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to hear some particulars relative to the cdn- between renomous and non-venomous cotion and qualification requisite to obtain a snakes; in which he showed that salisary degree at this singular university. The first and lachrymal bad been frequently mistaken thing taught to the young men is the pro. for venomous glands; and that much of fessional language ; a issonant jargon com the mortal character of venomous snakes posed purposely to carry on their business, depended opon ile position of the fangs. hold consultations, &c. without being un: The Sabbath,Putting a future state derstood by any being in existence but wholly out of the question, there is nothing themselves. They are ihen taught reading in the social system of more value to the sufficiently to decipher the pages of their body of the people, than a due observarxe manuscript, containing a selection of de- of duis day.'Neither body por mind can ceptive formulæ, for all possible diseases bear continual soil, and both require a incident to human vature. When a candi- seventh day of sest to keep them in healla date has given before the elders proofs of und vigor : the abolition of it would com his proficiency in these attainments, they siderably reduce the demand for labor, and declare him to be dignus entrare in docto a vast portion of the working classes would nostro copore; and be then prepares to have to labor seven days instead of six for leave Zagori. The Žagoriots generally the wages they bow receive : to this must travel about Turkey in small bands, coin be added the luss these classes would susposed of six or eight different individuals, tain, in respect of cleanliness, intercourse each of whom has a separate part to per- with friends, and the means of instruction. form, like strolling players. Die is the sig. Looking beyond its religious objects, the nor dottore. He never enters a town but Sabbath may be regarded as a merciful conmounted on a gaudy-comparisoned horse, cession to human nature, an ivvaluable boon dressed in long robes, with a round hat and to the poor--a divine interposition to give neckcloth; never opening bis mouth but that protection to the health, comforts, and er cathedra, his movements are performed privileges of the mass of mankind, wbieh, with due professional gravity, and he is at perhaps, nothing else could bestow. The all times attended by his satellites. One workman who establishes the precedent fw is the apothecary; the second the drago- making it a day of labor, attacks the best man ; för it is the doctor's privilege not to temporal interests of himself and his breidi. comprehend a syllable of any other language ren. but the Zagoriot; a third is the herald, Titian.—The anecdote of Charles's har. who, endued with a surprising volubility of ing twice picked up this great artist's pentongue, anuounces through the streets and cil, and presented it to bim, saying, “To in the public squares, the arrival of the in- wait on 'Titian was service for an emperor," comparable doctor; enumerates the won is well known; but we do not remember derful cures he has performed; and entreats

to have met with the following: "Tillan had the people to avail themselves of this pro- painted the portrait of Charles several times, vidential opportunity: for, not only dues but now being called to the court of that he possess secrets for the cure of actual prince, he for the last time painted his pordiseases, but of insuring against their fu- trait, just as it then appeared in the latter ture attacks. He possesses the bappy talent part of his life ; and this picture also much too of ingravidating the barren, and leaves pleased the renowned emperor. Certain it it to their choice to have male or female, is, that the very first portrait Titian drew of &c. &c. He is skilled in the performance him so struck him with admiration, that he of operations for the stone, cataracts, her- would never afier sit to any other artist ; nia, dislocations, &c. Two others, who and for every portrait Titian took of him he pass under the denomination of servants, gave him a thousand crowns in gold. Tiemploy their time in going from house to tian in all painted three portraits of the house in quest of patients; and as, from emperor; and when he last sat to him, at their menial employment, they are thought the conclusion of the picture, Charles said to be disinterested, credit is more easily with emphasis - This is the third time I given to their word. Thus they journey have triumphed over death,'" from town to town, hardly ever remaining

Greek Women. Their feet and ankles, more than a fortnight in any place. After which, by the by, rather correspond to a tour of five or six years, they return for a Grecian than to modern ideas of beauty, while to their families, and divide in equal are completely hid by the folds of trousers, shares the gains of their charlatanism. On that are tied like a purse just below the a soeund journey, they all change parts, in knee. This gives a woman, when walking, order to escape detection. The dottore completely the appearance of a featheredyields his dignity to the servant, and he paw pigeon. This is the more striking, as dues the same office he was wont to re Grecian coquettes affect as much as possible ceive; the dragoman becomes herald, the to imitate the walk of a bird. “You walk herald apothecary, &c.

like a goose," “like a duck," however imSnakes.-M. Duverney, one of the pro. pertinent in the ear of an English belle, are fessors of the Strasburg Academy, lately the most Aattering compliments that can be read to the French Academy a very cư. whispered in those of a Greek ane. rious paper on the anatomical distinctions

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It would appear that the death-hour The first partition, which divided of despotism is at hand. Hardly one half of the kingdom among the have we time to express our admi- just-mentioned powers, was ration of popular heroism in one followed by a second, and Poland, country, ere in another it puts forth as a nation, was blotted from the fresh claims to wonder and homage. map of Europe, Russia obtaining Its latest manifestation in Poland is the great sweep. Warsaw and its peculiarly calculated to delight the adjacent provinces were, by this lovers of rational liberty ; for no partition, given to Prussia ; but at nation on earth has been more the treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon raised hardly dealt with, or has struggled Prussian Poland into an indepenwith more heroical devotedness for dent duchy, under the sovereignty all that is dear to a people, than have of the King of Saxony. On the the Poles. Enthusiastically attach- downfall of the French emperor, ed to their native country, its insti- the Great Powers, at the Congress tutions and recollections, they have of Vienna, in 1815, gave the Duchy at all times evinced a proportionate of Warsaw to Russia, an equivalent detestation of foreigo interference, being afforded to Prussia in the and especially of that of Russia. · Rhenish provinces and an imporThere are few instances on record, tant part of the Saxon kingdom. of a more deep-rooted animosity The Emperor Alexander made Pobetween two nations, than between land a separate kingdom, and gave the Poles and Russians—an ani- it a national representative diet, the mosity not to be accounted for by first meeting of which was opened any signal difference in language, by his Imperial Majesty in person, manners, or customs; in all of and the present Grand Duke, Conwhich, they greatly resemble each stantine, was returned a Polish reother. This natural antipathy has, presentative by the suburb of Praga. we may conceive, been materially The constitution granted by the increased by the dismemberment emperor, established a Chamber of and long oppression of Poland by Deputies, elected by the people, her more powerful neighbor. The and a senate answering to our measure of the partition of Poland House of Peers. The government was worthy of the cruel and reck- was carried on by a Viceroy and a less ambition of Catherine, but its responsible ministry, appointed by adoption by the Empress of Austria the Emperor. and the King of Prussia, must be Though it is not to be supposed, considered a lasting stain on the that the despot of all the Russias characters of those two sovereigns. had any real intention of giving

51 ATHENEUM, vol. 5, 3d series.

constitutional liberty to a vanquish- bered that the French rose to sbake ed people, while his own subjects off a despotism, it is true, but not a were in the most abject slavery, foreign one; that they had no fes still the act itself was so spontane- tering wounds from the galling ous, so unexpected, that the Poles, chains of a foreign yoke, to sting dazzled thereby, believed they had them to maddened fury; and that really obtained a free constitution, the driveling dolt whom they hurlThey were soon undeceived : the ed from his throne, however despiGrand Duke, appointed command- cable and deeply sinning, was yet er-in-chief of the Polish army, was their countryman, and the descennot slow in throwing off the mask. dant of an illustrious family, which Every method by which disregard their ancestors had delighted to and contempt for national feelings honor. For, always excepting the could be conveyed, was adopted by sanguinary period of the first revohim, in open violation of the princi- lution, France has ever been disple of that constitution which his tinguished by a most loyal attachimperial brother had given to the ment to the person and family of Poles. Into the Polish army he the reigning sovereign. But in the introduced corporal punishment, recent—the actual case of Poland, which he often inflicted with his not only was there nothing to call own hands. Self-destruction in some for similar sympathies, but every instances followed such intolerable possible inducement to the adoption outrage. Excesses, indignities, bar- of measures of stern retributive barities of all kinds, were committed justice ; and we think a dispassionunder various pretences, by this ate observer will rather find cause miserable scion of despotism, who to wonder at their forbearance, than being deemed unfit to rule in his to censure the momentary impetu own country, was thought well cal- osity by which some of their opculated to crush the spirit of the pressors were sacrificed. Polish people. But at length this The Provisional Government trampled spirit turned, and with a issued a proclamation acknowmoderation which we can hardly ledging the authority of Nicholas, admire, they have suffered the bru- but requiring, on his part, that the tal mimic of manhood to escape, Constitution granted by Alexander without wreaking vengeance on be preserved, and administered achim, for his oppression and mur- cording to its original and true inder of their long-suffering coun- terpretation—that the States be trymen.

kept separate — that no foreign On the 29th of November an troops be admitted into Poland affray broke out between the Rus- and that the old Polish provinces, sian guards and the pupils of the formerly separated from the kingmilitary school. The flame spread dom, and added to Russia, be now rapidly, and, as at Paris, armed wo- restored to Poland. That these men and youths distinguished them- demands were deemed extravaselves by a devoted heroism, which, gant by an autocrat schooled in the if tyranny were to be taught at all, doctrines of despotism, and flushed might teach it that a spirit too migh- with the success of recent and ty for oppression~a spirit strength- important victories, was to be expectening the feeble with unconquerable ed. But we are willing to hope energy, has roused the nations to that even he and those of his order an assertion of their rights. We may perceive-we know that they regret that this heroism on the part shortly must be taught—that there is of the Poles has not been marked a right prior and more indefeasible by that moderation which so nobly than their own, and that no longer distinguished the glorious struggle' can it be thwarted or oppressed. in Paris. But it should be remem- A Manifesto has since been issued,


which proclaims their wrongs in a “ High deeds, O Germans, we expect from dignified and feeling manner, and

you!' their enthusiastic determination to And we doubt not that you will find remedy them. An immediate levy better work for his Prussian Maof 200,000 men has been decreed, jesty than looking after Posen. and that invaluable force, the We are no lovers of revolutions. Burgher Guard, has been formed. We know their almost necessary The whole population will arm, and, evil, their fearful summoning of the if war must decide the question, it fiercer passions of our nature, the will be war to the knife.

sullen, civil hatred by which broThere is every reason to hope ther is armed against brother, the that Gallicia and Posen will respec- long ordeal of furious license, giddy tively shake off the trammels of anarchy, and promiscuous slaughAustrian and Prussian dominion. ter ! Of all 'this are fully With all our conviction of the bi- aware. The crime of the man who goted despotism by which the lets loose the revolutionary plague, courts of Vienna and Berlin are for revenge, love of gain, or love of guided in their estimate of popular power, is beyond all measure and rights, we are yet disposed to be all atonement. lieve that they will have enough to The first revolution of France, do at home for some time to come. in 1789, was an abhorred effort of And at St. Petersburgh too, the an ambition which nothing could capital of that imperial philanthro- satiate, and nothing could purify. pist, who is reported to have sworn The late revolution was a thing of with ungovernable rage, that the strong necessity, less an assault on rascally Poles should return to his the privileges of royalty, than a benevolent guardianship, or he vindication of human nature. The would slay every man of them— people who could have succumbed even at St. Petersburgh certain in- under so base and insolent a violadications have appeared of a nature tion of kingly promises, would have to alarm his fatherly solicitude. virtually declared themselves slaves, We see that the government have and fit for nothing but slaves. The found it necessary to issue a procla- Polish revolution is justified by evemation against young men of rank, ry feeling which makes freedom of and of no rank, for combining toge- religion, person, and property, dear ther for the purpose of—what think to man. Poland owes no allegiance you, reader?-of breaking the win- to Russia. The bayonet gave, and dows. This care on the part of the the bayonet will take away. executive, proves, as the Peters- perish the triumph that scorns jusburghians are told in the proclama- tice, and so rise the holy claim of tion, how watchful the government man, to enjoy unfettered the being are for their welfare, and for the that God has given him. preservation of order. To us it Nothing in history is equal in proves something more-namely, guilty and ostentatious defiance of that in the present convulsion of all principle to the three Partitions the political world, the autocratic of Poland. The pretences for the thrones begin to totter, and that, seizure of the Polish provinces were while Nicholas and Metternich, and instantly the open ridicule of all the Prussian state-pilot, are gnash- Europe. But Russia, Prussia, and ing their idle rage at the movement Austria had the power; they scornthey would fain control in Poland, ed to wait for the right; they as their immediate efforts may be re- profligately scorned to think of the quired in Petersburgh, in Austrian torrents of blood that must be pourItaly, and among the often bamboo- ed out in the struggle by the indigzled patriots of Berlin. In this nant Poles. Thousands of gallant latter city, a convulsion is expected, lives sacrificed in the field; tens of and, may we not say hoped ? thousands destroyed by the more


bitter death of poverty, exile, the It is a rising, not of the people dungeon, and the broken heart; the against their monarch, but of the whole productive power of a mightyoppressed against the oppressor, of kingdom extinguished for half a the native against the stranger, of century; fifteen millions of human the betrayed against the betrayer, beings withdrawn from the general of the slave against the tyrant; of a stock of European cultivation, and nation, the victim of the basest branded into hewers of wood and treachery and the most cruel sufdrawers of water, the helots of the fering in the annals of mankind, modern world! were a price that the against the traitor, the spoiler, the remorseless lust of dominion never remorseless author of their sufferstopped to contemplate. Its armies ing. Their cause is a triumph in were ordered to march, and the fire itself; and may the great Being and sword executed the law. If who hateth iniquity, and terribly the late French Revolution could judgeth the oppressor," shield them justify but slight difference of opi- in the day of struggle, and give a nions among sincere men, the Po- new hope to mankind by the new lish Revolution can justify none. victory of their freedom !


Nothing can be more unfound- strict investigation, but encouraged than the objection which ing, rather than suppressing, everyhas been taken, in limine, by per- thing that can offer a prospect or a sons, well meaning perhaps, cer- hope beyond the present obscure tainly narrow-minded, against the and unsatisfactory state. The chastudy of natural philosophy, and racter of the true philosopher is to indeed against all science, -that it hope all things not impossible, and fosters in its cultivators an undue to believe all things not unreasonaand overweening self-conceit, leads ble. them to doubt the immortality of the He who has seen obscurities soul, and to scoff at revealed reli- which appeared impenetrable in gion. Its natural effect, we may physical and mathematical science confidently assert, on every well- suddenly dispelled, and the most constituted mind, is and must be barren and unpromising fields of the direct contrary. No doubt, the inquiry converted, as if by inspiratestimony of natural reason, on tion, into rich and inexhaustible whatever exercised, must of neces- springs of knowledge and power on sity stop short of those truths which a simple change of our point of it is the object of revelation to make view, or by merely bringing to bear known ; but, while it places the on them some principle which it existence and principal attributes of never occurred before to try, will a Deity on such grounds as to ren- surely be the very last to acquiesce der doubt absurd, and atheism ridi- in any dispiriting prospects of either culous, it unquestionably opposes the present or future destinies of no natural or necessary obstacle to mankind ; while, on the other hand, further progress : on the contrary, the boundless views of intellectual by cherishing as a vital principle and moral as well as material relaan unbounded spirit of inquiry, and tions which open on him on all ardency of expectation, it unfetters hands in the course of these purthe mind from prejudices of every suits, the knowledge of the trivial kind, and leaves it open and free to place he occupies in the scale of every impression of a higlier nature creation, and the sense continually which it is susceptible of receiving, pressed upon him of his own weakguarding only against enthusiasm ness and incapacity to suspend or and self-deception by a habit of modify the slightest movement of

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