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accumulation acquired Adam Smith advance advantage afford agricultural amongst amount augmented benefit branches of industry burthen capitalist cause cent circumstances classes commodities competition consequence consumed consumption cultivation degree demand derived diminished duce duction duties earnings effect employed employment equal exertion existing expenditure expense extend fall greater higher improvements income increase indirect taxes individuals injury kind labour and capital land landlord larger less lessen lower manufactures means ment nature necessary occasion occupations owners paid payment persons poor population portion possession present procure productiveness of industry profits of capital proportion protection public debt purchase raised rate of interest rate of profit real property reduced remuneration rendered rent revenue rewards of labour sinking fund society soil subsistence sumer supply taxation taxes things tillage tion tivation trade wages of labour wealth Wealth of Nations whole workmen yield
Сторінка 322 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Сторінка 224 - The friends of humanity cannot but wish that in all countries the labouring classes should have a taste for comforts and enjoyments, and that they should be stimulated by all legal means in their exertions to procure them. There cannot be a better security against a superabundant population.
Сторінка 150 - THE WHOLE of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock must, in the same neighbourhood, be either perfectly equal or continually tending to equality. If in the same neighbourhood there was any employment evidently either more or less advantageous than the rest, so many people would crowd into it in the one case, and so many would desert it in the other, that its advantages would soon return to the level of other employments.
Сторінка 243 - Our merchants and mastermanufacturers complain much of the bad effects of high wages in raising the price, and thereby lessening the sale of their goods both at home and abroad. They say nothing concerning the bad effects of high profits. They are silent with regard to the pernicious effects of their own gains. They complain only of those of other people.
Сторінка 422 - When national debts have once been accumulated to a certain degree, there is scarce, I believe, a single instance of their having been fairly and completely paid. The liberation of the public revenue, if it has ever been brought about at all, has always been brought about by a bankruptcy ; sometimes by an avowed one, but always by a real one, though frequently by a pretended payment.
Сторінка 265 - That portion of his revenue which a rich man annually spends is, in most cases, consumed by idle guests and menial servants who leave nothing behind them in return for their consumption. That portion which he annually saves, as for the sake of the profit it is immediately employed as a capital, is consumed in the same manner and nearly in the same time, too, but by a different set of people, by labourers, manufacturers, and artificers, who reproduce with a profit the value of their annual consumption.
Сторінка 219 - By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
Сторінка 279 - But the principle which prompts to save is the desire of bettering our condition, a desire which, though generally calm and dispassionate, comes with us from the womb, and never leaves us till we go into the grave.
Сторінка 279 - An augmentation of fortune is the means by which the greater part of men propose and wish to better their condition.
Сторінка 221 - Great Britain there is a distinction, even in the lowest species of labour, between summer and winter wages. Summer wages are always highest. But on account of the extraordinary expense of fuel, the maintenance of a family is most expensive in winter. Wages therefore being highest when this expense is lowest, it seems evident that they are not regulated by what is necessary for this expense; but by the quantity and supposed value of the work.