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THE ample provision Nature has inequalities in the distribution of made for all creatures, is bestowed the bounties of Nature, which upon one indispensable condition; have ever existed in human society, but it is one that contributes to especially in its more civilized their pleasure, as well as promotes stages; and these, again, the Crea and secures their health: it is exer- tor has anticipated, implanting deep tion. To this Catholic law of Na- in the human breast those sacred inture man is submitted, and in a se- pulses which prompt the fortunate to verer degree, as we may think distribute of their superfluity to the when superficially viewing the sub- destitute; thereby awaking mutual ject, than all the other tribes of feelings which heighten into plealife. But to the stricter operation sure, and more than compensate for of this law, he owes the exercise the distresses in which they originate. of those powers, mental as well as It is thus that, watered by mingling bodily, by which he rises so greatly tears of sympathy and sorrow, the superior to them all. It is this heavenly plant of Divine Charity is which is the means of elevating seen rising in all its fragrance and him through the wide gradations of beauty, and bearing its perennial his own existence, from barbarism fruits, which are for the healing of to the highest state of civilization. the nations. But this feeling is peMoreover, the peculiar nature of culiar to man, and is evidently given thrat exertion which is required of him to remedy the tendencies of that him, in order to his sustenation, is appropriation to which animal creathe cause of that appropriation of tion is a stranger. Political econothe bounties of nature which is pe- mists, however, contemplate a sysculiar to his race, and which neces- tem, which shall, in great measure, sarily lays a foundation of those so- dispense with this distinguishing cial and civil institutions which con- virtue of human nature, and which, duce so much to his prosperity. if realized, would therefore rob huThis appropriation, however, which manity of its noblest attribute,-that was evidently, in the contemplation in which it most resembles the Creaof the Creator, as necessary to his tor, and leave it only the selfish existence, involves those striking instincts of the brutes that perish.

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Our honest friends in Parliament
Are looking vastly sad;
Our farmers say, with one consent,
It's all immensely bad;
There was a time for borrowing,
And now it's time to pay;
A budget is a serious thing;-
So take the sword away.

We've plenty left to hoist the sail,

Or mount the dangerous breach;
And Freedom breathes in every gale
That wanders round our beach,
When duty bids us dare or die,
We'll fight another day:

And oh the bitter tears we wept,
In those our days of fame-

The dread that o'er our heart-strings crept But till we know a reason why,-
With every post that came-
Take, take the sword away.

The home-affections, waged and lost
In every far-off fray-
The price that British glory cost!-
Ah! take the sword away.


A FOREIGNER, arriving by sea at Lisbon, imagines, on landing, that he has got among the most passionate and quarrelsome people in the world; for the well-known vivacity of gesticulation with which the Italians accompany their conversation on the most trivial subjects is nothing in comparison with that of the Portuguese. Head, hands, legs, the whole body, are in constant motion. Add to this, that they speak very loud, and with a vehemence of which the natives of other countries cannot have any conception. Napoleon had four or five Portuguese regiments in his Russian expedition. They belonged-for the Portuguese always signalizes himself by personal courage -to the bravest troops of his army; but, from their habit of speaking so loud, the place of their bivouac might always be known by the sound of their voices at the distance of half a league. I have been assured by French officers, that at the distance just mentioned they could find their way, at least in fine weather, to the Portuguese camp, even when thousands of soldiers of other nations were bivouacking about them, merely by following the sound.

To my joy I was met at the landing-place by a friend who was waiting to conduct me to the place of my destination in the great city. We had scarcely gone through two or three streets, when I noticed a custom, which, trivial as it may appear in itself, gave me a favorable 46 ATHENEUM, VOL. 5, 3d series.

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impression of the people. Probably the manifold, unusual, and not always agreeable, odors, operated on my olfactory nerves, and I could not help sneezing several times. All the men whom we passed, rich and poor, even though deeply engaged in conversation, instantly took off their cocked hats and ejaculated: Dominus tecum! "The Lord be with thee!" I have since had frequent occasion to observe that, when any person in a large company chanced to sneeze, all the others made a profound obeisance and said some civil thing or other, such as the above, or Viva men senhor!-or if it was a female, the prettiest compliments were sure to be paid. But if the sneezing follows immediately after taking a pinch of snuff, no compliment is expected: the snuff-taker says after the first sneeze: Nae face cazo, he rapé-" Take no notice, 'tis only snuff." During my residence in Portugal I became so accustomed to this salutation that, after I left Lisbon, I was particularly struck by the omission of it in other countries.

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so for God's sake!"-and goes his way. Throughout all Portugal persons meeting out of the city salute each other, though perfect strangers and foreigners may be easily known by the omission of this civility. When the ladies sit at the windows of their quintas, or villas, they are continually receiving salutations from every passenger. But, if a Portuguese meets in the street any one whom he knows and has not seen for a long time, he immediately clasps him in his arms, lifts him from the ground, and cries out, in a joyful tone, how fat and heavy he is grown, even though the person addressed as thin as a lizard. If a Portuguese speaks of his deceased father, he always adds, at the same time taking off his hat, que Deos haja-" God rest him!" În like manner, in speaking of the king, he always uncovers his head and says: A quem Deos garde"whom God preserve!"

After a sea-voyage of some weeks, a new-comer scarcely feels any want more sensibly than that of a barber. If, however, habit has not rendered it absolutely necessary to have continually a smooth chin, there is no occasion to be in any hurry about the operation of shaving at Lisbon. When I went for the first time with my Lisbon friend to the shop of his barber in the Rua de Cotovia, I saw perfectly well-dressed persons with beards an inch long, and had ocular demonstration of the truth of my friend's assurance, that it is not customary to submit to the razor oftener than once a week. The group before the barber's shop is always entertaining enough. His customers attract thither a female dealer in roasted chesnuts, who commonly squats cross-legged upon a pillow placed on the ground, having before her a chaffing-dish, which she keeps continually fanning with a piece of rag. She, on her part, draws to the spot a number of gallegos, or porters, in their shirt sleeves, with red caps, red waistcoats, blue

breeches, and bare legs, who like to loiter near such women, for the convenience of lighting their cigars, Against the corner of the house, beneath an image of the Blessed Virgin, leans one of the numberless beggars, all in rags, yet having the olive-colored mantle picturesquely thrown about him. A fat monk, whose brown mantle and white scapulary, upon which is sewed a red and blue cross, descend to his feet, also follows the trade of mendicant. Such are the standing concomitants of a Lisbon barber's shop.

But let us approach nearer. A green curtain is hung up to the door. A barber in Lisbon shaves, cuts hair, applies leeches, draws teeth, bleeds-and the latter is the chief occupation-on which account his shop may be easily known by a projecting pole and a sign-board, on which are painted white and red spiral lines. Much has been written on the advantage of shaving one's self: it was not till I reached Lisbon that I resumed this longneglected practice, but not for the reasons common in other countries, for in this everything is uncommon. Barbers, like persons of all other professions, smoke myriads of cigars; their thumbs, are, therefore, constantly covered with tobacco: now, to swell out your cheek and to keep it smooth they thrust without ceremony their left thumb into your mouth. In other respects the barbers of Lisbon are true copies of the favorite Barber of Seville, though they do not all sing, play, and look so well, as Rossini's Figaro. Owing to the custom of going for several days unshaved, they have but few customers in the week days before Thursday. There they sit outside their shop-doors, strumming upon a wretched guitar, looking and listening to all that is going forward like lynxes; and with the news which they pick up in these leisure days they entertain their customers on those when they have business to do.

Nothing is so strongly indicative


hundred bathing boats at all hours of the morning, and even so late as ten or eleven o'clock. The boats, in general painted red and blue, the favorite colors of the Portuguese, have a cheerful appearance, but what gives them a very singular look is a pair of enormous black eyes, figured on the head of the boat, which is left white. The peaked head often terminates in the figure of a serpent, dolphin, or other animal; and the stern is generally decorated with a Nostra Senhora of wood or iron, always garnished with ribands of every color; and her figure is also painted on the sides and helm. The chief peculiarity of these boats consists in the curtains with which the stern is completely enclosed. Before they push off, every one on board makes the sign of the cross over the face and breast to prevent mishaps. The boats are anchored in four or five feet water, and, the curtains being drawn close all round, the female members of the family may undress as privately as in their own bed-chambers. They then put on a bathing gown of very thick woollen stuff, so that the shape is not to be distinguished. The men likewise undress and put on a woolen jacket and trowsers; they leap first into the water and swim about the boat till the ladies intimate that they are ready; when the latter are received by the gentlemen and conducted down the two or three steps attached to the side of the vessel. Then ensues a splashing and laughing and coughing and spitting, and jokes, delicate or otherwise, are sported, till the whole party gets on board again and returns home.

of the appearance of the Portuguese in general as the title which the barber liberally bestows on any well-dressed stranger, namely, homem di gravata lavada, which is meant to denote a person of consequence, but literally signifies "a man with a clean cravat." A disposition to uncleanliness is indulged to such a degree, especially by females, that they do not wash their faces even in the morning: in general they merely wet a corner of their handkerchief with their tongue and rub the forehead, eyebrows, and nose, with it. A singular contrast with this filthy habit is formed by the custom of bathing frequently in the Tagus. It is not the warmth of the climate that induces the Portuguese, and the fair sex in particular, to have recourse to this wholesale ablution, but the circumstance that the gentlemen of the faculty recommend bathing for all sorts of complaints. Blessings on the philanthropist who first broached this doctrine! But for this custom nine-tenths of the women of Lisbon would never get a washing from the day of their baptism to that of their death. In the summer months you see whole families repairing to the landing-places where the estraios, or Tagus boats, lie, with servants behind them carrying bundles containing linen and the bathing equipage. People of all classes, who can but raise the price charged for the hire of such a boat, and even persons of the highest rank, of both sexes, conform to this general practice. The usual place is the strand of Jumquiera, directly opposite to the palace of the patriarch, and here may be seen at least a



Ir is well known to every newspa- and the tendency of that influence to check the progress of liberal ideas, and to encourage arbitrary measures. not unfounded, for, to obtain any appointment or promotion, These complaints were either

per reader that, for some time before the expulsion of the Bourbons from France, the journalists of that country had been denouncing the increasing influence of the Jesuits,

civil or military, it was requisite for a father to prove that his son had received a good christian education, or, in other words, that he had been brought up at a Jesuits' College. It will scarcely be believed in England, but it is not the less true, that, for the reason just mentioned, many parents in the Protestant city of Geneva sent their children for education to Freiburg, the capital of the Swiss canton of the same name, where the fathers of the Order of Jesus have one of their most celebrated academical institutions. The following description of this establishment is the result of observations made on a visit to it by the writer in the summer of the present year.

Last June I went to Freiburg, with a gentleman of Geneva, whose object was to place his son with the Jusuits there, and took some pains to learn as much as I could in the course of two or three days concerning their institution. Figure to yourself a spacious edifice, forming an oblong quadrangle, four stories high, with four hundred and ninetyeight windows. Such a number must admit light enough in all conscience, you would say. This stately building is seated, like a citadel, on the most elevated point in the town. At the entrance we were received by a porter in the black habit of the Order; with great politeness, he had a remarkably keen eye. As soon as we were inside, the double iron gate was again locked, just as it would be in a prison or a penitentiary. The porter then gave several strokes with a large brass knocker, which immediately brought forward three young Patres, whose duty it is, on the application of strangers, to show them the institution, much in the same manner as the Chinese mandarins did Lord Macartney, or as flags of truce are conducted through besieged fortresses. At a rapid pace, with which we could scarcely keep up, we were led through the spacious, cheerful, light, and clean cor

ridors. We could not help admiring the order which pervaded the kitchens, refectories, and wardrobe-' rooms: the utmost cleanliness every where prevails, even in the minutest circumstances. By means of ingenious contrivances all that passes there may be observed.

You are then taken into the large, airy courts, and into the gardens, where the pupils play, wrestle, run, and amuse themselves: in bad weather they assemble in the halls of recreation, where there are billiard-tables, a pretty theatre, a bazaar with all kinds of playthings; in short, nothing is wanting to the physical well-being and amusement of the students. Gentleness and kindness seem to prevail throughout, for the very language of the teachers is gentle and kind. But further attention shows their incessant observation of their pupils; not a movement, not a gesture, not the most indifferent expression, nay, not even a word escapes them all these must be noted down with the utmost minuteness in a book, and this book is referred to every evening, when each student is required to give an account of what he has done during the day. This is an invariable practice. Wo, then, to the youth, who forgets any petty fault, or out of false shame omits to mention it! Overseers, with a hundred Arguseyes, have watched and committed to writing all that has been said in the hours of instruction, of play, and even in sleep. To report is the first and most strictly enforced law of the house and the Order. Notwithstanding the mild and honeyed words of these fathers of Jesus, their punishments are extremely severe and humiliating. Some years since, young Courvoisier ran away from the Jesuits' College at Brieg, and wandered about for a whole fortnight in the mountains of the Valais, in the month of December, without proper clothing or food.

All this, however, might be pass

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