Sewers and Drains for Populous Districts: With Rules and Formulae for Determination of Their Dimensions Under All Circumstances

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D. Van Nostrand, 1880 - 228 стор.
 

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Сторінка 171 - ... near London ; the substitution of a constant, instead of an intermittent flow in the sewers ; the abolition of stagnant and tide-locked sewers, with their consequent accumulations of deposit ; and the provision of deep and improved outfalls, for the extension of sewerage into districts previously, for want of such outfalls, imperfectly drained.
Сторінка 207 - ... all loss or damage arising out of the nature of the work aforesaid, or from the action of the elements, or from any unforeseen obstructions or difficulties which may be encountered...
Сторінка 219 - Any unfaithful or imperfect work that may be discovered before the final acceptance of the work shall be corrected immediately on the requirement of the Engineer, notwithstanding that it may have been overlooked by the proper Inspector and estimated.
Сторінка 171 - According to the system which it was sought to improve, the London Main Sewers fell into the valley of the Thames, and most of them, passing under the low grounds on the margin of the river before they reached it, discharged their contents into that river at or about the level, and at the time of low water only. As the tide rose it closed the outlets, and ponded back the sewage flowing from the high grounds ; this accumulated in the low-lying portions of the sewers, where it remained stagnant in...
Сторінка 172 - ... and from day to day accumulated in the sewers ; besides which, in times of heavy and long-continued rains, and more particularly when these occurred at the time of high water in the river, the closed sewers were unable to store the increased volume of sewage, which then rose through the house drains and flooded the basements of the houses. The effect upon the Thames, of thus discharging the sewage into it at the time of low water, was most injurious, because not only was it carried by the rising...
Сторінка 175 - As regards the time of discharge, it is demonstrated by the same series of experiments that — " The delivery of the sewage at high water into the river at any point is equivalent to its discharge at low water at a point 12 miles lower down the river, therefore the construction of 12 miles of sewer is saved by discharging the sewage at high instead of low water.
Сторінка 216 - If any person employed by the contractor on the work shall appear to the Engineer to be incompetent, or to act in a disorderly or improper manner, he shall be discharged immediately on the requisition of the Engineer, and such person shall not again be employed on the work.
Сторінка 185 - Tho sewer is provided with storm overflows into the river. The Low Level Sewer, besides intercepting the sewage from the low-level area of 11 square miles, serves also as an outlet for a district of 14} square miles, the western suburb of London, which is so low that its sewage has to be lifted at Chelsea a height of 17.
Сторінка 177 - ... London are indicated by the flow of sewage through the sewers ; the maximum flow in the more fashionable districts of the West end being two or three hours later than from the East end. Taking, as before, a liberal margin beyond the results of actual measurements, provision has been made for one-half of the sewage to flow off within six hours of the day ; and thus the maximum quantity of sewage, likely hereafter to enter the sewers at various parts of the metropolis, has been arrived at. How...
Сторінка 180 - ... and the Low Level The High and the Middle Level Sewers discharge by gravitation, and the Low Level Sewers discharge only by the aid of pumping. The three lines of sewers north of the Thames converge and unite at Abbey Mills, east of London, where the contents of the Low Level will be pumped into the Upper Level Sewer, and their aggregate stream will flow through the Northern Outfall Sewer, which is carried on a concrete embankment across the marshes to Barking Creek, and there discharges into...

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