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3. Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors, . . 482 4. — of the competition of persons with independent means of

support, 485

5. Wages of women, why lower than those of men, . . . 489 6. Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and from

combinations, 491

7. Cases in which wages are fixed by custom, .... 492

Chapter XY. Of Profits.

§ 1. Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance, and wages of superintendence, 495

2. The minimum of profits; and the variations to which it is liable, 498

3. Differences of profits arising from the nature of the particu-

lar employment, ........ 600

4. General tendency of profits to an equality, .... 502

5. Profits do not depend on prices, nor on purchase and sale, . 508

6. The advances of the capitalist consist ultimately in wages of labour, 510

7. The rate of profit depends on the Cost of Labour, . . 512

Chapter XVI. Of Bent.

§ 1. Rent the effect of a natural monopoly, 516

2. No land can pay rent except land of such quality or situa-

tion, as exists in less quantity than the demand, . . 517

3. The rent of land consists of the excess of its return above

the return to the worst land in cultivation, . . . 519

4. — or to the capital employed in the least advantageous cir-

cumstances, 521

5. Is payment for capital sunk in the soil, rent, or profit? . 525

6. Rent does not enter into the cost of production of agricul-

tural produce, 531

BOOK III.

EXCHANGE.

Chapter I. Of Value.

§ 1. Preliminary remarks, 535

2. Definitions of Value in Use, Exchange Value, and Price, . 637

3. What is meant by general purchasing power, . . . 538

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