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gratifications leads him. And his happiness, perhaps, depends as much upon the latter as the former ; for he has generally as much pleasure in the pursuit of his object, as he has in its attainment, and sometimes he has more. Indeed, at all times, a man is more happy while employed in the pursuit of some object, than he is while unemployed, and with no object of sufficient interest to pursue.
The more productive industry may become, by the aid of accumulating capital and machinery, which public encouragement may draw to it, the greater will be the facilities to the industrious for acquiring not only a comfortable living, but also riches. The greater, too, will be the number at the same time of those, whom it will release from the necessity of manual labour, to live by occupations and professions, in which that is not required. And the greater, likewise, will be the number of those whom it will release from all necessary occupations, and leave to that leisure, which may be employed in the cultivation of science and literature, and the diffusion of useful knowledge.
In those countries where industry is seen to be associated with ignorance, poverty, and vice, it is owing to the oppressive and unequal operation of their political institutions.
But in this country where the government proceeds from the people, where it is established upon the basis of their perfect equality, and is exercised by their representatives only for their welfare, we see that industry is connected with intelligence, property, and virtue, and that it offers with these the only security, upon which the continuance of the happy organization of our government depends.
XIV. CONFLICTING INTERESTS. The conflicting interests of industry arise only from competition, and exist but among those of the same employments. There is no competition or conflict of interests between those of different occupations; they naturally promote each other's industry. None indeed can arise from differences in soil, or climate, or industry; these differences, on the contrary, harmonize interests.
The difference even in the means by which industry is prosecuted in the northern and southern states, is equally conducive to the wealth to'h of the one, and of the other. The commerce and industry of the North increases with the prosperity of the South ; and the industry of the South is aided and promoted in return by the capitals of the North; and the industry of the West by its intercourse with both. Connected as we are by the interchange of the products of our industry, the prosperity of one section contributes to the prosperity of the others ; and the prosperity of one class, to that of all other classes.
Industry in one individual excites to industry in another, and the gain of wealth by one is employed to increase the gains of others. With the increase of wealth, expenditure is increased ; and with expenditure, industry is promoted and wealth distributed.
Among ourselves, in the differences of our climate, our soil, and our employments, our interests are in unison; and the only interest which conflicts with any interest of ours, is that of foreign industry, which, being more mature, competes with ours in its early efforts, to its discouragement. And as cach division of our industry extends its benefits through every other division, the interests of the whole are promoted by government's extending to each its protection against the foreign competition in the home market.
The more industry is diversified, the more customers has each class for its products. The greatest stimulus, which can be given to any one kind of industry, is to excite to other kinds. This affords to each a greater market for its products, and a greater variety of articles in return for them.
XV. AGRICULTURE, IN RELATION TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS OF SOCIETY.
To enter upon agriculture in this country, very little capital, and as little skill are required. Wild land is cheap, and whoever can handle an axe, and is inured to labour, may soon possess a farm and support a family.
The facility, with which a subsistence is thus procured, has induced the mass of our population to apply themselves to this occupation. The consequence is, that for a time, throughout the interior, where every man is a farmer, and there is none to purchase his products, all are obliged to depend for the supply of their wants upon their household means.
Agriculture, in this stage, contributes little to the augmentation of national wealth. But as population becomes denser, and other occupations and employments arise, it grows more productive, and in proportion as these multiply, so does the income of agricultural increase, and with its income its capital.
The greatest encouragement which can be given to agriculture, is that which excites to other kinds of industry. This affords to the farmer a market for his produce, and such articles in return, as increase his enjoyments.
By the increase of other kinds of industry, the farmer not only has a better market for his produce, but he finds that it increases the value of his estate. By means of it, he at once has a better living, and has become a richer man.
The establishment of new branches of industry tends to increase population, by the additional employment it affords to labour; and
wherever we see population increasing from this cause, there we sce also a rapid rise in the value of all real property.
Capital in agriculture yields a less income in proportion to its amount, than capital in either of the other branches of industry. The reasou of this is, that the demand for agricultural capital is greater than for capital in other employments. That the demand is greater arises from two circumstances; first, the greater security which agriculture affords to the investment of capital; the second is, the greater number of persons there are, who, unskilled to get their living in other employments, seek it in employing themselves, with what property they may have, in agriculture. Thus, as there is greater competition and less skill in the emplovment of capital in agriculture, than in the other branches of industry, the profits on its employment must necessarily be less in this than in the others.
In proportion as there is less skill employed in agriculture, than in the other productive branches, so must there be more labour employed to produce equal exchangeable values.
But thoughi capital in proportion to its amount, and labour in proportion to its quantity, be less productive in agriculture than they are in other employments, yet, as the agricultural class is so much more numerous than the other classes, probably four times as numerous as all the others together, it is from this class that the greatest values towards the augmentation of the national wealth arise.
The rapid growth of the agricultural capital is owing to the operation of three causes. The first is, the large tracts of wild land which are constantly coming under cultivation by the increase of population ; the second is, the constant rise in value of lands under cultivation, owing to the increase of other branches of industry; the third and last, is the addition annually made to the capital by what is saved from the annual product of agricultural industry.
Though agricultural industry becomes more productive as other kinds of industry increase, yet it will not possess its highest productive power, until the numbers of those in other occupations have so multiplied, as to create a demand for the produce of agriculture equal to the full power of its labour to supply.
The following Lines were addressed a few days since, hy Dr PERCIVAL, to Mr
F. ALEXANDER, a very successful Portrait Painter, now residing in this city; by the efforts of whose genius they seem to have been inspired. By bis politeness we are now permitted to offer them to our readers.
One bright sunshiny autumn day
And out from bebind a bowering tree