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LONDON:
Printed by J. F. Dove, St. John's-Square ;
FOR WILLIAM BAYNES, PATERNOSTER-ROW; AND

R. PRIESTLEY, HOLBORN.

MDCCCXIX.

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BOOK III.

OF THE

PHILOSOPHY OF THE ROMANS.

CHAP. I.

OF THE STATE OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE

ROMAN REPUBLIC. In relating the History of Philosophy during The First Period, we have traced its rise and progress, in every age and country in which it has appeared, from the carliest times to the æra of the establishment of the schools of Alexandria. The Second PERIOD, on which we are now entering, will comprehend the whole series of philosophical history, from the æra just mentioned to the revival of letters; and will exhibit the forms, under which philosophy successively appeared, among the Romans; among the Eastern Nations, particularly the Jews and Saracens; and among the Christians.

The history of philosophy among the Romans, in the infancy of their state, has been already briefly considered, under the general head of Barbaric Philosophy; and we have little to add to what has been related respecting this epocha : for, from the building of Rome, through the whole period of the regal government, and many years after the consular power was established, the Romans discovered little inclination to cultivate any other kind of knowledge, than that which was barely necessary for the ordinary purposes of life, and for their military operations. The rise of philosophy at Rome may be dated from the time of the embassy, which was sent from the Athenians to the Romans, deprecating a fine of five hundred talents, which had been inflicted upon them for laying waste Oropii, a town of Sicyonia. The exact time of this embassy, which has been already mentioned, is unknown, but it is probable that it happened about the 156th Olympiad, or towards the close

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