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starting and lighting purposes as well as ignition. Four-cylinder motors usually take a six-volt, sixty-ampere-hour battery, but it is desirable to supply a six-volt battery having eighty-ampere-hour capacity for six-cylinder motors for ignition only. For lighting or starting 100 ampere hour batteries are needed.
When chemical current producers are depended upon to supply the electricity used for ignition, two distinct sets are provided,
Fig. 6.—Special Storage Battery Designed to Furnish Lighting and
one for regular service and the other for emergency use in event of failure of that which is depended upon regularly. The common practice is to provide an accumulator or storage battery for normal use and a set of dry cells, which are cheaper in first cost and which do not deteriorate if not used for some time, for emergency service. When two sources of current are thus provided, a switch is included in the circuit so that either set may be used at will. The zinc terminal of the dry battery and the negative terminal of the storage battery are joined together by a suitable
conductor and are grounded by running the wire attached to them to some metal part of the chassis such as the crank case or frame side member. The remaining terminals, which are the positive of the storage battery and the carbon of the dry cell, are coupled to distinct terminals on the switch block.
The fact that any battery cannot maintain a constant supply of electricity has militated against their use to a certain extent and the modern motorist demands some form of mechanical generator driven from the power plant, which will deliver an unfailing supply of electricity and keep the battery charged. The strength of batteries is reduced according to the amount of service they give. The more they are used the weaker they become. The modern multiple cylinder engines are especially severe in their requirements upon the current producer and the rapid sequence of explosions in the average six- or eight-cylinder motor produce practically a steady drain upon the battery. When dry cells are used their discharge rate is very low and as they are designed only for intermittent work, when the conditions are such that a constant flow of current is required, they are unsuitable and will soon deteriorate. A more comprehensive discussion on the care, repair and charging of storage batteries will be found in the following chapter.
Fundamentals of Magnetism Outlined.—To properly understand the phenomena and forces involved in the generation of electrical energy by mechanical means it is necessary to become familiar with some of the elementary principles of magnetism and its relation to electricity. The following matter can be read with profit by those who are not familiar with the subject. Most persons know that magnetism exists in certain substances, but many are not able to grasp the terms used in describing the operation of various electrical devices because of not possessing a knowledge of the basic facts upon which the action of such apparatus is based.
Magnetism is a property possessed by certain substances and is manifested by the ability to attract and repel other materials susceptible to its effects. When this phenomena is manifested by a conductor or wire through which a current of electricity is flowing it is termed “electro-magnetism.” Magnetism and electricity are
closely related, each being capable of producing the other. Practically all of the phenomena manifested by materials which possess magnetic qualities naturally can be easily reproduced by passing a current of electricity through a body which, when not under electrical influence, is not a magnetic substance. *Only certain substances show magnetic properties, these being iron, nickel, cobalt and their alloys.
The earliest known substance possessing magnetic properties was a stone first found in Asia Minor. It was called the lodestone or leading stone, because of its tendency, if arranged so it could be moved freely, of pointing one particular portion toward the · north. The compass of the ancient Chinese mariners was a piece
of this material, now known to be iron ore, suspended by a light thread or floated on a cork in some liquid so one end would point toward the north magnetic pole of the earth. The reason that this stone was magnetic was hard to define for a time, until it was learned that the earth was one huge magnet and that the iron ore, being particularly susceptible, absorbed and retained some of this magnetism.
Most of us are familiar with some of the properties of the magnet because of the extensive sale and use of small horseshoe magnets as toys. As they only cost a few pennies everyone has owned one at some time or other and has experimented with various materials to see if they would be attracted. Small pieces of iron or steel were quickly attracted to the magnet and adhered to the pole pieces when brought within the zone of magnetic influence. It was soon learned that brass, copper, tin or zinc were not affected by the magnet. A simple experiment that serves to illustrate magnetic attraction of several substances is shown at A, Fig. 7. In this, several balls are hung from a standard or support, one of these being of iron or steel, the other two of any other of the common materials or metals. If a magnet is brought close to the group of balls, only one will be attracted toward it, while the others will remain indifferent to the magnetic force. Experimenters soon learned that of the common metals only iron or steel were magnetic.
If the ordinary bar or horseshoe magnet be carefully examined, one end will be found to be marked N. This indicates the north
Fig. 7.—Some Simple Experiments to Demonstrate Various Magnetic
Phenomena and to Clearly Outline Effects of Magnetism and Forms of Magnets.
pole, while the other end is not usually marked and is the south pole. If the north pole of one mágnet is brought near the south pole of another, a strong attraction will exist between them, this depending upon the size of the magnets used and the air gap separating the poles. If the south pole of one magnet is brought close to the end of the same polarity of the other there will be a pronounced repulsion of like force. These facts are easily proved by the simple experiment outlined at B, Fig. 7. A magnet will only attract or influence a substance having similar qualities. The like poles of magnets will repel each other because of the obvious impossibility of uniting two influences or forces of practically equal strength but flowing in opposite directions. The unlike poles of magnets attract each other because the force is flowing in the same direction. The flow of magnetism is through the magnet from south to north and the circuit is completed by the flow of magnetic influence through the air gap or metal armature bridging it from the north to the south pole.
Forms of Magnets and Zone of Magnetic Influence Defined.Magnets are commonly made in two forms, either in the shape of a bar or horseshoe. These two forms are made in two types, simple or compound. The latter are composed of a number of magnets of the same form united so the ends of like polarity are placed together, and such a construction will be more efficient and have more strength than a simple magnet of the same weight. The two common forms of simple and compound magnets are shown at C, Fig. 7. The zone in which a magnetic influence occurs is called the magnetic field, and this force can be graphically shown by means of imaginary lines, which are termed "lines of force." As will be seen from the diagram at D, Fig. 7, the lines show the direction and action of the magnetic force and also show its strength, as they are closer together and more numerous when the intensity of the magnetic field is at its maximum. A simple method of demonstrating the presence of the force is to lay a thin piece of paper over the pole pieces of either a bar or horseshoe magnet and sprinkle fine iron filings on it. The particles of metal arrange themselves in very much the manner shown in the illustrations and prove that the magnetic field actually exists.