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An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. with a Comm ...
Попередній перегляд недоступний - 2018
according act of parliament afford altogether amount ancient ancient Greece annual annuities assessed Britain capital cent church civil clergy commerce common consequence considerable consumer consumption court defraying duchy of Milan duties of customs empire employed England equal established Europe excise exercises expense fall fortune France frequently fund greater houses hundred imposed inferior interest joint stock joint-stock companies justice kind land-tax landlord less levied maintain malt manner manufactures ment merchants militia millions nations naturally necessarily necessary never obliged occasion ordinary paid parliament particular payment peace perhaps person present principal produce profit proportion proprietors provinces public revenue raise ranks render rent of land respect Roman Royal African Company Scotland Scythian seldom shillings society sometimes sort South Sea Company sovereign Spanish West Indies standing army superior supposed taxation teachers thousand pounds tion tithe trade wages of labour whole
Сторінка 141 - The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects, too, are, perhaps, always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
Сторінка 141 - In the progress of the division of labour [employments], the employment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is, of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations ; frequently to one or two. But the understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments.
Сторінка 293 - By necessaries I understand, not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
Сторінка 216 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Сторінка 111 - The endowments of schools and colleges have necessarily diminished more or less the necessity of application in the teachers. Their subsistence, so far as it arises from their salaries, is evidently derived from a fund altogether independent of their success and reputation in their particular professions.
Сторінка 151 - The more they are instructed, the less liable they are to the delusions of enthusiasm and superstition, which, among ignorant nations, frequently occasion the most dreadful disorders. An instructed and intelligent people, besidesj are always more decent and orderly than an ignorant and Stupid one.
Сторінка 219 - Secondly, it may obstruct the industry of the people, and discourage them from applying to certain branches of business which might give maintenance -and employment to great multitudes. While it obliges the people to pay, it may thus diminish, or VOL. v. u perhaps destroy, some of the funds which might enable them more easily to do so.
Сторінка 2 - According to the system of natural liberty, the sovereign has only three duties to attend to — three duties of great importance, indeed, but plain and intelligible to common understandings: first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it or the duty of establishing an exact administration of justice;...
Сторінка 285 - Every increase or diminution of capital, therefore, naturally tends to increase or diminish the real quantity of industry, the number of productive hands, and consequently the exchangeable value of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country, the real wealth and revenue of all its inhabitants.