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fiber tubing, or armored cable should be used. All wires should be so installed that there is no danger of interference between them and operating rods and levers. The abrasion of these members will wear through the insulation, and result in short circuits. Brass or copper terminal connections should be used at all points and no connection should be made by winding the strands of wire around the terminal. One or more of the strands may bridge across the terminal or to some metal part and cause a short circuit or ground. Special care should be taken with the connections in the lamps and other points. By the term “short circuit” electricians mean that two wires of opposite polarity are in metallic contact. Under such conditions the storage battery will be discharging and there will be no lights at the lamps. A short circuit may occur at any point in the wiring system, but is usually found at terminals that have been carelessly made or by worn insulation on wires.

The connections in electric wiring should be soldered. The unsoldered connection may work as good as a soldered connection at the time of being made, but the resistance always increases. Do not use acid when soldering electrical apparatus or wiring as the acid is an electrical conductor and destroys insulation. It is much better to use a non-corrosive soldering paste. Do not use friction tape on high tension wiring or on other wiring where the grease or oil can get to it. It is much better to use linen tape and shellac. Friction tape will not insulate ignition current and will not hold when oily.

A short circuit (Fig. 266, A) will be indicated by the position of the amperemeter pointer. Always note the position of the index hand of that instrument when the car is stopped. With the engine at a standstill and no lamps burning the hand should point to zero. If it does not the amperemeter is either out of calibration or there is a leak of current from the battery at some point in the wiring. To ascertain if the amperemeter is correct, uncouple one of the battery terminals of the lighting system. Obviously, if the hand swings to zero, the trouble is leakage of current, which should be immediately corrected after the trouble is located. If the index does not point to zero when the battery terminal is disconnected, the instrument is out of calibration, and while this does not affect the operation of

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Fig. 268.—Delco Starting, Lighting and Ignition System Used on 1916 Four Cylinder Oakland Automobiles.


the system it should be taken into account when reading the amperemeter. If the engine backfires when the ignition is interrupted and it makes one or two revolutions in the reverse direction, the amperemeter pointer may be found at the extreme of the scale on the discharge side. This is caused by the circuit breaker contact being held closed and means a short circuit of the battery through the generator winding. This must be corrected at once by momentarily disconnecting one of the generator wires or starting the engine. If the wires are removed from the generator for any reason make sure that they are connected to the same terminals as they were originally. If the wires are reversed the amperemeter will indicate a dead short circuit by swinging to the extreme on the discharge side of the scale when the engine is started, and if this defective condition is not corrected the battery will be soon discharged. In case of a short circuit examine all of the wires connected to the battery terminals and to the lighting switch. Make sure that the insulation is perfect and that it has not been cut through at any point. Whenever any wires are removed from any of the units always mark the terminals and the wire so that they will be replaced exactly as they were originally. If a short circuit exists when all the switches are opened, if one takes off a battery terminal and makes and breaks contact between the wire and that member a small spark will be in evidence. If no sparking occurs, connect up the terminal to the battery and then with the engine at a standstill close the switches to the lighting circuit one at a time and watch the amperemeter closely as each switch makes contact. If the pointer does not move far from zero it shows that the current consumption is normal; if, however, the pointer swings to the extreme of the discharge scale it is evident that a short circuit exists somewhere in the circuit just brought into action. All the circuits can be tried in this manner one at a time. If the amperemeter indicates only a normal amount of current consumption for the various lighting circuits it is apparent that no further search is necessary. If, however, the needle indicates a short circuit on one or more of the switch positions, examine the wires carefully for the circuits at fault, and if the trouble does not exist there it may be located in the lamp socket, the connector or the bulb itself. In case one or more lamps fail to burn the trouble is due to either a broken wire or a defective connection at the switch, connectors or lamp sockets or a bulb or fuse is burnt out.

Care of Lamps and Storage Battery.—The following instructions relative to the care of the lamps and storage battery of the Auto-Lite system are taken from an instruction book prepared by this company and apply to similar components of all systems. Complete directions for the care and charging of storage batteries are given in the preceding chapter, but at the same time a review of the important points to keep in mind in connection with the maintenance of the batteries used in lighting and starting systems will prove of value to the motorist or repairman who does not desire to go thoroughly into the subject of storage battery charging or maintenance.

To clean head and side lamp reflectors, remove from lamp body and carefully blow out any dust which may have collected on the reflecting surfaces. Then dip a small piece of absorbent cotton in alcohol and lightly wipe over the surface—always from the back to the front. To focus the lamps, open the swinging front of the lamp and direct the light upon some smooth vertical surface at a distance of about ten feet. Loosen the adjusting screw on the slide at the rear of the reflector, and move the bulb and socket out and in until all rings disappear in the illuminated area. Then tighten down the adjusting screw and close the lamp. Any further adjustment of the lamp must be made by bending the arms of the lamp bracket with a heavy wrench until the light from each lamp strikes the road at the point desired.

Do not connect additional apparatus, such as electrical horns, cigar lighters, etc., to the system without taking the matter up with the factory. The surplus capacity of the system is large, but there is a limit to the amount of current which the generator can produce. Use the same judgment and reason in the operation of the electric lights on a car as you do those in your home or garage. When a car is running it is not necessary to burn all the lights, the two heads and the tail are all that are required or that are of any service. When the car is standing at night, use the side and tail ghts only. When push type connectors are used, if halves of con

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Fig. 268A.—The Delco Starting, Lighting and Ignition System Used on the 1912 Cadillac Four Cylinder Car,

the Pioneer of All Starting and Lighting Groups of this Nature.

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