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it utters the very thoughts which made to smile, or Sheridan stung for the moment are moving in the with satire. It will then be provpopular mind. It is by such a com- ed, moreover, that our English parison as the National Gallery now artists have never been excelled affords, that we can bring our Eng- upon flood or field, when Wilson, lish school to the test of history, Gainsborough, Turner, and Stanand determine how far our English field essayed to paint our British artists work upon those enduring mountains, lakes, and rivers, and principles which have been hand with bold sweep of hand held the ed down by ages, and come with empire of the seas. It will be the sanction of an ancient wis found, we say, in the great Interdom. Some modern painters have national Exhibition of 1862, that presumed to scoff at the works and the British School of Painting the practices of their great fore- is, at least in these directions, runners; but we tell these men unrivalled. But then, likewise, plainly that, unless they build upon in the words of Reynolds, it will the experience of the past, unless also be discovered that “the they take the path trodden by the value and rank of every art is in great artists of the olden times, proportion to the mental labour their popularity will barely out- employed on it, or the mental plealive the tenure of their lives; and, sure produced by it." Thus will be owing nought to ancestry, they demonstrated the essential littleness can expect to claim nothing of pos- of a small idea, the comparative terity.
worthlessness of those partial modes Our artists in the coming year which command but passing popuwill have to submit to another com- larity. Then it will be found that petition-not with the works of an pictures which aspire to nothing ancient period, but with the schools higher than “ the furnishing apartof neighbouring nations. It will ments with elegance" must take a then be seen that our English low position in the great compepainters have never been surpassed tition of thought and civilisation. in works of pleasing pretty incident: And, before the assembled nations, scenes taken from our homes and honour will at last await those works homesteads; peasants in their hum- of study and of genius that rest on ble cots, such as Wilkie loved to truths which change not with the paint ; or groups well dressed in lapse of time, nor swerve to altered drawing-rooms, such as Goldsmith place.
EVERY one knows that dogs are of this disease ; and since cure is liable to a terrible disease, which impossible, prevention becomes tencan be communicated to other ani- fold more important. We propose, mals and to man: a disease fright therefore, to treat this subject with ful in its symptoms, and fatal in its the minuteness which its importeffects. But very few persons know ance warrants. what are the signs and symptoms
Under this head it will be ne- does not show itself more than once cessary to include almost every in fifty cases. “Il est désormais single notion which is popularly acquis à la science," says the latest held about mad dogs ; for it is sur- authority on this subject, “ que c'est prising that on a subject of this précisément un signe de la rage, fatal interest the current ideas are lorsque la soif est trop ardente ; et not simply inaccurate : they are ut- que jamais appellation plus fausse, terly and dangerously wrong. To plus absurde, et en même temps begin with the one expressed in the plus dangeureuse, ne fut appliquée name Hydrophobia, which means à aucune maladie que celle de hyhorror at water. This is not simply drophobie à la rage du chien.”* a misnomer, otherwise we should Another popular error attributes scarcely mention it, but a misde- the madness of dogs to the heat of scription of a very serious kind. the “ dog-days.” In July and AuThe name hydrophobia having been gust all kinds of precautions are fixed in people's minds, and the taken, which no one thinks of for idea that rabid dogs dread water a moment in November and Decemhaving become part and parcel of ber. On the Continent, a paternal the general belief, the sight of a dog police is minutely solicitous in sumeagerly lapping water, or willingly mer about the enforcement of its plunging into it, would naturally regulations. But the simple fact lead ninety-nine out of a hundred is, that the “dog-days” have no to exclaim-“He drinks, therefore more to do with the rabies than there can't be danger." The fact the moon has to do with lunacy. is, that a burning thirst is one of Dogs are liable to attacks in every the characteristic symptoms of rabies, month of the year; but it so hapin its early stages. True it is, and pens that July and August are prevery curious it is, that in man an cisely the months in which the indefinable dread of water, or any fewest cases occur. Against the other liquid, does characterise the loose estimate of popular opinion, later stages of the disease; and for we can place the exact records of the disease in man the name of the veterinary schools of Alfort, hydrophobia is not inappropriate. Toulouse, and Lyons, and these Of this we shall see examples pre- show that it is not in the hottest sently. But in dogs, so far from a months, but in the wettest months, dread of water being a reliable that the great majority of cases are symptom, it is a symptom which seen. In April, November, and
* SANSON : Le Meilleur Préservatif contre la Rage: Etude de la Physiognomic des Chiens et des Chats Enragés. 1860.
December, the recorded cases are mouth, and run about snapping double and triple those in June, wildly at man and beast, or at any July, and August.
rate manifest their madness by fuThat “heat of the weather" is rious ferocity. But while healthy not the cause of rabies, is strikingly dogs often "foam at the mouth, proved by the fact that in hot coun- it is only in one stage of the disease tries the disease is rare, and in some that the rabid dog shows any foam. even unknown. M. Du Chaillu no- And as to ferocity, most mad dogs tices that although “most of the are gentle and caressing to their West African villages are crowded masters and favourites, though they with dogs, the natives do not know, snap at other dogs. It is only the even by report, of such a disease as ferocious dog that shows great ferohydrophobia.” Dr Watson remarks city when rabid. that rabies is unknown in the Isle It is very generally believed that of Cyprus and in Egypt. "I fancy if a healthy dog should bite a man, that South America is, or was, a and at any subsequent period become stranger to it. It appears to have rabid, the man will also become been imported into Jamaica, after rabid—no matter how many months that island had enjoyed an im- or years may have elapsed. The munity for at least fifty years; and consequence of this absurd prejuDr Heineker states that curs of the dice is, that healthy dogs are fremost wretched description abound quently killed in order to prevent in the island of Madeira; that they their becoming rabid. There was are afflicted with almost every dis- an example of this only a few weeks ease, tormented by flies, and heat, ago in London; and unhappily the and thirst, and famine, yet no rabid bitten man died a victim to the terdog was ever seen there. On the rors of hydrophobia. It was quite contrary, 1666 deaths from hydro- clear, from the symptoms, that he phobia in the human subject are was not affected by hydrophobia ; stated to have occurred in Prussia and the magistrate very properly in the space of ten years." *
expressed disapprobation at the folly Having attributed the disease to of destroying the dog before it was the “heat of the dog-days," men evident whether or not it was rabid. easily came to the conclusion that The rule in such a case is perfectly it was owing to intense thirst that simple. If the dog is suspected of the disease occurred. Inasmuch as being rabid, it should be kept this error has forced them to be chained up, out of the way of inmore careful in attending to the jury, until the disease declares itwants of dogs, and secured ac- self. By this plan it may very soon cess to water, it has been a bene- be shown whether the suspicion ficial error. But, viewing the mat- was ill-founded, and whether the ter scientifically, we are forced to dog was or was not rabid. Such a say that thirst, however intense, is proof would often greatly relieve incapable of producing rabies. Dogs the minds of the bitten man and have been subjected to the cruel his family, and remove that terriexperiment of complete abstinence ble anxiety which, in spite of every from water, when chained to a wall surgical aid, must for some weeks under a burning sun. They died assail them. from thirst, but showed no symp- Finally, we may remark that it toms of rabies. Thirst will produce is by no means true, as popularly delirium in man; but delirium is supposed, that a man or animal bitnot rabies, nor in any way related ten by a mad dog will certainly to it.
take the disease. The chances are Another popular error is to sup- very great against such an event, pose that mad dogs foam at the even if no precautions be taken.
Of course, no sane man would run avaros. Man or beast, once inthe risk. But it is comforting to fected with the poison, is doomed know, after surgical aid has been to a certain and horrible end. This employed, that even without such infection may be prevented, even aid the chances are against the dis- after the bite has been given, either ease being communicated.
by surgical aid, or by a natural The errors we have just noticed indisposition of the organism to are pernicious in varying degrees, be affected by the poison; but the but mainly because they mask the infection once established, no rereal symptoms, which might other- medy avails. The records of mewise call attention to the danger. dical experience contain numerAnd how great that danger is may ous cases of harmless bites from be expressed in a single sentence- rabid animals, but no single case of there is no remedy. The physician declared rabies having ever been that cures is Death — iatpos latau arrested.
11.-HYDROPHOBIA IN MAN.
We have already intimated that sleep. He felt ill and drowsy on in man the disease is characterised Sunday, but drove the carriage to by a singular dread of water; and Kensington Gardens: he was obligthat this is an invariable symptom. ed, however, to hold both whip and Happily the cases are rare; and as reins in his left hand. The pain even experienced physicians seldom extended to his shoulder. He was have the opportunity of witnessing then bled. This relieved the pain. one, we shall briefly state what are But the next day he complained of the observed symptoms. Dr Wat feeling very ill all over; and he son, in his Principles of Physic, and told his medical attendant that he Romberg, in his Diseases of the could not take his draughts because Nervous System, will furnish ex- of the spasm in his throat. That amples :
gentleman, suspecting the true naA coachman was brought to St ture of the disease, pretended that Bartholomew's Hospital on a Tues- it was the nasty taste of the physic day. It was stated that, some ten which gave the spasm, and told him weeks before, the back of his right to drink some water. But there hand had been struck by the teeth was the same difficulty with the of a terrier, but no wound had been water. The next day he came to made, no blood drawn, nor was the the hospital. When there, water skin broken-there was merely a was placed before him in a basin, mark of the animal's teeth. On the for the alleged purpose of allowing Thursday preceding his appearance him to wash his hands. It did not at the hospital, his hand had be seem to disturb him, nor to excite come painful, and swelled a little. any particular attention. Water On Friday the pain extended into was then offered to him to drink, the arm, and became more severe, which he took and carried to his His wife stated that he had been mouth, but drew his head from it in the habit of sponging his head with a convulsive shudder. After and body every morning with cold this, on the same morning, he was water, but on this morning he re- much questioned by several persons frained from doing so on account about the supposed cause of his of some feeling of spasm about the illness; and water was again throat. His own remark on this brought to him, which agitated was, that he couldn't think how him, and he became exceedingly he could be so silly.” On Satur- distressed and unquiet, complainday, the extent and severity of the ing of the air which blew upon pain had increased. He got no bim. Dr Watson saw him soon after this, and describes him as “to hand, he drew back his head to a all outward appearance well, lying distance, apparently involuntarily. on his back without spasm, without The next day he was composed, anxiety-his face somewhat flushed. yet more easily irritated, and had He said he had a little headache, lost the power of moving his left but no pain in the arm. His pulse arm. His pulse was 140, and much was 132, full and strong; his tongue weaker than before. His mental moist and slightly furred. He ap- powers were failing. During the peared to be a very quiet, good- last hours of his life, he moaned and tempered man; and smiled gene- tossed from side to side. He sank rally when he was spoken to.” gradually, and died in the evening.
In the evening Dr Watson found Dr Watson, in the course of his him tranquil, Gruel was mentioned, very extensive practice, both in priand then he sighed deeply two or vate and in the hospitals, has only three times, but sat up, and after a seen four cases of hydrophobia, moment's look of serious terror, which proves that the disease must took half a spoonful of the gruel in be rare. One of these was owing a hurried gasping manner, and said to the bite of a cat, on the 1st of he would not take more at a time, January 1855 (not by any means lest the sensation should come on. one of the “ dog-days”). A lady, He was desired to take the last aged thirty-two, hearing from her portion of the gruel from the basin. brother that a white cat belonging He accordingly seized it with hurry, to the stables had been quarrelling carried it to his mouth with an air with a terrier the day before, and of determination, and then a violent afterwards fighting with another choking spasm of the muscles about cat, supposed it might be ill, and the throat ensued. Most of the desired it to be brought to her. gruel was spilled over his chin; and She placed it on her lap. It there he observed that he should have bit her finger. Had the lady been managed it had he not been in too aware of the suspicious nature of great a hurry. He was quiet, ra- such an act, she would at once have tional, and calm, except when en- sent for the surgeon. But few peodeavouring to take liquids. On ple remember that cats are as liable Wednesday, at noon, he was much to madness as dogs; otherwise we in the same state, but said he was should not have the many absurd better. Some morsels of ice had police regulations respecting dogs been given him during the night: in the summer months, and comhe swallowed two or three with plete disregard of cats all the year considerable effort ; the third or round. Still fewer are impressed fourth caused so great a spasm that with the necessity of ascertaining he was forced to throw it out of what has been the behaviour of an his mouth : by a strong resolution, animal that has bitten them. The however, he seized it again, and cat now in question was destroyed, finally succeeded in swallowing it but not before it had scratched the He now complained that his mouth gardener's child, flown furiously at was clammy, and he champed much. a man, and bitten a whip with He requested that a straitwaist which it had been attacked. From coat might be put on, that he might the 1st January to the 14th March injure no one. He assisted in put- no alarming symptoms disclosed ting it on, and was perfectly calm. themselves, but on the 14th the
Whenever he attempted to swal- lady began to feel generally unwell. low liquid in the smallest quanti- On the 16th, pain ran from the ties, it was always with sobbings bitten finger along the arm and and hurried inspirations, precisely across the chest. This pain did not resembling those we make when last long, nor did it recur. On the first wading in cold water. While 17th she found a difficulty in swaltaking the basin of gruel in his lowing. Dr Todd visited her in