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rent going through the usual automatic cutout switch to prevent a reversal of current at such times that the generator is not supplying enough energy to charge the battery. As is true of the diagram presented above, all of the circuits are clearly shown and may be readily followed by any one.

New Things in Electrical Lamps.-Designers of automobiles have not been slow in adapting the lamps used in their electric lighting systems to secure various advantages in mounting or by combining several lamps to simplify installation. At Fig. 291, A, the secure method of attaching the headlights on the Pierce-Arrow automobile by having the lamp case securely attached to the mud guard is shown. The combination of small and high candle-power bulbs in one lamp used on the Packard cars is shown at B. This is made necessary because in some communities the law is very stringent against glare from headlights. When used in a city the small lamps, which are of low candle-power, may be used, while the headlights can be turned on when in the country. The combination of the two lamps used on Locomobile is shown at D. In this the low candle-power bulb is placed in the upper part of the lamp. The secure method of fastening the tail light and license plate carrier on the rear of a Packard mud guard is shown at C.

The internal construction of a double bulb lamp is shown at H. In this the small bulb for city work, which is termed the pilot bulb, is carried in a socket at the top of the reflector in such a way that its rays are reflected to the ground instead of producing a glare, as the main bulb does, because it is at the proper focal point of the parabolic reflector. The pilot bulb is intended for city driving, or when the car is standing idle at night. A number of devices have been introduced to reduce glare, these consisting of special reflectors, or special lens glasses for the front of the lamp. A simple device, which is shown at E, consists of a metal shield, which fits close to the lower half of the headlight bulb, throwing all on the light rays against the upper half of the reflector. It is said that this makes the light upon the roadway more intense than when the deflector is not used but prevents any rays from rising more than four feet from the ground.

A peculiar form of glareless headlight, which is known as the

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Fig. 292.—Various Forms of Electric Lamps that Can Be Used in Connection with Storage Battery Current.

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Roffy, has been recently introduced, this being of the unconventional form shown at Fig. 291, G. The amount of light available depends upon the candle-power of the bulb used. The bulb is car

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Fig. 293.—Portable Electric Lamps Designed to Operate on Dry Battery

Current Shown at A, B and C. Dirigible Search Light Shown at D.

ried at the lower portion of a vertical tube very little over two inches in diameter. The lamp is a special mushroom shape, and immediately above it is a plano-convex condensing lens that collects the light. Immediately above this is another lens of double convex form which converges the light and throws it against the inclined mirror at the top, which in turn throws is through a projection lens, which forms the front glass. This compensates for the color distortion introduced by the condensing lens. The rea

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Fig. 294.-Types of Bulbs and Connectors Used on Most Lighting Systems.

A–Ediswan Double Contact. B—Ediswan Single Contact. CDi. mensions of Standard Ediswan Double Contact Socket. D—Construction of Connector. E–Ediswan Double Contact Connector for Application to Searchlights.

son why the lamps are glareless is that they throw a very sharply defined cone of light, whose rays are so inclined, due to the angles of the mirror, that the upper beam is parallel to the ground. As the light never rises above its source, which is lower than the height of a man's eyes, there is no glare.

An unconventional form of searchlight for use in the cowl dash is shown at F. This is known as the "eye-ball” type, owing to the fact that the body of the lamp is spherically formed, which permits of the projected beam being turned at will through an angle of about eighty degrees in both horizontal and vertical planes. The body of the lamp is held between two rings secured to the pressed steel cowl. The lamp can be used as a dirigible searchlight for reading signposts, etc., while, if an extension cord is provided, the lamp shell can be taken directly out of its socket and used to investigate trouble at any point on the car. This is a French invention.

The development of the tungsten filament bulb has made it possible to secure very satisfactory light from ordinary dry cell cur

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Fig. 295—Recent Developments in Electric Light Bulbs.

rent. Two forms of hand lanterns using dry battery current are shown at I and J. That at J is a simple fitting designed to be attached to any dry battery having a handle by which it may be carried. The form at I has the dry battery inserted in a suitable metal carrying case, which makes a much neater arrangement.

The construction of the various forms of electric lamps used in motor car lighting systems is clearly shown in Fig. 292. The lamp outlined at A is a combination form, designed to use either kerosene or electricity, the former being used only in event of failure of the latter. The side lamp at B is a neat form, intended

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