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One of the pronounced developments of the last two or three years has been the general adoption of various starting means for setting the engine in motion without recourse to the usual form of hand crank. Some of these motor starting systems merely replace the usual hand crank with some means of turning the motor over without leaving the seat by purely mechanical connections. Others, on 1912 and 1913 models of a few cars, depend on air pressure, while the most popular and generally applied forms to 1916 model cars depend on electricity as a source of power for a small electric starting motor. Electric starting and lighting systems have been made in many forms, though the basic principles of operation are practically the same in all systems that can be grouped in several main classifications. It will not be possible to describe all in a general treatise of this nature, but if the features of the leading systems are outlined it will not be difficult for the repairman or student to become familiar with the principle of other systems which may be slightly different only in points of minor detail. Not only are the various parts of leading systems shown, but as a result of the co-operation of the leading automobile manufacturers, the author is enabled to show the actual application of the various ignition, generating and starting units to leading power plants. While a certain amount of technical exposition is unavoidable, everything has been stated as simply as possible so readers without technical knowledge can understand the principles and method of operation, as well as location of troubles in the popular systems. The illustrations have been carefully selected and all wiring diagrams are of representative systems actually in use. The reader not versed in electrical science will find that careful perusal of the chapter on “Elementary Electricity and Magnetism” will enable him to understand many of the more technical descriptions and wiring diagrams. As electricity is used for oper ating many accessory devices besides the lighting, ignition and motor starting units, a chapter is devoted to the unusual applications of the electric current.


May, 1916.



How Compressed Gas May Be Ignited—Early Systems—Methods of

Electrical Ignition-High Tension-Low Tension Elements of All
Electrical Ignition Systems—Simple Ignition System-Induction
Coil Action Construction of Induction Coil-Coil Parts and Func-
tions—Windings—Vibrator-Condenser—Box Coils—Coil for One

Cylinder Ignition-Coils for Multiple Cylinder Ignition-Arrange-

ment of Coil Terminals—High Tension Coil Ignition System-Timer

and Distributor Forms—Timers for One Cylinder-Multiple Contact

Timers—Roller Contact Timer-Arrangement of Timer Contacts-

Ball Contact Timer-Atwater-Kent Timer-Secondary Distributors

-Delco Ignition System-Delco Timer-Delco Automatic Timer

Advance-Delco Ignition Coil-Resistance Unit—Delco Condenser-

Delco Circuit Breaker-Ammeter—Combination Switch—1916 Delco

Ignition Distributor-Timing Delco Ignition-Westinghouse Igni-

tion Unit-Spark Plug Forms—Spark Plug Design-Construction of

Spark Plugs—Spark Plug Insulation-Spark Plug Installation-

Plugs for Two-Spark Ignition—Individual Coil Ignition System-

Typical Battery Ignition Systems—Vibrator Coil—Distributor Sys-

tems—Ford Magneto and Coil Ignition System-Master Vibrator

System-Non-Vibrator Coil Distributor System-Closed Circuit

Systems—Connecticut Automatic Ignition—Thermostatic Switch

Release-Low Tension System-Low Tension Igniter Plate-

Double Ignition Systems—Triple Ignition Systems—Battery Ignition

System Troubles—Testing Dry Cells—Dry Cell Defects—Care in Dry

Cell Installation–Storage Battery Faults—Charging Storage Bat-

teries—Appliances for Storage Battery Maintenance-Remedies for

Loss of Battery Capacity="Flushing” Undesirable-Cure for Sul-

phated Plates—Battery Charging Apparatus-Rectifiers for Alter-

nating Current-Lamp Bank Resistance for Direct Current–Edison

Cell Features—Winter Care of Storage Batteries-Freezing Points

of Electrolyte-Spark Plug Faults—Testing Spark Plugs—Repairing

Spark Plugs-Setting Plug Gaps—Induction Coil Troubles and

Remedies—Adjusting Coil Vibrators—Roller Contact Timer Troubles

–Wiring Troubles—Electro-static Effects—"Bucking,” Cause and

Remedy-Battery Ignition System Hints—Timing Battery Ignition


66 to 184

Magneto Generator Construction-Single Cylinder Magneto—Multiple

Cylinder Magneto—Magneto Systems—Arrangement of Distributor
Contacts—Speed of Armature Rotation-Low Tension Magneto
Systems—Simple Low Tension Magnetos–Oscillating Armature
Type-Governed Rotating Armature Type-Inductor Magnetos,

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Delco System Action-Delco Motor-Generator—Motoring the Generator

-Generator Clutch-Cranking Operation-Motor Clutch—Generat-
ing Electrical Energy–Lubrication of Delco Unit-Delco Voltage
Regulator—Method of Current Output Regulation in Late Types—

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