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and four gang types, or may be of the form shown at Fig. 253, which combines an ignition switch. Coupling boxes are provided to make possible the ready removal of the body from the chassis as these bring all the wiring to one point and make it possible to disconnect the bodies without cutting wires or unsoldering joints. Small junction boxes are used wherever a branch circuit is tapped


Fig. 254.—Showing Unconventional Starting Pinion Shifting Arrangement

Used on FIAT Automobiles.

off the main wiring. These are very useful, as no soldering or taping of joints is required and proper connections are assured.

An ingenious application of a Westinghouse starting motor to the FIAT car is outlined at Fig. 254. The motor is contained in a housing or box attached to the crank case foot and is connected to the flywheel through reduction gearing. A sliding pinion on the electric motor operated shaft is adapted to engage with teeth cut in the circumference of the flywheel. The motor is started by a switch attached to the rear end of the motor housing, this switch is operated by a lever engàging with a fork attached to the long shaft shown in illustration. This type of control is distinct from others in use as it is operated by the change speed lever, so it is

impossible to start the motor when transmission gears are in mesh. The gear shift lever is carried over into an additional slot in the H plate, it of course be

ing impossible to operPoints

ate the change speed

gears as long as the Closed

shift lever is in the starting slot. The generator is suspended from bracket attached to one of the frame

members and is driven by means

of a silent chain from Points

a sprocket attached to

a flywheel. The generOpen

ator supporting bracket

is provided with a simFig. 255.-View Showing Operation of West

ple means of adjustinghouse Automatic Cutout.

ment to take care of the

chain stretch. The generator mounting is not shown in the illustration.

The Kemco Fan-Generator System.—Considerable difficulty has been experienced by motorists owning old-model cars and desiring to fit electric-lighting systems on account of no provision having been made by the makers of the car for installing or driving a suitable generator of electricity. A combined fan and dynamo which is novel in construction is shown at Fig. 256, A. In this



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Fig. 256.-Showing Method of Utilizing the Kemco Combined Fan and


the rotary member of the generator is provided with a series of fan blades and is intended to replace the cooling fan usually supplied on most cars, whether air or water cooled. The dynamo portion is very compact and very little of the efficiency of the cooling fan is sacrificed to obtain the advantages incidental to electric lighting. The generator is so arranged that it may be driven by the fan belt in just the same manner as the fan originally supplied

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Fig. 257.—Method of Installing the Kemco Starting Motor.

with the car. A wiring diagram showing the method of installing the various components comprising the Kemco lighting system is presented at B, while the appearance and method of mounting the generator are shown in the drawing above it.

The application of the Kemco Starting Motor to a car that was not designed initially for a self-starting system is shown at Fig. 257. This motor takes current from the storage battery in a conventional way, the battery being kept charged by the Kemco Fan-Generator. The application is extremely simple, the motor

being geared down by integral reduction gearing and a suitable clutch provides for its connections to the crankshaft. The starting unit is carried by simple bracket members attached to the spring horns.

The cranking motor is designed to fit on the front of the car, replacing the hand crank, and to duplicate the action of hand cranking. When the switch button is pressed the same starting clutch as would have been employed with a hand crank is slipped into engagement with the crankshaft and the motor is spun until it fires. When the engine starts under its own power the starting clutch is automatically thrown out in the same manner that the hand crank is thrown out of engagement when the engine starts.

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Fig. 258.—The Hartford Starting and Lighting System.

The system works at 6 volts and should be installed in connection with a 100-ampere hour storage battery. The starter is made in two different sizes so that all classes of cars are covered. The gear ratio between the armature of the cranking motor and the crankshaft is 9.5 to 1.

Some of the special electrical features in connection with this machine are particularly its automatic action in engaging to the crankshaft by means of a magnetic control when the starting button is depressed. The release is altogether independent from the solenoid coil which engages the cranking motor with the crankshaft, being due, as explained, to the declutching of the cranking motor. The starter is controlled by the car operator by a button depressed y the foot. It can be applied to practically any make of car by

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