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The Effects of Civilisation on the People in European States
Попередній перегляд недоступний - 2018
advantage amount animal appear applied arise attended authority bear become better body bring brought called cause civilised claim common condition consequence considered consist consumed continuance corn countries course cultivation deprived direct effects employed employments enjoy equal Europe evident evils existence fact farmer frequently furnish give given greater hands happen Hence human hundred income increase individuals instance interest keep kind labour land laws least less lives mankind manner manufactures mass matter means method millions mind nature necessaries objects observed obtain occasion original perhaps persons poor possession present principal probably produce proper proportion quantity raised reason received refined regard remain render requires respect rest rich seems seen situation society species suffered sufficient supplied suppose taken things thousand trade true wealth whole
Сторінка 41 - ... produce of his lands which is over and above the maintenance of the cultivators, consumes the whole in rustic hospitality at home. If this surplus produce is sufficient to maintain a hundred or a thousand men, he can make use of it in no other way than by maintaining a hundred or a thousand men. He is at all times, therefore, surrounded with a multitude of retainers and dependents, who, having no equivalent to give in return for their maintenance, but being fed entirely by his bounty, must obey...
Сторінка 50 - ... worst, pigeon of the flock: sitting round, and looking on. all the winter, whilst this one was devouring, throwing about, and wasting it: and if a pigeon, more hardy or hungry than the rest, touched a grain of the hoard, all the others instantly flying upon it. and tearing it to pieces: - if you should see this, you would see nothing more than what is every day practised and established among men.
Сторінка 50 - Among men, you see the ninety and nine toiling and scraping together a heap of superfluities for one, (and this one too, oftentimes the feeblest and worst of the whole set, a child, a woman, a madman, or a fool...
Сторінка 20 - The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects too are, perhaps, always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
Сторінка 20 - He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. The torpor of his mind renders him not only incapable of relishing or bearing a part in any rational conversation, but of conceiving any generous, noble, or tender, sentiment, and consequently of forming any just judgment concerning many even ' of the ordinary duties of private life.
Сторінка 93 - Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defence of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property against those who have none .at alL...
Сторінка 54 - What the possessor has, the non-possessor is deprived of : ' The situation of the rich and the poor, like the algebraic terms plus and minus, are in direct opposition to, and destructive of each other.
Сторінка 20 - In the progress of the division of labour, the employment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is, of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations ; frequently to one or two.
Сторінка 21 - In such societies the varied occupations of every man oblige every man to exert his capacity, and to invent expedients for removing difficulties which are continually occurring. Invention is kept alive, and the mind is not suffered to fall into that drowsy stupidity which, in a civilized society, seems to benumb the understanding of almost all the inferior ranks of people.