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of resemblance common to them all ; then a description of those qualities or points of resemblance, which constitutes a general principle. We have no room to enlarge upon these topics, but believe they will be found to reach the evils and defects, which have been so long and so severely felt. For if the purpose of early education be the development and discipline of the mind; then all subjects must be selected and arranged with reference to this purpose. And if Lord Bacon's philosophy is sound; then the subjects so selected and arranged must be put in that form, in which alone the mind can successfully encounter them.
If these views are correct, and these principles philosophical, and we do not see how any one can doubt that they are so, the question occurs, how can they soonest be developed in all their details, and be made thoroughly effective in all our public as well as private instruction. It seems to us, as we have before intimated, that it can only be done by making the subject the ground of a distinct profession.
Upon this point, we improve the opportunity to introduce the following remarks of Mr Gallaudet.* He is a gentleman whose philanthropic and devoted labours have done much to improve the condition, and enlarge the capacities for happiness, of an unfortunate class of our fellow beings; and whose experience in the practical details, and reflections upon the science of education, have enabled him to point out defects and suggest remedies for them with singular acuteness.
“ All, I presume, will agree with me in yielding assent to this general principle, that no important result can be attained with regard to the accomplishment of any object which affects the temporal or eternal wellbeing of our species, without enlisting an entire devotedness to it of intelligence, zeal, fidelity, industry, integrity, and practical exertion. What is it, that has furnished us with able divines, lawyers, and physicians ? The undivided consecration of the talents and efforts of intelligent and upright individuals to these professions. How have these talents been matured, and these efforts been trained, to their beneficial results ? By a long discipline in the schools of experience. We have our theological, law, and medical institutions, in which our young men are fitted for the pursuit of these respective professions, by deriving benefit from the various sources of information which libraries, lectures, and experiments afford. Unaided by such auxiliaries, genius, however brilliant ; invention, however prolific; observation, however acute; ingenuity, however ready; and per
* Principal of the American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, at Hartford, Connecticut.
severance, however indefatigable, have to grope their way, through a long and tiresome process, to the attainment of results which a little acquaintance with the labours of others in the same track of effort, would render a thousand times more easy, rapid, and delightful. Experience is the storehouse of knowledge. Now why should not this experience be resorted to as an auxiliary in the education of youth? Why not make this department of human exertion a profession, as well as those of divinity, law, and medicine ?"
Few, we apprehend, will question the practicability or the expediency of making the education of youth, the ground of a distinct profession. And we are persuaded that this can soonest and most effectually be done, by the establishment of an institution or institutions, for the purpose of affording the preparation necessary for the successful discharge of the duties of this profession. Mr Gallaudet, however, in the pamphlet before us, has only hinted at a plan of such a seminary, it being his purpose to fix the public attention upon the subject, rather than to lay down a scheme which could be adopted and acted upon, without modification and development.
“Suppose such an institution should be so well endowed, by the liberality of the public, or of individuals, as to have two or three professors, men of talents and habits adapted to the pursuit, who should devote their lives to the object of the “ Theory and Practice of the Education of Youth,” and who should prepare and deliver, and perhaps print, a course of lectures on the subject.
“Let the Institution be furuished with a library, which should contain all the works, theoretical and practical, in all languages, which can be obtained on the subject of education, and also with all the apparatus that modern ingenuity has devised for this purpose ; such as maps, charts, globes, orreries, &c. &c.
“Let there be connected with the Institution a school, smaller or larger, as circumstances might dictate, of indigent children and youth, and especially of foreign youth whom we are rearing for future benevolent efforts, in which the theories of the professors might be reduced to practice, and from which daily experience would derive a thousand useful instructions.
" To such an Institution let young men resort, of piety, of talents, of industry, and of adaptedness to the business of the instructers of youth, and who would expect to devote their lives to so important an occupation. Let them attend a regular course of lectures on the subject of education; read the best works; take their turns in the instruction of the experimental school, and after thus becoming qualified for their office, leave the Institution with a suitable certificate or diploma, recommending them to the confidence of the public."
This can hardly be considered a “plan,” although it contains some valuable suggestions upon the subject. But upon the peculiar advantages of a seminary for the purpose, upon sorre plan, Mr Gallaudet is eloquent and full. We subjoin those remarks upon this point, which seem to us to be the most important; and for others, must refer our readers to the pamphlet itself.
“ It would direct the attention, and concentrate the efforts, and inspire the zeal, of many worthy and intelligent minds to one important object. l'hey would excite each other in this new career of doing good. Every year would produce a valuable accession to the mass of experience that would be constantly accumulating at such a store-house of knowledge. The business of instructing youth would be reduced to a system, which would embrace the best and the readiest modes of conducting it. This system would be gradually diffused throughout the community. Our instructers would rank, as they ought to do, among the most respectable professions."
"Its professors will have their friends and correspondents in various parts of the country, to whom they will, from time to time, communicate the results of their speculations and efforts, and to whom they will impart a portion of the enthusiasm which they themselves feel. Such an Institution, too, would soon become an object of laudable curiosity. Thousands would visit it. Its experimental school, if properly conducted, would form a most delightful and interesting spectacle. Its library and various apparatus would be, I may say, a novelty in this department of the philosophy of the human mind. It would probably, also, have its public examinations, which would draw together an assembly of intelligent and literary individuals. Its students, as they dispersed through the community, would carry with them the spirit of the Institution, and thus, by these various processes of communication, the whole lump of public sentiment, and feeling, and effort, would be leavened. * * * *
“Another advantage resulting from such an Institution would be, that it would lead to the investigation and establishment of those principles of discipline and government most likely to promote the progress of children and youth in the acquisition of intellectual and moral excellence. How sadly vague and unsettled are all the plans in this most important part of education, now in operation in our common schools ; if, indeed, there are any plans
at all. *
“At such an Institution we might hope, in the course of a few years, to have the best mode devised of imparting moral and re
ligious truth to the youthful mind, and of preparing those elementary books of instruction on this important subject which are yet so much needed.”
But perhaps the most important advantage to be expected from a seminary for the preparation of teachers, would be this:
6 At such a Seminary as I have proposed, the subject of preparing books for children and schools would be taken up in earnest by men devoted to the object. Its library would furnish them with all the lights that past experience could afford; the experimental school would be adding a continual stock 10 this experience; their own ingenuity would be at work, and in the course of time, (for I do not pretend to say that this important object is to be accomplished at once,) we might hope to see issue from this fountain of youthful instruction, a series of school-books, either original or compiled, that would form parts of one regular and well-digested system ; that would be constructed on principles, and written in a style accommodated to the minds of mere learners; and that would develop the various subjects of orthography, elocution, arithmetic, geography, history, grammar, &c. under forms of communication, not clothed with all the technicalities of dry and abstract rules; nor obscured by the mists of a too elevated and subtle phraseology; nor stretching away into the indefiniteness of a generalization, which scarcely the ken of metaphysical acuteness can follow; but plain, palpable, definite, particular, intelligible.”
Mr Gallaudet also points out some of the prevailing defects in the common methods of teaching, and particularly of teaching language. He anticipates some of the obstacles to be encountered in a reformation, and estimates the practical influence, which a reformed system of school-books and instruction would have upon missionary efforts. All these topics, our limits compel us to pass over, with only the
expression of our hearty concurrence in the author's views. But we introduce one passage more, because it will have a tendency to obviate a difficulty, which may be raised against the proposed seminary, on the ground of its expense.
66 Those who should devote themselves to the business of the instruction of youth as a profession, and who should prepare themselves for it by a course of study and discipline at such a Seminary as I have proposed, would not find it necessary, as our missionaries do, to depend on the charity of their countrymen for support. Their talents, their qualifications, and their recommendations, would inspire public confidence, and command public patronage.
For experience would soon prove, if it cannot be now seen in prospect, that to save time in the education of youth, and to have this education complete instead of being imperfect ; and to prepare the youthful mind for accurate thought and correct feeling, and practical, energetic action, in all the business of life, is to save money ; and even those who now expend a few dollars with so niggardly a hand, in the education of their dear, immortal offspring, would soon learn how to calculate on the closest principles of loss and gain, in the employment of instructers; and be willing to give twice as much to him who would do his work twice as well, and in half the time, as they now give to him who has neither skill nor experience in his profession."
[To be continued.]
A RESIDENCE IN GLASGOW.
This individual has risen to more celebrity on our side of the Atlantic than on bis own. The sound and practical views of education, which are given in his “Outlines,” have been deservedly received with much approbation ; and have gained among us, a high standing for their author, at a time when improvement in methods of instruction is our favourite topic of discussion. During my residence in Glasgow, however, I found that the venerable professor, though much respected in the quiet round of his duties, was by no means so publicly eminent as you had supposed. The truth is, he did not indulge in any of those wild and mystical speculations, nor in any of those poetic strains of diction, which constitute much of the popular fascination in other writers and lecturers on his subject. His only aim was the substantial benefit of his pupils. He was content accordingly to descend to the most familiar views of his ubject, and to throw all his powers into the channel of laborious and patient effort in his class-room. In his lectures, he was father surrounded by his children, instructing them with parental familiarity, caring but little about the manner and anxious chiefly with regard to the matter, and never once dreaming of contemporary or posthumous fame.
Professor Jardine was a pupil of Dr Reid ; and it was doubtless the common sense views of intellectual philosophy, inculcated by that great man, which gave the bias to his pupil's mind, and produced his peculiar tendency to manly plainness of thought and useful investigation. On his accession to the chair, the professor