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THE

EVERY-DAY BOOK.

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JANUARY
Then came old January, wrapped well
In many weeds to keep the cold away ;
Yet did he quake and quiver like to quell,
And blow his Dayles to warm them if he may;
For they were numb'd with holding all the day
An hatchet keene, with which he felled wood,
And from the trees did lop the needlesse spray;

Upon a huge great earth-pot steane he stood,
From whose wide mouth there flowed forth the Romane lluod.

Spenser Laus Deo !-was the first entry by entries to the days, and months, and sea merchants and tradesmen of our fore- sons, in “ every varied posture, place, fatbers' days, in beginning their new and hour." account-books with the new year. LAUS Deo! then, be the opening of this vo- JANUARY, besides the names already

ume of the Every-Day Book, wherein we mentioned," was called by the Angin 2 lake further “nute of time,” and make

• In vol. i. p. 2. VOL. II.-53.

CLIMATE.

Saxons Giuli aftera, signifying the second zon. The Temperature rises in the day Giul, or Yule, or, as we should say, the on an average of twenty years, to 40.280 second Christmas.* Of Yule itself much and falls in the night, in the open country will be observed, when it can be better to 31:36°—the difference, 8.92°, represaid.

senting the mean effect of the sun's rays for the month, may be termed the solar

variation of the temperature. To this month there is an ode with a

The Mean Temperature of the month, i verse beautifully descriptive of the Roman the observations in this city be included, symbol of the year:t

is 36.34o. But this mean has a range, in Tis he! the two-fac'd Janus comes in view; termed the lunar variation of the tempera

ten years, of about 10.25°, which may be Wild hyacinths his robe adorn, And snow-drops, rivals of the morn

ture. It holds equally in the decade, He spurns the goat aside,

beginning with 1797, observed in LonBut smiles upon the new

don, and in that beginning with 1807, in Emerging year with pride :

the country. In the former decade, the And now unlocks, with agate key, month was coldest in 1802, and warmest The ruby gates of orient day.

in 1812, and coldest in 1814. I have likewise shown, that there was a tendency in the daily variation of temperature

through this month, to proceed, in these Mr. Luke Howard is the author of a directions. The prevalence of different

respective periods of years, in opposite highly useful work, entitled “ The Climate classes of winds, in the different periods, of London, deduced from Meteorological is the most obvious cause of these peObservations, made at different places in riodical variations of the mean temperathe neighbourhood of the Metropolis: ture. London, 1818.” 2 vols. 8vo. Out of this

The Barometer in this month rises, on magazine of fact it is proposed to extract, from time to time, certain results which falls to 28.97 in.: the mean range is there

an average of ten years, to 3.40 in., and may acquaint general readers with useful fore 1.43 in.; but the extreme range in knowledge concerning the weather of our

ten years is 2.38 in. The mean height latitude, and induce the inquisitive to

for the month is about 29.79 inches, resort to Mr. Howard's book, as a careful guide of high authority in conducting their west to north. The northerly predomi

The prevailing Winds are the class from researches. That gentleman, it is hoped, nate, by a fourth of their amount, over the will not deem this an improper use of his labours : it is meant to be, as far as re

southerly winds.

The gards himself, a humble tribute to his

average Evaporation (on a total of talents and diligence. With these views, and the mean of De Luc's hydrometer 80.

30-50 inches for the year) is 0.832 in., under each month will be given a state of

The mean Rain, at the surface of the the weather, in Mr. Howard's own words: tarth, is 1.959 in.; and the number of and thus we begin.

days on which snow or rain falls, in this

mouth, averages 14, 4. JANUARY WEATHER

A majority of the Nights in this month The Sun in the middle of this month have constantly the temperature at or continues about 8 h. 20 m. above the hori- below the foregoing point.I

Long ere the lingering dawn of that blythe morn
Which ushers in the year, the roosting cock,
Flapping his wings, repeats his larum shrill;
But on that morn no busy flail obeys
His rousing call; no sounds but sounds of joy
Salute the ear-the first-foot's & entering step,
That sudden on the floor is welcome heard,
Ere blushing maids have braided up their hair ;
The laugh, the hearty kiss, the good new year

Sayers.
+ See vol. i. p. I.

Howard on Clinale.
The first visitant who enters a house on New-year's day is called the first-foot.

Pronounced with honest warmth. In village, grange,
And burrow town, the steaming flaggon, borne
Prom house to house, elates the poor man's heart,
Aud makes him feel that life has still its joys.
The aged and the young, man, woman, child,
Unite in social glee; even stranger dogs,
Meeting with bristling back, soon lay aside
Their snarling aspect, and in sportive chace,
Excursive scour, or wallow in the snow.
With sober cheerfulness, the grandam eyes
Her offspring round her, all in health and peace ;
And, thankful that she's spared to see this day
Return once more, breathes low a secret prayer,
That God would shed a blessing on their heads.

Grahume

January 1.

good, or very bad indeed! And only 10

propose to be better, is something; if The Saints of the Roman calendars and nothing else, it is an acknowledgment of martyrologies.

our need to be so, which is the first step

towards amendment. But, in fact, to So far as the rev. Alban Butler, in his every-day biography of Roman Catholic propose to oneself to do well, is in some saints, has written their memoirs, their such thing as a stationary point in human

sort to do well, positively; for there is no names have been given, together with endeavours; he who is not worse to-day notices of some, and especially of those than he was yesterday, is better; and he retained in the calendar of the church of who is not better, is worse.” England from the Romish calendar. Similar notices of others will be offered in the text-hand set of copies put before us

It is written, “ Improve your time,” in continuation ; but, on this high festival in when we were better taught to write than the calendar of nature, particular or fur. to understand what we wrote. How often ther remark on the saints' festivals would these three words recurred at that period interrupt due attention to the season, and without their meaning being discovered ! therefore we break from them to observe How often and how serviceably they bave that day which all enjoy in common, recurred since to some who have obeyed

the injunction! How painful has reflecNew Year's Day. tion been to others, who recollecting it, Referring for the “ New-year's gifts," preferred to suffer rather than to do! the “ Candlemas-bull," and various observances of our ancestors and ourselves, The author of the paragraph quoted to the first volume of this work, wherein above, expresses forcible remembrance of they are set forth “ in lively pourtraie- his youthful pleasures on the coming ix ture," we stop a moment to peep into the of the new year.-" Hail! to thee, JANU “ Mirror of the Months," and inquire ARY!--all hail! cold and wintry as thou “ Who can see a new year open upon art, if it be but in virtue of thy first day. him, without being better for the pros- THE DAY, as the French call it, par excelpece-without making sundry wise reflec- lence, Le jour de l'an.' Come about tions (for any reflections on this subject me, all ye little schoolboys that have must be comparatively wise ones) on the escaped from the unnatural thraldom of step he is about to take towards the goal your taskwork-come crowding about of his being ? Every first of January that me, with your untamed hearts shouting we arrive at, is an imaginary mile-stone in your unmodulated voices, and your on the turnpike track of human life; at happy spirits dancing an untaught meaonce a resting place for thought and me- sure in your eyes! Come, and help me ditation, and a starting point for fresh to speak the praises of new-year's day!exertion in the performance of our jour- your day-one of the three which have, ney. The man who does not at least of late, become yours almost exclusively, propose to himself to be better this year and which have bettered you, and have than he was last, must be either very been bettered themselves, by the change. Christmay-day, which was ; New-year's- short, with their endless round of ever day, which is; and Twelfth-day, which new nothings, the absence of a relish for is to be ; let us compel them all three which is but ill supplied, in after life, by into our presence-with a whisk of our that feverish lingering and thirsting after imaginative wand convert them into one, excitement, which usurp without filling as the conjurer does his three glittering its place. Oh! that I might enjoy those balls—and then enjoy them all together, nothings once again in fact, as I can in with their dressings, and coachings, and fancy! But I fear the wish is worse than visiting3, and greetings, and gifts, and an idle one; for it not only may not be, “ many happy returns" — with their plum- but it ought not to be.

- We cannot puddings, and minee-pies, and twelfth- bave our cake and eat it too,” as the cakes, and neguses—with their forfeits, vulgar somewhat vulgarly, but not less and fortune-tellings, and blindman's-buffs, shrewdly, express it. And this is as it and sittings up to supper—with their should be; for if we could, it would pantomimes, and panor::vas, and new neither be worth the eating nor the penknives, and pastrycouks’ shops—in having."*

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Now, on New-year's-day as on the pre- usual ancient phrases of quaffing among vious eve, the wassail bowl is carried the English, and synonymous with the from door to door, with singing and mer- Come, here's to you,' and I'll pledge riment. In Devonshire,

you,' of the present day."

A massy bowl, to deck the jovial day,
Flash'd from its ample round a sunlike ray. In the “ Antiquarian Kepertory," a
Full many a cent'ry it shone forth to grace

large assemblage of curious communicaThe festive spirit of th' Andarton race, tions, published by Mr. Jeffery, of PallAs, to the sons of sacred union dear,

mall, in 4 vols. 4to. there is the following It welcomed with lambs' wool the rising year.

paper relating to an ancient carving re. Polwhele.

presented in that work, from whence the

above engraving is taken. The verses Mr. Brand says,

“ It appears from beneath it are å version of the old lines Thomas de la Moore,* and old Havillan,t in Robert of Gloucester's chronicle, by that was haile and 'drinc-heil were the M1. Jeffery's correspondent.

• Vita Edw. II.

In Architren. lib. 2.

• Mirror of the Months.

For the Antiquarian Repertory. hearth with their cheerful neighbours, In the parish of Berlen, near Snodland, and then in the spicy wassell-bowi (which in the county of Kent, are the vestiges of testifies the goodness of their hearts) a very old inansion, known by the name drowned every former animosity-an exof Grores. Being on the spot before the ample worthy modern imitation. Wassell, workmen began to pull down the front, was the word; Wassell, every guest returnI had the curiosity to examine its interior ed as he took the circling goblet froin his remains, when, amongst other things well friend, whilst song and civil mirth worth observation, appeared in the large brought in the infant year. This annual oak beam that supported the chimney, custom, says Geoffrey of Monmouth, had piece, a curious piece of carved work, of its rise from Rouix, or Rowen, or as some which the preceding is an exact copy. Its will have it, Rowena, daughter the singularity induced me to set about an Saxon Hengist; she, at the command of investigation, which, to my satisfaction, her father, whó bad invited the British was not long without success. The large king Voltigern to a banquet, came in the bowl in the middle is the figure of the presence with a bowl of wine, and wel. old wassell-bowl, so much the delight of comed him in these words, Louerd king our hardy ancestors, who, on the vigil of wass-heil; he in return, by the help of an the new year, never failed (says my interpreter, answered, Drinc heile; and, author) to assemble round the glowing if we may credit Robert of Gloster,

Buste hire and sitte hire adoune and glad dronke hire heil
And that was tho in this land the berst was-hail
As in language of Saroyne that we might etere iwite

And so well he paith the fole about, that he is put borgute.
Thomas De Le Moor, in his “ Life of with such sort of work before the four-
Edward the Second,” says partly the teenth century.

T. N. same as Robert of Gloster, and only adds, that Wass-haile and Drinc-hail The following pleasant old song, inwere the usual phrases of quaffing amongst serted by Mr. Brand, from Ritson's colthe earliest civilized inhabitants of this lection of “ Antient Songs,” was met with island.

by the Editor of the Every-day Book, in The two birds upon the bowl did for 1819, at the printing-office of Mr. Rann, some time put me to a stand, till meeting at Dudley, printed by him for the Waswith a communicative person at Hobar- sailers of Staffordshire and Warwick. row, he assured me they were two hawks, shire. It went formerly to the tune of as I soon plainly perceived by their bills

Gallants come away. and beaks, and were a rebus of the builder's name. There was a string from

A jolly Wassel-Bowl, the neck of one bird to the other, which, A Wassel of good ale, it is reasonable to conjecture, was to note Well fare the butler's soul, that they must be joined together to That setteth this to sale ; show their signification; admitting this,

Our jolly Wassel. they were to be red hawks. Upon in

Good Dame, here at your door quiry, I found a Mr. Henry Hawks, the Our Wassel we begin, owner of a farm adjoining to Groves; he We are all maidens poor, assured me, his father kept Grove farm We pray now let us in, about forty years since, and that it was

With our Wassel Juilt by one of their name, and had been

Our Wassel we do fill n his family upwards of four hundred With apples and with spice, years, as appeared by an old lease in his

Then grant us your good will possession.

To taste here once or twice The apple branches on each side of the

Of our gond Wassei bowl, I think, means no more than that

If any maidens be they drank good cider at their Wassells.

Here dwelling in this house, Saxon words at the extremities of the

They kindly will agree beam are already explained ; and the To take a full carouse mask carved brackets beneath correspond

Of our Wanscl.

A CARROLL FOR A WASSELL BOWL.

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