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A VOCABULARY OF PROPER NAMES AND WORDS, Relating to the Persons and Circumstances of the French Revolution, and
explanatory of the Factions and principal Occurrences of that Era. ALARMISTS.- Persons in the habit Conservative Senate, Dec. 25, 1799. of spreading disastrous reports, both --Legislative Body, Corps Legislatif, false and true,
Jan. I, 1800.—Tribunal, same day. Anarchists.--A name given by the House of Peers, appointed by Louis, Gironde party to the embers of the June 4, 1814.-House of Deputies, National Convention, who were par- June 4, 1814.-Houseof Peers, aptisans of Marat, and supporters of pointed by Napoleon, June 7, 1815.the reign of terror.
House of Representatives, appointed Anti-Revolutionists.-Supporters by Napoleon, same day.-House of of the Bourbon government, and Peers, and House of Deputies, apenemies to the Revolution.
pointed by the King, Oct. 7, 1815. Apitoyeurs. - Pitiers.--A name This Chamber of Deputies was disgiven at the first breaking out of the solved by the King on Sept. 5, 1816, Revolution to those, who felt com since which, l-fifth of the Chamber passion for the emigrants and op- is renewed at the end of each year, pressed clergy.
Avilisseurs.--Contemners. This Aristocrats.-Supporters of the name was given, at the commenceold Bourbon government, and of the ment of the Revolution, to those who privileged orders.
despised the revolutionary party, Assemblies. — These Assemblies their government, their armies, their were numerous: the first was, the officers, their resources, and their “ Assemblé des Notables (nobles) met conduct and pretensions. at Versailles, on Feb. 27, 1787. Babouvistes. The party attached A second Session, or Convocation of to Babeuf, the advocate of a popular this Assembly, commenced on Nov. government. 16, 1788.–The Etats Genéraux, an Bascule.-The scheme of neutralassembly consisting of the three or- ising parties, by bestowing factitious ders of Nobility, Clergy, and Com- favours or advantages on the weaker mons, met at Versailles, on May 5, side, to the degree of equalising it 1789. This Assembly, sat in three with its opponents. distinct bodies, but the Commons" Blues.-A name given to the Rebranch obtained their object, în com- publican soldiery by the Chouans, pelling the two higher orders to and the people of La Vendeé. coalesce with them; and these met Bonapartists.- Persons attached as one body, at Paris, on Nov. 9, to the Emperor Napoleon. 1789, and assumed the title of the Bonnets-rouges.-Red-caps. -A National, or Constitutional Assem name applied to those ardent Repubhly. A new Constitution was formed licans, who, in their enthusiasm, had on Sept. 3, 1791, and this National assumed caps of this sanguinary coor Constitutional Assembly was dis- lour. solved on the 30th of that month, Brigands de la Loire. Robbers and was succeeded by the Legisla- of the Loire.-A name, which a few tive Assembly on Oct. 1, 1791. of the French applied to the wreck This was succeeded by the National of Napoleon's army, which retreated, Convention on Sept. 21, 1792.-The and took up a position behind the National Convention brought Louis Loire, on the advance of the English to the scaffold, and established the and Prussians to Paris, in 1815. reign of terror; but the Republican Brissotines.-A party in the NaGovernment was again re-modelled; tional Convention, headed by Brissot, the National Convention abolished; and opposed to Robespierre, by whom and two Houses of Parliamant es they were eventually overcome. tablished on Oct. 28, 1795, - the Buzotines. A party in the NaCouncil of Ancients, and the Coun- tional Convention, headed by Buzot, cil of Five Hundred. These were Camp de Jalès.A military body superceded by the following Assem- of the nobles, in the Department of blies, successively established. the Velai, (Upper Loire) which, in Eur. Mag. Vol. 83.
1790, excited the people of the cen the Convention, who wished to retral provinces against the govern- store the monarchy, used to meet at ment of the National Assembly, the Jardin de Clichi, and afterwards
Capetians. The Kings of the race at the house of the Deputy La Haye. of Capet were thus called; but at the The Revolution, the name was applied to volution of 18 Fructidor, or year 5.
party was destroyed by the Řeall the supporters of the Bourbon Compagnies de Jésus et du Soleil. Dynasty.
Companies of Jésus, and the Sun. Carmagnole.-Adress which, with - Associations of young men, who, the bonnet-rouge, denoted the tho- after the death of Robespierre, comrough Jacobin, 1793. It was also mitted numerous assassinations, una name given to the Republican sol der pretence of avenging those who diers by the Royalist, and applied, had fallen victims to the reign of also, to the exaggerated and bom terror. bastic reports of the Committees of Constitutionnels.-Constitutional. Government, which were made by ists. — Supporters of the Constituthe orators to the Tribunes, with tion, in opposition to the Royalists. à view of sustaining the public spirit Constitutions. The different Conand confidence of the people. stitutions were as follows:- First.
Center. A short designation of declared Sept. 3, 1791, and sancthe ministerial Deputies, applied to tioned by Louis XVI. Sept. 13, 1791. them from their habit of occupying –Second, declared by the Conyenthe centre of the House of Deputies. tion, June 24, 1793, and accepted by The term is synonymous with dur the people on the 10th of August term of "the 'Treasury Bench," i.e. following.–Third, declared Aug. 17, the lower form or bench on the right 1795.-Fourth, established Feb. 7, of the chair.
1800,-Fifth, a Senatus Consultum, Cent Jours. - Hundred days. organising this Constitution, Aug. 4, The period between March 20, 1815, 1802.—Sixth, Constitutional Charter, and July 8, following ; i.e. the day issued by Louis XVIII. on June 4, of Louis's flight from Paris, on Buo- 1814.-Seventh, additional Acts, renaparte's approach from Elba, and lative to the Constitution, passed his entering Paris, after the battle of April 22, 1815. Waterloo.
Contre-Revolutionaire, or AntiChamber of Deputies.
The Elec Revolutionists. — Opposers of the tive, or lower branch of the French Revolution. Legislature.
Conventionnels. Conventional5. Chambre Introuvable.-Invisible ists.-Members of the National ConChamber.-A term of ridicule, ap vention. plied to the Chamber of Deputies, Cordeliers.-A Club, which asconvened by Louis in Oct. 1815, and sembled in 1793, in the Church of dissolved in the year following: the Cordeliers, or Franciscan Friars,
Charter-A declaration of those and became the rivals of those who moderate principles of government assembled in the Convent of the to which Louis pledged himself, by Jacobins. a proclamation, dated May 2, 1814. Côté Droit, and Côté Gauche.
Chevaliers du Poignard. - Knights The Ministerial, and the Popular or of the Poignard, or Stiletto.-The Opposition side of the House of DeGentlemen and Knights of St. Louis, puties, the Coté Droit being the Gowho, in 1791, made it a point to ap vernment party. pear always with daggers and pistols. Crapauds de Marais.-Toads of They were disarmed on Feb. 28, by the Marsh. (Vide Marais.) the National Guards
Crête.- The Crest, or Summit.
for misguiding the public opinion.
members of the Legislature, who Hebertists. Partisans of Hebert, profess to balance the strength of Member of the Commune of Paris, the Ministers, or royal and popular in 1793; condemned to death by parties.
Robespierre, and the Mountain
party. Egorgeurs. - Throat-cutters, Robespierre accused them of atlieWretches who distinguished them- ism.: selves by assassinating all the Bish Hommes d'Etat.-The Doctrinops; and who, finally, assassinated aires, or moderate party of the Conindiscriminately.
vention. The name was also applied Emigrés.--Emigrants.-French to the Mountain party, to Brissot, men who quitted France, from fear and the Girondists. or from hatred of the Revolution. Hommes de July 14, Aug. 10, May
Endormeurs.-Sleepers.-A term 31.-Men who took up arms on these of reproach, applied by the Revolu- respective days. tionists to those, who endea youred Hommes Monarchiques. - Moto stop the course of knowledge and narchists. - Servile persons, supimprovement.
porters of the Monarchy, without Eteignoirs. - Extinguishers. - the limitation of the Charter, Those who opposed the advances Honnetes gens. -Honest people. which the literati were making in -A name assumed by those who science and philosophy.
displayed enmity to the Revolution, Fayettists. — Those enlightened from its commencement in 1789.and moderate persons, who were par- The name is now applied to them in tisans of the Marquis de la Fayette, ridicule. during the period of his commanding Ignorantins. - Blockheads. A the National Guards.
name applied to all the Supporters Federalists.-Girondists. - Modeof the old system of partial instrucrates. These designations were ap- tion, and of suppressing the diffusion plied by Robespierre to the Deputies of knowledge.
Y from the Department of the Gironde, Immobiles. -Immovables. The and whose plans were to support the opposite of the Girouettes.- Persons Communes of Paris, and to establish distinguished by their perseverance a federative Republic between a cer in the same opinions. It is also tain number of the Departments. applied to the followers of the BourThe Girondists were overthrown by bons, who are declared by the French the Revolution of May 31, 1793. to have “learnt nothing, and to have
Federists.---The youth of France, forgot nothing," by the events of the of all conditions, who voluntarily last forty years. flocked to the ranks, on the advance Implacables. The assassins of the of the English and Prussians, in South of France, and those who in 1815.
1815 and 1816 committed outrage on Feuillans. Mendicant Friars.-- the Buonapartists under plea of retaOrder of St. Bernard. At the close liation. of the Constituent Assembly, the Independans.- Independents. (See moderate Depaties assembled in the Liberaux.) neighbourhood of the Feuillans, to Jacobins.Revolutionary, ultras. oppose with vigour the Jacobins. Jacobins - Society of. Named - They were, therefore, nic-named from their originally assembling in Feuillans.
the quarters of the Jacobins. It Fructidorisé.-The Directory hay was principally composed of factious ing overthrown the Clichien party, demagogues...The society was disthe greater number of that party solved on the execution of its presiwere dismissed from the Assembly dent, Robespierre, but was renewed on the 19th Fructidor, year 5.-Å in 1799, and held its meetings in the man was therefore said to be fructis Salle du Manege. Fortunately its dorisé when he was ejected from
any second formation was less dreadful, of the public Assemblies.
and its proceedings were of less conGiroudins. Girondists. (Vide sequence than under Robespierre. Federalists, &c.)
Jacobins Blanc.-White or immaGirouettes. Weather-cocks. culate Jacobins.-- See Honnetes Gensu Those who were always supporting the terms are applied as-synony, the strongest party.
Journeés Remarquables. -Re-May-3. Solemn entry of - Louis markable days, viz.
XVIII. into Paris. : 1789 July 14. First insurrec- dis "1815March 20. Flight of Louis țion of the people
of Paris, capture and return of Napoleon. June 1. of the Bastile. 1 October 5 and 6. Solemn assembly in the Champ de The Parisians march to Versailles, Mai June 22. Second abdication attack and penetrate the king's pa of Napoleon.---July 8. Second relace. 3.
turn of Louis XVIII. 90 1791.June 21. The king secret Liberaux---Liberals. Persons suply leaves Paris.
porting rational liberty in opposition 1792June 20. The populace to corrupt and arbitrary power. repair to the Thuilleries and oblige Liberticides...Enemies of liberty. the king to put on the bonnet rouge, Manége.---It was in the Salle du or red cap of liberty.--August 10.
that were held the sessions Attack of the Thuilleries; dethrone of the constituent, the legislative (ment and arrest of the king. Sept. and conventional assemblies, and in 2 and 3. Dreadful massacres in the which were assembled the jacobins prisons of Paris.
of 1799. 1793-Jan. 21. Execution of Marais -- Plaines ---Ventres. - DeLouis XVI. May 31. Triumph of signations or nick-names of the par
Robespierre and the mountain party ties distinguished in the legislative 9 over the Girondins and moderate assembly and national convention. party. Oct. 16.
Execution of the The Plaines or Ventres were those, queen Marie-Antoinette.
who wished to neutralize the vio1794 July 27, or 9 Thermidor, lence of parties by keeping them 1 year 2. Fali and death of Robes- nearly balanced; they opposed the pierre.
Mountain party before the events of 1795--April 1, or 12 Germinal, May 31, 1993, and were called the > year 3. Attack of the populace of toads of the 'marsh, crapauds du
Paris against the national conven marais.
year 5. Dissolution of the Corps Modérés. --Moderate persons.-
Monarchiens. Monarchists. 1799. June 18; or 30 Prarial, year Those who during the republican 7. The Council of Ancients and the
government supported the cause of Council of 500 overthrow the power monarchy. of the directors, Merlin, (la Reveil. Montagne ou Crête.---The Mounliere-Lepaux and Rewbel.---Nov. 8, tain or Crest Party - The most ex
18 Brumaire, year 8. Revolution in travagant revolutionary party of the favour of Buonaparte.
Convention, taking its name from ** 1800----Dec, 24, 3 Nivose; year 9. their assuming the highest benches Attempt against the life of the first on the right of the hall. consul, Buonaparte, by the explosion Muscodins.--A museadin is a deliof the infernal machine.
cate sugar-plum, flavoured with 1./1802 August, 2. an Buonaparte musk, and the name was given to proclaimed first consul for life. those young persons who displayed 6. 1804-May 18. Elevation of Buo- superiority of dress to distinguish naparte to the throne.---Dec. 2. Co- them from the sans-culottes, or ragronation of Napoleon and Josephine. a-muffins.
1810---April 2. Marriage of Napo Obscurantins. Obscurers. leon with Marie Louise, archduchess Those who were adverse to the disof Austria.
semination of knowledge and the 1814--April 4.-.-Buonaparte signs improvements of the age. his abdication at Fontainbleau. Occulte...-The term of occult, or
hidden, is applied to the present go Théophilanthropes.-Theo-philanvernment from its refusing to define thropists.-Members of a Sect, proor declare its principles on the sub- fessing deism and the love of their ject of national rights.
is fellow-creatures. It was established Oligarques. Oligarchists. A by Le Paux, Member of the Executerm applied to those who carried tive Directory: All were eligible to aristocratical sentiments to the ex the priesthood. treme; the opposite of demagogue. Thermidoriens. Those who over
Orleanists. Partisans of the threw Robespierre on the 9th Therduke d’Orleans.
midor, year 2. Partisans de la liste civil.-Per Ultras.-A name assumed by those sons who are believed to have sold who carry the attachment to absolute themselves to the court. ..
monarchy to the utmost excess. i1 Patriotes de 89.---Patriots of 1789. Vendéens. Vendeans. The sim--- Those who have supported the ple and bigoted peasantry of the cause of the revolution from its.com- Department of La Vendée, who mencement in 1789.
rose en masse in 1793, 1794, and Philosopher. --- Philosophers used 1795, and fought against the Resynonymously with Liberaux.
publican troops with enthusiasm.Prêtres Assermentés. Sworn They avoided robbery, and all the Priests.---The clergy who swore fide- criminal excesses of the Chouans. I. lity to the civil constitution of the Vendemiairistes. Those of the church, enacted in 1791.
Sections of Paris, who attacked the Prêtres Insermentés ou réfractaires. Convention on the 13th Vendemiaiye, ---Non juring clergy.---The opposite year 4. to the preceding.
Ventre - Belly. The middle of Queue de Robespierre --Remnants the Hall or Chamber of the Legislaof Robespierre.---Those of the Ro- ture. (Vide Centre.) bespierre party who survived the Verdets-Verdet is a poisonous revolution of 9 Thermidor, year 2. drug, something similar to verdi
Réaction.---Triumph of any oppo- grise. The term of verdet is applied sition whatsoever.
to secret organisations, supposed to Revolutionaires.--- Revolutionists. exist in central provinces of France, --The most extravagant partisans of and ready to be brought into action the revolution.
against the government, if opportuSans-Culottes.---Breechless or rag- nity occurred. a-muffin.---A term of derision applied Volontaires Nationaux. National to the revolutionists, but which they Volunteers. Those who enrolled afterwards bore with exultation. themselves in favour of the RevoluSeptembriseurs...-Septemberists. tion, before the levée en masse, froin The participators in those massacres the age of 18 to 25, proclaimed which took place in Paris on Sept. Aug. 3, 1793. 2 and 3, 1792.
Volontaires Royaux-Royal VoSuspects.—Suspected persons. lunteers.--Young men who volutiThose whom the Republicans ima- teered to precede the King fór bis gined to be hostile to the principles protection. They were very few of the Revolution.
until after the second Restoration. Terreur de 1793.-Terror of 1793. Voltigeurs de Louis XIV.A name -A Name applied to the ferocious given in reproach to the number who Government of Robespierre.
now exact rewards from the Court, Terreur de 1815 and 1816.-Terror for long and persevering loyalty, of 1815 and 1816.--Terms meant to but whose loyalty was inover heard designate the injustice and oppres- of, until the Court had the ability sion practised against the Liberal to give. party in those years.
3. Yotans. Voters #Members of the Terrorists. - Partisans of Robes National Convention, who voted for pierre, Marat, and the Mountain the death of Louis XVI. 33 leaders.