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a manufacture must, no doubt, eventually yield before the spread of that civilization, which, in the division of labour, restricts each individual to one occupation, and thus increases his capability and his skill; but it would be cause of much regret, if the present circumstances should destroy this ancient home manufacture, before the natural period of its decay. There is some danger that the looms and spinning wheels, which have been broken up or sold, may not be replaced ; in which case, the industry of our Connaught peasantry will be even lower than it has hitherto been. A large proportion of the able-bodied labourers must have obtained employment at harvest work, either in Ireland or in England ; yet probably the demand for labourers on this account was less than usual, in consequence of the remarkably fine weather. Many have also been engaged in the various works of drainage and other improvements, carried on under the superintendence of the Board of Works; the number probably amounts to 12,000. The several railways in process of construction have given much employment, occupying perhaps as many as 70,000 labourers, almost all of whom are natives of Ireland. Counting five persons to every family, these sources of employment would support a proportion of 410,000 persons. On the other hand, many of the farmers, unable to pay money wages, and the usual mode of paying for labour by land in con-acre having been impracticable this year, have been forced to do all their work without employing any labour beyond that of their own family. The gentry, finding their means diminished, have in many cases contracted their expenditure, manage with fewer servants, and employ fewer labourers. The same cause has produced a general stagnation in almost every branch of trade and manufacture. There are but few houses being built, and therefore the various tradesmen connected with building are in want of employment. The demand for clothes is also less than usual, notwithstanding the great want of them which is everywhere felt. The number of unemployed artizans continues to be very large, though many of them have removed to England, especially from the cities. The distress among this class of persons is very severe, and more keenly felt than by the agricultural population, because they possess stronger feelings of independence. From all these causes, it results that there are numbers of strong, active labourers, willing to work, but unable to find any one to employ them ; and if to these be added the multitude of sick, infirm, aged, widows, and orphans, the number of persons unable to exist without alms or relief from the poor-rates becomes truly appalling.

It would be easy to multiply proofs of a state of things which threatens the most fearful consequences, and which, unless averted by judicious measures, must reproduce, in some localities, the frightful scenes of misery and death from which the country has just emerged. A letter dated 7th Sept., from the inspecting-officer of a union in Connaught, says: “I would now desire to “acquaint you with the painful prospect which “appears to await this union, with which I have “ now been connected some months. On Sunday “next, the 12th inst. is the termination of my “duty, so far as concerns the relief under the tem“porary relief act; and I must confess that I “shrink from the contemplation of the state of “suffering, to which the very poor will be subject “after that period, unless some measures be under“taken to alleviate it. The union will then be on “its own resources, namely, a rate struck in May “for £3,500, of which £1,700 is owed to per“sons who supplied the house during the win“ter, and who ought to be paid immediately. No “rate or a very trifling one has been collected, and “even were the whole amount got in, there would “not be more than enough for a fortnight or three “weeks. The number receiving relief in this “union, the last fortnight or three weeks, is 13,000, “which includes only those disabled by infirmity “ or sickness, and helpless widows. I think at least “10,000 must be permanently relieved.” Another gentleman holding the same official station says: “It is almost impossible to discern in this union “ where distress does not exist: in some places it is {{ beyond belief, and no one can be surprised to hear “of plunder and robberies not only by night, but “in the open day. What is to be expected in a “country, where there is neither food of any de“scription available, nor employment 7" It is impossible for those who have not visited the western coast of Ireland to form an adequate idea of that country, or of the condition of its inhabitants. The land is occupied for the greater part by vast and dreary bogs, and wet or rocky mountains. It is generally quite destitute of trees for many miles inland. There are probably thousands of women and children on the western coast who have never seen a shrub more than four feet high. The cultivated portions lie in small patches, generally on the borders of rivers. From the moisture of the climate and the depth of the bogs, many of which consist of the decayed remains of ancient forests, the task of draining and reclaiming them for purposes of tillage, must be one of great difficulty, involving an amount of outlay utterly beyond the reach of most of the present oc

cupiers or proprietors. Except for the supply of fuel, the only purpose these wastes have hitherto served has been the feeding of sheep and black cattle, the number of which has been greatly diminished by the recent calamitous visitation. The villages in which the greater portion of the people reside, are scattered at wide intervals on the sides of the hills or near the sea coast. They consist of collections of hovels of the most primitive construction, grouped without regularity, formed of clay, or loose stones with green sods stuffed into the interstices, a hole in the roof supplying the place of a chimney; the thatch is often broken, admitting the light and air in many places.” The interior accommodations are not superior to those which are found in the hut of the Esquimaux. The space in front of the cabin is generally occupied by a heap of wet manure, which frequently covers the entrance of the hut itself, rendering cleanliness and decency impossible. The people are ignorant, dirty, and at present wretchedly clad. In districts of great extent, the traveller must traverse many weary miles before he comes to the

* The villages of Keel, Keem, and Dugort, in the island of Achill, present an appearance not unlike the pictures of a group of Hottentot kraals. A majority of the huts of which they consist have rounded roofs, somewhat like a beehive. The thatch does not project beyond the massy walls of sods and loose stones, and the entrance is sometimes not more than four feet high. It is probable that these very curious structures differ but slightly from the huts of the aboriginal inhabitants of Ireland.

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