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with the auxiliary agency of goy- subject; a course to which we were, ernments for the respective subdi- not gently, stimulated by the lanvisions, will afford a happy issue guage of the Northern press. Our to the experiment. It is well worth conclusions, as a people, generally a full and fair experiment.

are, that the course of the North is This is, we presume, sufficient a mistaken one. As to the loss of proof to any but the Northern their prestige-by which title they mind, that the framers were not seemed to understand the power of so presumptuous and absurd as to bullying any state with which they deny to posterity the right of judg- had diplomatic relations—that caning of its own interests, and to con- not be expected greatly to concern ceive their work, the aim of which us. Nor do we share their anticiwas the general good, to be, when pations of the consequences of the once executed, paramount to the ob- breach in their political system. ject it was intended to provide for. We do not expect the whole conti

It is because the English people nent to fall through the gap. Amehave not adopted one or the other rica will still appear unchanged, we paradox, and testified a lively desire are confident, on the map of the for the subjugation of the South, world. The valleys of New Engthat the North have so virulently land, the corn-fields of the South, assailed them, and threatened them the prairies of the West, will not with the loss of that ardent friend wither though the same flag do not ship which has sprung up in its wave over all of them : the South bosom—we presume, since the Cri- will send its cotton to the North, mean war. At the first dawn of the and will buy Northern manufactures present dispute, we did not trouble in return, whether Davis or Lincoln ourselves much about it. We do shall rule in Virginia. And if, when not commonly take much interest the fever is over, the people should in the domestic politics of America, prove to have learnt docility withbecause, with the exception of sla- out losing energy, and if the system very, they do not often involve a which may replace the Union should principle interesting to the world be better calculated to call forth the in general. Where none such is at elevated national qualities which are stake, foreigners do not feel it to be now revealed to us by faith rather their special vocation to watch ad. than by sight, neither we nor they venturers who are playing at polis will have reason to lament the tics, any more than if they were change, even though accomplished playing at thimblerig. A foreign by means so rude. public is not even deeply interested We hope that the greatest possible in the great question of whether it amount of benefit will follow the shall be Johnson or Thompson who least possible amount of calamity, shall enjoy the privilege of appoint and that all that is best in the ing his friends to be tide-waiters nation may pass unscathed through and postmasters. As the quarrel the furnace of war. But we cannot advanced, and it became evident pretend to agree with those who that South Carolina was about to consider this war as especially lasecede, we, as a people loving order mentable and terrible, and to antiand subordination, and believing cipate from it nothing but evil. It that secession had set up intolerable bears at present but little appearpretensions, and was the work of a ance of a civil war, resembling in faction only, were inclined to side all respects a contest between diswith the North, But when we found tinct nationalities. Actual hostiliourselves required to show our re- ties are restricted to a narrow belt gard for America by esteeming nine of country. The blood shed has, millions of Americans as pirates, in comparison with the magnitude rebels, and enemies of the human of the hostile forces, as yet been inrace, we began to reconsider the significant. Outrages have been few, and devastation confined to volution; but inherent, as is shown the space between the western in the result of the experiment conarmies. The overthrow of the Fed- ducted, under the most favourable eral Government leaves the States' circumstances, in America. That system of administration untouched example should teach both rulers for the security of justice. The and peoples moderation. Monarchy thin upper crust of union is broken should be willing to concedesubthrough, but firm footing is found jects sparing in demand. Unyieldclose under it. Nations have often ing despotism over an intelligent struggled through worse revolutions people leads directly to democracy. than this without eliciting extraor- Democracy in its dissolution is exdinary compassion. The kingdom posed to the risk of despotism. We of Naples is a prey to robbers, who have sought to show that the middle commit the most atrocious acts; yet state is, even in theory, the best, we do not regret the expulsion of and that power not born of the the King, even though the expedi- people may, as it passes into constition of Garibaldi has at first borne tutionalism, be the surest guarantee such unwholesome fruit, because we of liberty. And we have written think the evils endured to be tran- in vain if we have not also deduced sient, compared with a despotic dyn- a moral for those who would seek asty. And in the hope that this to improve our own condition by contest may end in the extinction of assimilating our institutions to those mob rule, we become reconciled to of America. Our own agitators, in the much slighter amount of suffer- their clamour for reform, are deing that war inflicts on America. scending towards universal suffrage.

In the beginning of this article Universal suffrage means, the govwe represented that, judging from ernment of a numerical majority, all example, modern intelligence which means oppression — which will prevent any people from sub- means civil war. What civil war, mitting to despotism, except as a even in its mildest form, means, we temporary refuge from anarchy. know from the Times' corresponWe have also attempted to show dent; and most heartily do we, in that the evils of democracy are not concluding this article, echo his accidental, as might be concluded wish—God defend us from mob from the example of the French Re- law.



EDUCATION-education--educa- authority of the sapient sanhedrim tion! That is the cuckoo-cry which who propose to teach everything to for many a long year has been audi- everybody, we opine that a man ble through the breadth and length may pass creditably through this of the land; and innumerable world of ours without any profound schoolmasters-noble and ignoble, knowledge either of algebra or trigoat home and abroad—have lent the nometry; and we cannot reasonably aid of their philanthropic voices to associate political economy with the increment of the general whoop. hammering on the anvil, or specuHonourable members, whose own li- lative theology with a diligent plyterary performances would disgrace ing of the spade. The aim of edua drayman, have selected that topic cation is not to make philosophers for special elucidation from the of the million, but to teach them hustings, and have rested their how they may best perform their claim to the confidence of their duty in their allotted spheres, and countrymen and constituents upon to instruct them in the arts which, their preternatural zeal for the in- applied to daily use, ameliorate the tellectual enlightenment of the peo- condition even of the poorest, and ple. Peers, whose acquaintance minister materially to their welfare. with Priscian was the reverse of When the promoters of mechanics' intimate, and whose private studies institutes and the like have become were rarely extended beyond the fully impressed with the truth of scope of the Racing Calendar, have that axiom, and are resolved to shape attested from many platforms their their course accordingly, then, but ardent aspirations for the general not till then, shall we acknowledge distribution of the fruit of the tree the useful character of their labours. of knowledge. Sages and mounte- Three-fourths, at least, of the lecbanks, philosophers and impostors, tures announced for delivery at our have alike declaimed, harangued, country towns have reference to suband written upon the subject; pro- jects utterly unsuited to the combably with the more confidence be- prehension and attainments of the cause they were quite aware that audience to whom they are adno one would be rash enough to dressed. They effect no permanent contradict them. And in further- good, for they merely convey a smatance of the good work, have we tering; and they are almost univernot annual meetings of a society sally calculated to foster that spirit for the promotion of social science, of self-conceit, bordering upon arroaffording glorious opportunity for gance, of which our beloved counthe ventilation and display of male trymen are by nature endowed with and female empiricism?

a sufficient store. We say advisedly Let it not be supposed that we that there is ample room and urgent are base enough to carp at those need for the exertions of lay teachers fine demonstrations of enthusiasm. of a very different stamp and calibre We, too, are social reformers; but from the peripatetic lecturers who the reforms which we most strenu- now meander through the towns. ously advocate are not to be found Let the attention of the mechanics in any catalogue of the ologies, and artisans be directed to the rethough they are of the utmost im- gulation of their own homes, the portance as affecting the amenities improvement of their habits, and and promoting the comforts of ex- the increase of their domestic comistence. With all respect for the forts—let them be exhorted, through precept and example, to cultivate ground of their deficiency in the those humble arts which tend so social arts — had he averred that much to beautify and adorn exist the people were generally ignorant ence, but without a knowledge of of the first principles of culinary which even comparative wealth can science — that they were slow to bring no additional happiness—let adopt those appliances which mainphysical improvement, as is right ly tend to the preservation of health and proper, precede intellectual cul- and comfort—that they obstinately ture; and so, in the process of time, disregarded ventilation, and were shall we escape the reproach of as sparing in their use of water as being, with all our boasted educa- if they had to draw it from wells tion, a slatternly and neglectful in an arid wilderness, - he would people.

have done good service to the State, It is full time that the truth and secured a reasonable amount of should be spoken. We in Scotland backing, even though sturdy patriots, are, in so far as regards domestic who believe in Caledonian perfectaarts, very far behind nations with bility, might have abused him as a fewer opportunities of instruction southern calumniator. But he has and less absolute means at their done nothing of the kind. He has command. Not merely the work- elaborately constructed from his own ing classes, but a large section of fancy a picture of a gloomy, morose, the middle orders, are lamentably ill-conditioned, and fanatical people, deficient in civilisation. Buckle has living in this world under perpetual missed the blot. That humorous terror of awful torments in the next, rogue, with all the will in the world and walking in blind obedience to to be pungent, has gone in the wrong the dictates of a tyrannising priestdirection. Like the disguised prince hood, who have all the will, though in the Arabian Nights' Entertain not the power, to renew the horrors ments, he has expended his pepper of the Inquisition. Such a caricaupon the cream tarts, and therefore ture as this is simply provocative of most righteously has he been basti- laughter; and accordingly we requite nadoed. He has been pleased to be Mr Buckle for his pains with the jocose upon fasts, without in the guerdon of a hearty guffaw. least degree comprehending the na- But we shall not, through exorbi. ture of those peculiar observances; tant fondness for the land that gave but of feasts he has said nothing; us birth, slur over the manifold dewherefore we set him down either ficiencies of the people. We are not as a thorough ignoramus, or as an now compiling a treatise upon the animal destitute of a palate. In- national character. Our subjectdeed we are rather at a loss to com- an ample one without indulging in prehend, from his argument, what digressions—is dyspepsia ; but we significance he attaches to the term do not wander from it when we civilisation. According to our ideas, point out what peculiar causes exist the degree of civilisation to which a among us which engender and ag. people has attained is not to be esti- gravate the disease. In a previous mated by reference to their religious article we attempted to sketch the creed or ritual, or the peculiar form sort of banquet most commonly of the government under which they given, under the guise of hospitable are contented to live. It depends entertainment, by persons of a cerupon their habits, their attainments, tain station in society, possessed of their social dispositions and order— comfortable incomes, though not acnot upon their church-going propen- tually endowed with wealth. It will sities, or the method of their inter- be acknowledged by all who are conpretation of the law which they ac- versant with domestic economy, that knowledge to be divine. Had Mr such dinners, whatever may be their Buckle accused the Scots of being quality, are expensive, and that, in backward in civilisation on the point of fact, a much better repast could have been furnished at a lesser ciencies in the cheer; and base it cost. Such is almost invariably the is to ridicule or criticise the commiscase in households which are indif- sariat of the man whose provender ferently regulated, and where nei- you gratuitously devour. But it is ther the master nor the mistress quite a different matter when we are competent to the arrangement have to deal with persons whose of a scientific dinner. To those profession it is to cater for the pubwho can afford such a luxury, the lic entertainment. We need have services of a good housekeeper are no scruple whatever in exposing invaluable ; but by many families their errors, ignorance, and shortthat is unattainable ; and the task comings ; for they demand a price of selecting the dishes is too often for all that they furnish, and we are devolved upon the cook, whose entitled to institute a close reckonideas in range are as limited as is ing into the value of that which is the kitchen apparatus. But on that set before us. We do not deny that score we have nothing to add. Be we approach this topic with somethe faults of such a banquet what thing like a personal feeling, bethey may, at least these cannot be cause in the course of the last six traced to niggardliness, or any purely weeks we have been more than economical consideration.

once treacherously and cruelly beLet it, however, be distinctly un- trayed, and our digestive powers, derstood that our description so far which we had fondly hoped had is not intended to apply exclusively been restored, by a blessed curative to Scotland. Our sketch was a ge- process, to their pristine energy, neral one of the staple British ban- have been partially disordered by quet, which all habitual diners-out the vile preparations which we may examine at leisure, and ap- have encountered in various hosplaud or condemn as it tallies with telries. Again we have felt, though or contradicts their experience. The in mitigated measure, the incipient faults of overcrowding, insufficient clawings of dyspepsia; and we have service, bad selection of viands, in- shuddered to think how entirely different cookery, and the mixture the health and happiness of the of incongruous wines of inferior lieges may be and often is left quality, are not peculiar to the without control or responsibility in north alone-nay, we are bound to the hands of ignorant and unscrupsay that dinners of this sort are, ulous victuallers. For that most upon the whole, better regulated in crying evil no remedy can be found, Edinburgh than in London. We save through the forcible expression have noticed them, mainly because of public opinion; and we earnestwe are convinced that a decided ly entreat every man who knows improvement, as well as a consider the value of a sound and healthy able saving, might be effected, if stomach, to consider the present less regard were paid to ostentation state of our inns and lodging-houses and more to comfort, which, after with a view to their immediate reall, is the thing to be studied by formation. Let it be remembered the kindly and hospitable Amphy- that, in many instances, no choice trion.

is left to the traveller. In the reWe might have said a great deal moter districts of the country-inmore on the subject, and extended deed everywhere out of the large the scope of our observations to the towns -inns are few and far bedomestic practice of other classes tween, and so far from there being of the community ; but we refrain any kind of competition for custom, from doing so, because we feel the wayfaring man is often glad to that we are trenching upon perilous avail himself of the merest apology and private ground. All the world for a shelter. That is no doubt inover a hearty welcome is held to convenient; still it affords no reasonbe a sufficient excuse for any defi- able ground for complaint. We can

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