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and open to the full force of the ocean. Much more will probably be done in this respect, as the government are evidently impressed with the importance of supplying this deficiency.

CHAPTER X.

Great extent of emigration—More advantageous to the emigrants than to Ireland—Large number of Irish resident in Great Britain—Increased emigration to England this year—Must continue until the condition of the working classes in the two countries be equalized— Tenantry sometimes assisted by landlords to emigrate—Emigration must be on a very extensive scale to relieve the labour market—Estimate of the cost–Government assistance would interfere with voluntary emigration—Cultivation of waste lands—Their reclamation by government considered—If they were saleable, government interference unnecessary—Improvement of land now in cultivation a more important object—Consolidation of farms—Prejudice against small farms not well founded—Necessity of capital for farming purposes— Injurious effects of insecurity of possession—Advantages resulting from the custom of tenant-right in Ulster—Proposition to extend this custom to the rest of Ireland–If effected by Lynch-law, the results would be most disastrous—Definition of tenant-right—Difficulty of converting it into a legal right—Compensation to tenants for permanent improvements considered—Abortive legislation on this subject—Customs of tenantcy in England–Improvements best effected by the proprietor—Agrarian outrages—Popular sympathy with the offenders—Coercion unavailing while the exciting causes exist—Want of capital in connection with land the original cause—A free sale of land the remedy–Difficulty of supporting popular institutions in Ireland for want of a middle class—No means so likely to afford a remedy as the free sale of land.

That there is a constant stream of Emigration

from Ireland is well known. Those who sailed

for foreign countries, direct from Irish ports, in

the ten years preceding the census of 1841, ave raged 21,404 yearly. When to this number we add the Irish emigrants who sailed from Liverpool and other English ports, it will probably raise the annual average to at least 40,000.* There is no doubt that emigration increased considerably during the five years from 1841 to 1846, and this year the number has been great beyond all former precedent. Of this description of emigration, the compiler of the “Digest of Evidence on the occupation of land in Ireland” remarks, that “it does not relieve the “country from those classes that it “would be desirable to part with ; that the volun“tary emigrants for the most part consist of fami“lies possessing capital, whilst the paupers remain “at home: the young, the strong, the enterprising “and industrious individuals of families leave “us, whilst the old, the impotent, the idle, and “indolent portion stay with us.”f This emigration may be very useful to the emigrants themselves, but it can hardly be very advantageous to Ireland. We lose a part of that valuable portion of our working classes, who are energetic and enterprising, and who possess some capital. The large amount of money sent back to their relations in Ireland, by many of these industrious emigrants, is certainly some compensation. This money is frequently made use of, to enable the older and less enterprising of the family to join their friends who have preceded them to America. A young man or woman will often save enough out of his earnings, to pay the passage for a father or mother, a brother or sister; and so, in time, the whole family becomes united again in a new country, where they are enabled to live in comfort, and often in affluence.*

* The commissioners appointed to take the census for Ireland in 1841, in their report, page xxvii. estimate the total colonial and foreign emigration from Ireland between 1830 and 1841, to be 403,463. f Digest of Evidence, page 567.

* The following extract of a letter from Jacob Harvey of New York, will be interesting, as showing some of the advantages conferred on the emigrants themselves, as well as the care taken of their welfare, by the state of New York. It is dated May 29th, 1847: “As an Irishman, “bound by duty as well as by sympathy to give my poor aid to serve my “countrymen, I can see no way so clear as by encouraging emigration. “The benefits conferred on the emigrants are positive. How can I “recommend them to stay at home, and live on hope, with this great “fact constantly before me? Ireland is so thickly populated, there is “no danger of your being left destitute offarmers and labourers. You will “increase fast enough to fill the places of those who leave your shores; “and you will, as I have already shown, receive large sums from “ these emigrants, to assist your poor who remain behind. My “mission, therefore, is to look after the emigrants; and I shall have “my hands full this year. Under a recent act of this state, com“missioners are appointed, (of whom I am one) to take charge of “all emigrants arriving in New York. We are erecting temporary “buildings for the sick, our hospitals being full; and the able-bodied “are sent into the country at once, where there is plenty of employment “to be found. The high prices of the produce of the soil have given an “increased spur to agricultural pursuits throughout the whole Union, “ and it will require an immense influx of foreigners to overload the

The emigration of poor persons to England is a greater relief, because, although some of those who go are young persons of energy and industrious habits, they rarely possess any capital. In general, those who remove to England are forced to do so, by the difficulty of obtaining employment in their own country. They would much prefer remaining at home, even with considerably lower wages. It appears from the census of 1841, that the number of Irish persons then resident in England and Wales was 292,935, and 126,321 in Scotland; of these, 132,670 lived in the counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, and the West Riding of Yorkshire, 44,345 in Glasgow, and about 70,000 in the city of London. A small proportion are absentees possessing property; but the great majority are certainly of the working classes. It is impossible to ascertain how many have removed to England this year, but the number must have been very large. The failure of all their usual means of support, the hopelessness of obtaining employment at home, impelled them to seek another country, whose people they hoped would employ them, and from whose charity they felt sure of assistance. Many of these will maintain themselves by their

“market. What a blessing it is, that there is such a continent to be “filled with human beings. Look at the map, and you will quickly “decide that our present population is as a speck on the horizon.”

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