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If lights brighten after starting engine, it proves that the ignitiongenerator is properly delivering current. This test must necessarily be conducted in the dark, either in garage or, preferably, at night time.

One Light Goes Dim.—The more probable causes of this are a defective bulb or connection at the lamp. If these are 0. K., make an examination for short circuits in the wiring to the lamp.

One Light Flickers.—Loose or frayed connection at lamp or at switch. An intermittent ground or short circuit in the wiring to the lamp. Bulb loose in socket.

Tail Light Goes Out.-Look first for a burned out bulb. Then see that the wire to the lamp is not broken, that connections at switch and lamp are tight and that the body of the lamp is making good electrical connection with the frame of the car.

Cowl Light Goes Out.—Make an examination, same as in preceding paragraph, of cowl light circuit.

Head Lights Go Out.—Make same examination of head light circuit.

One Head Light Goes Out. It is evident that this trouble is confined to an open circuit between the junction A and the lamp, bad connection at lamp, burned out bulb or frame of lamp not grounded properly.

Starting Motor.—The closing of the starting switch completes the circuit and puts the starting motor in operation. If it does not spin the engine, release the switch at once, ascertain if all connections are tight and secure, that the motor brushes are bearing on commutator properly, and inspect the battery. If the starting motor turns the engine over very slowly, it is evident that the battery is weak or engine exceptionally stiff, for some reason, probably overheating or lack of lubricant.

If the starting motor is spinning the engine at a reasonable cranking speed and the engine does not fire, remember that the starting motor is performing its duty, so do not let it continue to spin the engine longer than necessary as a needless drain is placed upon the battery. If the engine does not fire, it is evident that the trouble is confined to carburetor or ignition, and the failure to start is no fault of the starting system.

Instructions for Repairing Storage Battery.-In repairing a Willard storage battery a definite routine must be followed in tearing down and building up same in order that it will be in the best condition when re-assembled. (See Fig. 273.) These steps are as follows:

First: Remove all vent plugs and washers.

Second: Centerpunch both top connectors in each cell which is to be repaired; then drill 34-inch into top connector, with a 58inch diameter drill. Now pull off top connector with pair of pliers.

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Fig. 273.—Method of Drilling Into Terminal Post of Willard Battery and

How Plates and Separators are Assembled.

Third: Apply gas flame or blowtorch flame to the top of the battery long enough to soften the sealing compound under the top cover. Now, with heated putty knife, plow out the sealing compound around the edge of top cover.

Fourth: Insert a putty knife, or any other thin, broad pointed tool, heated in flame, along underside of top cover, separating it from the sealing compound. Then with putty knife, pry the top cover up the sides and off of the terminal posts.

Fifth: Then, with heated putty knife, remove all sealing compound from inner cover.

Sixth: Now play the flame onto the inner cover until it becomes soft and pliable; then take hold of both terminal posts of one cell, and remove the elements from the jar, slowly; then lift the inner cover from the terminal posts.

Seventh: Now separate positive and negative elements, by pulling them apart sideways. Destroy old separators.

Eighth: To remove a leaky jar, first empty the electrolyte from the jar, and then play the flame on the inside of the jar until the compound surrounding it is soft and plastic; then with the aid of two pairs of pliers, remove it from the crate, slowly, lifting evenly.

Ninth: To put in a new jar, in place of the leaky one, heat it thoroughly, in a pail of hot water, and force in gently.

Tenth: In re-assembling the battery, first assemble the positive and negative elements, pushing them together sideways; then turn them on the side and with both hold downs in place, insert new separators, being very careful to have the grooved side of the separators next to each side of each positive plate. Also be careful to have the separators extend beyond the plates on each side, so there will be no chance of the plates short-circuiting. Now press all separators up against hold downs.

Eleventh: Heat up inner cover with flame; then place same on terminal posts; then take hold of both terminal posts and slowly lower the elements into the jar.

Twelfth: Now, with expansion chamber in place on the inner cover, .pour the melted sealing compound on to the inner cover, until it reaches the level of the hole in the top of the expansion chamber,-i.e. so that when the top cover is replaced, it will squeeze the sealing compound off the top of the expansion chambers.

Thirteenth: Now soften top cover with flame and replace on terminal posts until it rests on top of expansion chamber; then place a weight on top cover until sealing compound cools.

Fourteenth: Now, four sealing compound around the edge of the top cover, until it reaches the top of top cover; then when the sealing compound has cooled, take a putty knife and scoop extra sealing compound off of top cover, making a smooth surface over all the top of the battery.

Fifteenth : In burning the top connector to terminal post, proceed as follows: Scrape the hole of the top connector until the surface is bright and clean; scrape terminal post until top and edge are bright and clean. Now, scrape a piece of lead-preferably a small bar-bright and clean; then apply hydrogen gas flame, mixed with air under pressure, to the top connector and terminal post assembled, at the same time heating lead bar. When top connector and terminal post begin to melt, apply lead bar directly on same, melting it, thus making a firm burned connection. Then fill rest of hole-space with melted lead and smooth off even with top of top connector.

CHAPTER VII

MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL DEVICES

Non-Glare Devices—Electrical Alarms—Electrical Signals—Gear Shifting by

Electricity-Electric Brake—Carburetor Warmer-Electric Vulcanizers -Entz Electric Transmission-Novel Lamps and Miscellaneous Devices.

Glaring Headlights.-Speaking of glaring headlights, the cause and elimination or reduction, a writer in Horseless Age discourses as follows: Even when acetylene head lamps were still commonly used on automobiles, there was considerable objection to their blinding glare, and many drivers in the big cities then pasted translucent paper to the back of the lenses or glasses, or gave the lenses a coating of paint, except for a small central circle. When the still more powerful electric headlights became popular, so much annoyance was caused to pedestrians and drivers that several municipalities took action in the matter. One of the first cities to prohibit the use of glaring headlights in its streets was Chicago, whose ordinance provides in substance that “it shall be unlawful for any person operating an automobile to use a bright headlight, unless such headlight be properly shaded so as not to blind or dazzle other users of the highway.” The New York City ordinance contains practically the same provision. The city of Cleveland has adopted an ordinance providing that at a distance of seventyfive feet or more ahead of the vehicle none of the reflected light from a headlight must be visible more than three feet above the roadway. A similar law is in force in the State of New Jersey.

It would thus appear that the problem can be solved in two essentially different ways. Either the light must be dimmed as a whole or else it must be tilted or shaded in such a manner that none of its reflected rays can rise beyond a certain height. In this connection it may be well to explain what is meant by “glare,

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