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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO
RICHARD T. ELY, Ph.D., LL.D.
PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
REVISED AND ENLARGED BY
THOMAS S. ADAMS, Ph.D.
MAX O. LORENZ, Ph.D.
BUREAU OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS
ALLYN A. YOUNG, Ph.D.
J. C. L. FISH
All rights reserved
First published elsewhere. Reprinted May, 1900; July, October, 1901; August, 1903; July, September, 1904; July, 1905; January, August, 1906; July, 1907: April, 1908.
New edition, revised and enlarged, September, 1908.
J. 8. Cushing Co. - Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
SINCE the first edition of the Outlines of Economics was published fifteen years ago, there has been considerable progress in economic discussion. In this revision an attempt has been made
itself. No chapters remain unaltered, most of them have been entirely rewritten, and some new ones have been added. But the plan of the former edition has been retained. This book differs from the Elementary Principles of Economics, published in 1904 by Ely and Wicker, in that it is a more advanced treatise, and intended primarily for college and university use; whereas the latter, although used in a number of higher institutions, is intended primarily for high schools.
Four persons have taken part in this revision, but a free interchange of criticism has, it is hoped, resulted in a unified product.
Numerous passages, amounting in the aggregate to many pages, have been printed in smaller type. Such are the passages which, either from their greater difficulty or from their subsidiary character, may best be omitted by a teacher pressed for time. Moreover, for classes in which the time limits are too narrow to permit careful study of the whole text, it may be found expedient to omit Book III, on Public Finance; while, on the other hand, some teachers may wish to take this Book up for independent study.
Considerable attention has been given to the questions at the close of each chapter, and an endeavor has been made to frame these so as to require a mastery of principles to answer them.
In some cases it will be necessary to use the references to literature given at the close of chapters. There are also cases in which the correct answer must be a matter open to differences of opinion. It is hoped and believed that the questions will give rise to fruitful class discussions.
CHAPTER V.-THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED STATES
Economic stages in American industrial history, 56; Sectional-
CHAPTER VI. – THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED
BOOK I. — PRINCIPLES AND PROBLEMS
PART 1.– INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER VII. - ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS
PART II. — CONSUMPTION
CHAPTER VIII. – CONSUMPTION
PART III. — PRODUCTION
CHAPTER IX. – PRODUCTION