any re- termined to support. An army of markable disturbance to the public Ruffians entered into Poland, and tranquillity. For, though the elec- approached Warsaw; the Prultion to the empire of Germany fans appeared on one frontier, was then also depending, and that and a body of Turks assembled on it was, in itself, a point of much the other. greater importance, it was fo ef- The candidate, who had united fectually provided for, that no these great potentates in his fadisturbance was apprehended on vour, was count Poniatowski, of that account. But, besides the the illustrious family of that name, foreign interests concerned in the powerful by its dependencies and election of a king of Poland, so alliances. He was a man, by his many strong domestic factions fub- personal qualifications, by his strikfifted, with so many opportunities ing virtues, and his various acto act, that dangerous convulsions quirements by study and travel, fito might well be feared both within ted to fill and dignify any station. and without that kingdom.

If the constitution of Poland would The great political division was ever suffer it to emerge, it could (as hath been observed in our work not have better chances for beof last year) upon the preference coming considerable under any of a native, (whom they usually prince. He was folemnly recomcall a Piast,) or a foreigner The mended, as well as effectually supreasons upon which these parties ported, by the above mentioned grounded their several opinions, powers. have been already stated. Auftria, However, the friendship of the France , and Spain, as connected great powers

, which this noblewith the house of Saxony, were man had acquired by his virtues,



Faised him many enemies, and no mate of Poland, has, during the

mall opposition, within the king- interregnum, the right of dom. The great house of Radzi- voking the diets, and acts in vil, and count Branitzki, who was that troubled interval with almost extremely powerful by his office all the authority of a king. The of crown general, declared against Poles have, not unwisely, vested him, and acted with great violence this authority rather in an ecclefi, in this opposition. The one op- aftical person, than in any of their posed' him with all the force of a great nobility, as his views on the family, which could raise an ar- crown must be taken away by his my of its dependents; the other facerdotal character, and as the with the army of the republic, fame character is less liable to not, perhaps, more considerable, lead him to any violent and tubut of which his office had given multuary proceeding. This prehim the entire command. As these late, whose influence on the elecforces were far from being con- tion must necessarily be very great, temptible, so their pretences were was entirely devoted to Poniafar from unpopular. They did towski. With these internal intenot oppose the election of a native; refts, supported by so strong a fobut they contended that this elec- reign force, Poniatowski offered tion ought to be free; and they himself as a candidate. could not bear, that, under the His kinsman Czartorin: Aug. 23d,

1764. name of preserving the liberty of ski was chosen marshal Poland, a foreign army should or spcaker of the diet, and every openly, and almolt avowedly, dif- thing proceeded very prosperously. pose of its crown. This was their in his favour. complaint; but it was not new, The other party, however, had and never could produce any ef- not been idle either during the fećt. That conftitution, which election of the nuncios or reprethey so ardently asserted, neceffi- fentatives, who, in the name of tated this very dependence on the body of the nobility, were to foreign powers, of which they so choose a king, nor at the loudly complained.

first assembling of the May 7th,

1764. On the other hand, count Po- states. In the former case niatowski, besides his foreign con- great tumults were raised, but they nećtions, had a very large party did not subsift long. In the latter within the kingdom. He was twenty-two fenators entered a pronearly related to the family of test against the proceedings of the Czartorinski, perhaps at this time diet, the principal reasons of which the most powerful in Poland. The were grounded on the presence chief of that house might, himself, and interference of the foreign have formed a considerable party troops. Forty-five nuncios fignto raise him to the crown ; but he ed an act of adhesion to this progave way to the pretensions of liis teít. kinsman, and supported him with Count Branitzki, who was at the all his interest.

head of those protesters, retired The archbishop of Gnesna, pri- from the diet. But that affembly,


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