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penalty. Decisions of Moorish bound to make good the sum on law, both in civil and religious proof of the value of the articles cases, are founded on the Koran. stolen. The pacha has his remedy If litigants are dissatisfied with the against the inhabitants of the disinterpretation of a cadi or bashaw, trict, upon whom he inmediately they can appeal to the emperor er levies à fine of three times the head of the government, who has amount he is bound to pay ; this power to revise the sentence ; but plan sets the whole population at bribery is sure to attain a verdict, work to discover the robber, in from which there is no appeal save which case he can seldom escape. in a counter bribe.
The Kobeyles, a hardy race of The office of public executioner mountaineers in the kingdom of does not always pertain to the same Algiers, are proverbially known as person ; the prince often confers great thieves. A friend of mine, this honor on his chiefs. The during his residence at Oran, cmMoors say it is honorable “to use ployed several of these men as serthe arm of the faithful to destroy vants ; to avoid their depredations the unjust ;” thus the greatest he would not allow them to sleep in men of the state are often employed his house. During a tempestuous in striking off the heads of malefac- night, however, the Kobeyles opentors. It is, in fact, deemed no bad ed a mine from the street beneath qualification to power to be a good the foundation, a thing by no means headsman ; and not many years ago difficult, and carried off a casket of a dey of Algiers succeeded to the jewels. Mustapha Bey, who was ihrone, merely on account of his then governor of Oran, having no dexterity in taking off heads. clue to the robbers, levied a fine of
The chopping off the hands is a three times the value of the propercommon punishment in cases of ty stolen, on the inhabitants, and robbery; the truncated parts are likewise flogged the alcaid of the dipped in pitch to stop the bleeding, night-guard naked through the and the executioner, with the ut- streets, bound on a mule. These most sang froid, thrusts the severed severities led to the discovery of a hands into the culprit's bernoos,* string of pearls in the possession of bidding him get out of the way to a Mocrish woman : she was brought make room for another. Punish- into the bey's presence, and being ments of this kind may be consider- reluctant to confess the manner iz ed strong proofs of barbarism ; but which she had obtained them, the this reproach will likewise apply to pacha pricked her with his khanjear Europe, where there is by far too till she owner she had purchased great a display of public executions, them for a trifle from the K le a practice at variance with our pro- servants. The jewels were recogress of enlightenment and the ends vered and the fine taken off, but the of justice. The relation of the suf Kobeyles had fled to their mountains, ferings of a criminal or the expo- where no power the bey possessed sure of a corpse, without feasting could take them. the eyes of the multitude on the The laws of the Koran require convulsions which attend an exit "eye for eye, tooth for tooth,” &c., from life, would probably answer which in case of any wilful infliction all the purposes of legislature, and of injury cannot be considered unbe just as effectual a check on just ; but a great disliculty exists in crime.
Barbary regarding the distinction If a traveller is robbed in Barba- between accident and design, the ry, the pacha or governor of the latter interpretation being generally country in which he travels, is placed on every act wherein
* The white mantle worn by the Moors.
foreigner may have the misfortune horseback being a novelty to this to offend or harm a native—as one gentleman, his courage rose above or two examples will sufficiently the level of his abilities for managprove. It is better, therefore, to ing the barb which he, in his vanity, submit to almost any imposition than chose for the display. of his equesgo to law with a Moor, who is sure trianship. On arriving at a sand to be protected, to the certain sacri- plain, my friend's joy burst forth in fice of the stranger.
sundry useless checks and spurrings An English merchant, Mr. of his steed, impatient of which the D
whilst on a shooting ex- horse dashed forward, heedless of cursion in Barbary, fired at a Moor, the cries and struggles of his awkand lodged a quantity of small shot ward rider to bring him to a halt ! in one of his legs. A Moorish sur- A party of Moorish women on their geon performed the operation of route to their gardens were in the extracting the shot with a blunt- advance, on coming up with whom pointed knife ; this process inflamed the horse stopped, and (least mishap and irritated the wounds. During of all !) laid his unskilful rider in the time of the Moor's illness, he the dust ! Unfortunately the forewas maintained at the expense of head of a Moorish girl of the party Mr. D -; this so well suited was grazed by coming in contact his taste, that whenever he ap- with the horse. Having convinced proached a state of convalescence, myself of the extent of the accident, means were employed to retard the which proved to be nothing more cure, which at last rendered ampu- than a slight scratch, I recommendtation_necessary. At this crisis, ed Mr. Gambado to open bis
purseMr. D was arrested and strings, as the best remedy for healthrown into prison, to wait the issue ing the wound. This advice was, of the disaster, with the melancholy however, despised. prospect of losing one of his own A telegraph could not have comlegs, or perhaps his life, in case the municated the news of the disaster Moor should die. The wounded to Tangiers quicker than it reached man, however, recovered at the ex- the bashaw's ears by means of the pense of being crippled, and having Arab lazzaroni, who, like their pleaded his inability to gain a live- brethren of Italy, are so distinguishlihood, Mr. D was obliged edly employed under every bush to submit to the exorbitant demand and hedge about the country ; nor of three thousand dollars, to effect did the story lose any part of its his liberation from prison.
attraction by passing through their There is no doubt that part of hands, for they magnified it into this money found its way into the a report of both murder and violapocket of the bashaw. Such is the tion! satisfaction of being compensated The first intimation I received, on for any accident like that just cited, my return, of the coming storm that a Moor will rather place him- was, the seizure of the guard who self in the way, than avoid being accompanied me.; this fellow, coninjured by a person who can afford trary to my usual custom, I had to pay for it. My own escape from picked up in the town, without an extortion of pretty nearly the thinking of the necessity of employsame nature, will show that those ing an officer of the line, whose inacases are not of unfrequent occur- lienable perquisites are the fees for rence in Barbary.
attending strangers. The guard During my residence at Tangiers, was lugged off to the alcassaba of I was accompanied in one of my the bashaw, where he was disburaccustomed rides by a person whom thened of the reward of his day's I shall designate as Geoffroy Gam- labor, and received in exchange a bado, jun. The treat of riding on hundred stripes on the feet, to ren
der him less nimblc-footed on future means to aggravate the wound in occasions. The poor devil came the girl's head, which they had limping towards me after this unkind caused to be shaved. Medicines treatment to beg a few pesettas by were administered to her which proway of consolation, a compliance duced violent fever, and if a prompt with which changed his pathetic settlement had not taken place they strain to notes of gladness. I had would have killed her, in order to scarce learnt his disgrace, when I derive a pecuniary benefit from her received an invitation, borne by a death. dozen of the bashaw's body-guard, As any rescue from the hands of to attend at the alcassaba myself. the Moors, through official interse
I found his excellency the ba- rence (though I must here acknowshaw, seated on the ground at his ledge the kindness of the European castle gate, busied in giving the consuls at Tangers in offering me pass-word to the night patrole, who their assistance), might have been with their cudgels and other arms both a slow and doubtful process, I were proceeding to their respective preferred the shorter route of disposts for the night. He was not engaging myself from the grasp of long in acquainting me with the na- power by sending for the worthy ture of what he had to impart, conspirators, and paying the amount nothing less than the said charge of their demand. Their meeting of murder !
was suficiently ludicrous ; they Thinking his excellency labored wept, debated, and fought with my under some delusion, I begged to arbitrators, and at last come inform him through an honest dra- blows. I was then assured everygoman—the same person who cuts thing was in a fair way of settlesuch a conspicuous figure in Capt. ment, and that they would certainly Beauclerk's “ Tour to Morocco, not hold out much longer. Battle as the “Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox of was, in fact, the signal of accommothe sultan ”—that the accident was dation, the talbs or scribes were fortunately but a trifling one ; also, sent for, and upon payment of certhat I was not the precise person tainly a less penalty than I expectwho had occasioned it. It was, ed, they drew up my release. however, gently hinted to me, “that few days subsequent to this arrangethis made no difference, and that if ment, the young lady was restored anything happened to the girl, I to perfect health, and was able to might prepare for the worst.” As walk to her garden as well as ever. an especial favor, after many threats Occurrences like the foregoing of imprisonment, I was allowed to are always looked upon by the auremain in confinement in my own thorities in the light of business, house, under surveillance, till the and that course which may bring a result of the girl's accident was as- share of the damages to their own certained.
pockets, is the one they are sure to I subsequently discovered that pursue. Public officers having no my cunning friend, Gambado, stated salaries, think it no harm to leagued with the dragoman, had make the worst of every chance contrived to shift the weight of the which comes in their way, nor is offence upon my shoulders, by the emperor himself backward in causing the bashaw to understand showing a bad example. that I was the person who had rode Sidi Hamet Benja, a Moorish over the girl, an imposture I did merchant, who died a few years not discover at the moment. The back at Gibraltar, was known to farce, however, was near being the whole mercantile world by the thirned into tragedy; the parents of extent of his connections and his the girl, in order to extort a suffi- great riches. This man the Empecient sum of money, had employed ror of Morocco tried to destroy, for
which Benja owed him an eternal Benja was not tardy in obeying hatred ; notwithstanding which, his the sultan's commands; he took his oppressor became his sole and uni- leave, but no sooner was he out of versal legatee.
the kingdom, than he acquainted Benja from insignificant begin- the sultan of his knowledge of the nings had acquired great wealth, infamous intention to imprison him the fame of which soon reached the till he should have purchased his sultan's ears, who by insinuations freedom, and congratulated himself and flattering messages, induced on having escaped the langs of him to repair to the royal presence. such a monster at so small a sacriThe unsuspecting merchant pro- fice. Benja little intended at this ceeded to Barbary ; no sooner had time to have made the sultan his . he landed there than he was in form- heir, yet such was the case ; for ed by a friend, of his having placed having an aversion to making a his foot in the net ; that the sultan will, he died intestate, and thus, by had given orders to prevent his re a law of Barbary, the sultan claimturn, and to send hiin in chains to ed bis property—which the auMorocco, in he did not proceed thorities of Gibraltar found themvoluntarily on his journey.
selves compelled to pay into his This intelligence would have hands. damped the spirit of any one but a No Moor can reside out of his man of Benja's presence of mind, sovereign's dominions without spewho too late saw the folly of his cial leave : this was one of the flimcredulity, but determined, if possi-. sy pretexts on which the sultan inble, to retrieve his error. Profiting tended to imprison Benja. Where from the information given him, he there are wives or children, they resolved to go boldly forward, feign- are generally held responsible for ing an entire ignorance of the sul- the husband or father's conduct, tan's intentions. Having caused and are punished in case of his disthe sum of 50,000 dollars to be for- obedience to the law. warded to him from Gibraltar, the It is surprising that despotic gomoney was laden on mules, and vernments should find any advoplaced under the care of his escort. cate ; yet such is the case. A late Benja shortly after knelt in the roy- tourist has even held the governal presence. Previously to inquir- ment of Morocco up to admiration, ing the nature of the sultan's com- by citing cases wherein the sultan's mand, he stated his intention to arbitrary measures have produced withdraw his riches from Europe, benefits, which even-handed justice and to take up his residence near never could have obtained ; but it Seedna, his lord and master, whom would be far better that a few guilty he intended to constitute his sole individuals should escape, than that heir ; in token of this intention, he one innocent man should suffer. pointed out the gold which already Some instances may be pointed out, awaited the suitan's acceptance, at wherein despotic proceedings have the palace gates. The money was been attended with good effects ; unladen in the court-yard of the but this cannot justify their general palace. The greedy sultan listen- adoption. ed to the tale with the utmost cre A party to which I belonged, in dulity-the chains which awaited the eagerness of the chase, pursued the merchant were withheld. The their game across a douar where sultan, thinking himself sure of get- sporting is prohibited; this precauting the whole property into his tion being neglected, some of the hands, urged Benja's speedy de- sportsmen were surrounded by the parture to put bis purpose into exe- Arabs, who, under pretence of ad. cution, promising him all sorts of miring the fine detonating locks of honors and influence on his return, English guns, relieved one of my
friends from the trouble of carrying ciency out of his own pocket, was his gun any further. Vexation for no trifling matter, and caused seriits loss caused a complaint to the ous reflection. In the midst of his caid of our guard ; the caid applied distress, two men were brought in to the chief of the douar. The wounded, who had quarreled and Arabs denied all knowledge of the fought in the streets.
This grave theft, which so enraged the chief, offence required the infliction of a that he threatened to flog the whole heavy penalty, which, as it promised douar, in case the property was not to relieve the deputy governor from immediately produced. Two or his embarrassment, caused him no three of the villagers had actually small joy in discovering a means of undergone a flagellation, in pursu- shifting the payment of the muchance of the chief's resolve, when a wanted sum on the first aggressor. woman, whose husband was next in But in this case the man happened turn for the bastinado, brought for- not to possess a single blanquillo. ward the much wished for gun, dis- Not all the stripes in the world, playing the triumph of conjugal af- nor any means could be devised to fection over mercenary feeling. make either of the parties produce Many European ladies would not the lowest copper coin of the counhave been in such haste to spare try, which sum it turned out had their husbands a flogging! been the cause of their dispute.
Another case occurs to my me- The witnesses of the affray were mory in which the wielding of arbi- next inquired for, and on its being trary power may be seen to all its discovered that a wealthy man had disadvantage. A late governor of accidentally witnessed the quarrel, Tangiers being called by some bu- the deputy sent for him, flew into a siness of importance to the interior, great rage, and threatened to put pitched on one of the principal mer- him into confinement for remaining chants or shopkeepers of the place a quiet spectator, in a case of murto govern during his absence. "This der. Inability to separate the comwas a favor from which the mer- batants was pleaded, as well as the chant would have willingly shrunk, danger of their turning their knives but refusal was impossible. On on himself, had he attempted to inthe bashaw's departure, he handed terfere. Remonstrance was usea list to his deputy of the sums heless, the crime was unpardonable : was expected to raise during his “My friend," whispered the deputy absence. Notwithstanding every governor, you had better pay the possible economy and diligence, the money without hesitation, for the period of the bashaw's return drew bashaw may return to-morrow, and near, the day of resignation was at if he finds. I have neglected my hand, and there yet remained a de- duty, he may be inclined to make a ficit of fifty dollars in the stipulated governor of you—which you may levies. This, to a Moor, who fore- find a greater punishment than that saw he would have to pay the defi- which I now inflict on you.”
MAT KAVANAGH, THE IRISH FEDGE SCHOOLMASTER. The village of Findramore, it ap
Garraghty had been attentive pears, was without a schoolmaster; to his little pupils, and his instrucone of these worthies having been tions were sufficient to give them a hanged for only being concerned in relish for education; a circumstance burning the house of an agent ; and which did not escape the observahis successor, a lame young man, tion of their parents, who duly apnamed Garraghty, the son of a wi- preciated it. His death, however, dow, having, it was maliciously re- deprived them of this advantage ; ported, died of poverty.
and, as schoolmasters, under the