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education The examinations for admission Massachusetts Board of Education, or in deshall cover such elementary and high school veloping any branch of that scheme. subjects as may be determined by the Board. 2. Any laboratory note-book that is a gen
For 1896 and thereafter, until further no- uine record of experiments performed, data tice, the examinations will embrace papers on gathered or work done, with the usual acthe following groups, a single paper with a companiments of diagrams, observations and maximum time allowance of two hours to conclusions. cover each of groups 1, 2 and 4, and a single 3. Any essay or article that presents the paper with a maximum time allowance of one nature, successive steps and conclusion of any hour to cover each of groups 3 and 5 (five pa- simple, personally conducted investigation of pers with a maximum time allowance of eight a scientific character, with such diagrams, hours):
sketches, tables and other helps as the charac1. Languages.-(a) English, with its gram- ter of the work may suggest. mar and literature, and (b) one of the three 4. Any exercise book containing composilanguages, -Latin, French and German. tions, abstracts, analyses or other written work
2. Mathematics.-(a) Arithmetic, (b) the that involves study in connection with the elements of algebra and (c) the elements of literature requirements of the examination. plane geometry.
Special Directions. 3. History and Geography. — The history
I. LANGUAGES. and civil government of Massachusetts and (a) English.—The importance of a good foundation in
The plan and the subjects the United States, with related geography English cannot be overrated.
for the examination will be the same as those generally and so much of English history as is directly agreed upon by the colleges and high technical schools of contributory to a knowledge of United States New England. While candidates are strongly advised to
study, either in school or out all the works given in this history.
plan, the topics and questions will be so prepared for 1896, 4. Sciences.-(a) Physical geography, (b) and thereafter until further announcement, that any candiphysiology and hygiene, (c) physics, (d) bot
date may expect to meet them who has mastered half of the
works assigned for reading (or a bare majority of them) and any and (e) chemistry.
half of the works assigned for study and practice, the selec5. Drawing and Music.-(a) Elementary, tion to be at the candidate's option or that of the school
which he attends. mechanical and free-hand drawing, with any
No candidate will be accepted in English whose work is one of the topics, --form, color and arrange- notably deficient in point of spelling, punctuation, idiom ment, and (b) musical notation.
or division of paragraphs.
1. Reading and Practice. -A limited number of books will
be set for reading. The candidate will be required to preORAL EXAMINATIONS.
sent evidence of a general knowledge of the subject-matter, Candidates will be questioned orally either
and to answer simple questions on the lives of the authors.
The form of examination will usually be the writing of a upon some of the foregoing subjects or upon paragraph or two on each of several topics to be chosen matters of common interest to them and the by the candidate from a considerable number---perhaps ten school, at the discretion of the examiners. In
or fifteen-set before him in the examination paper. The
treatment of these topics is designed to test the candidate's this interview, the object is to gain some im- power of clear and accurate expression, and will call for pression about the candidates' personal char- only a general knowledge of the substance of the books.
In place of a part or the whole of this test, the candidate acteristics and their use of language, as well may present an exercise book properly certified by his inas to give them an opportunity to furnish any' structor, containing compositions or other written work
done in connection with the reading of the books. evidences of qualification that might not other
The books set for this part of the examination will be:-wise become known to their examiners. Any 1896. Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream; Defoe's work of a personal, genuine and legitimate History of the Plague in Lonilon; Irving's Tales of a Trav
eler; Scott's Woodstock, Macaulay's Essay on Milton; Longcharacter that candidates have done in connec
fellow's Evangeline; George Eliot's Silas Marner. tion with any of the groups that are set for 1897. Shakespeare's As You Like It; Defoe's History of examination, and that is susceptible of visible the Plague in London; Irving's Tales of a Traveler; Haw
thorne's Twice-Told Tales; Longfellow's Evangeline; or tangible presentation, may be offered at
George Eliot's Silas Marner. this time, and such work will be duly weighed 1898. Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I and II; Pope's in the final estimate, and may even determine
Iliad, Books I and XXII; The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers
in The Spectator; Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield; Coleit. To indicate the scope of this feature, the ridge's Ancient Mariner; Southey's Life of Nelson; Carfollowing kinds of possible presentation are lyle's Essay on Burns; Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal,
Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables. suggested, but the candidates may readily ex
2. Study and Practice. — This part of the examination pretend the list:
supposes a more careful study of each of the works named I. A book of drawing exercises, -particu
below. The examination will be upon subject-matter,
form and structure, and will also test the candidate's abil. larly such a book of exercises as one might ity to express his knowledge with clearness and accuracy. prepare in following the directions in An The books set for this part of the examination will be:Outline of Lessons in Drawing for Ungraded
1896. Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice; Milton's L'Al
legro, 1 Penseroso, Comus and Lycidas; Webster's First Schools,” prepared under the direction of the Bunker Hill Oration.
1897. Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice; Burke's Speech Reasonable allowance in equivalents will be made in case on éconciliation with America; Scott's Marmion; Macau- a candidate, for satisfactory reasons, has not taken a study lay's Life of Samuel Johnson,
named for examination. 1898. Shakespeare's Macbeth, Burke's Speech on Con
General Two Years' Course of Study. ciliation with America; DeQuincey's Flight of a Tartar Tribe; Tennyson's The Princess,
This course is designed primarily for those (b) One only of the three languages, --Latin, French and who aim to teach in public schools below the German. The translation at sight of simple prose, with
high school grade. It comprises substantially questions on the usual forms and ordinary constructions of the language. The candidate is earnestly advised to study
the following subjects:Latin and either French or German.
1. Psychology, history of education, prinII. MatheMATICS.
ciples of education, methods of instruction (a) Arithmetic.-Such an acquaintance with the subject and discipline, school organization and the as may be gained in a good grammar school.
school laws of Massachusetts. (6) Algebra.--The mastery of any text-book suitable for
2. the youngest class in a high school, through cases of affected
Methods of teaching the following subquadratic equations involving one unknown quantity. jects:
(c) Geometry. -The elements of plane geometry as pre- (a) English, -reading, language, rhetoric, sented in any high school text-book. While a fair acquaintance with ordinary book work in geometry will, for the
composition, literature and history. present, be accepted, candidates are advised, so far as prac- (6) Mathematics-arithmetic, bookkeeping, ticable, to do original work with both theorems and prob
elementary algebra and geometry. lems, and an opportunity will be offered them, by means of alternative questions, to test their ability in such work.
(C) Science, -elementary physics and chemIII. HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY.
istry, geography, physiology and hygiene, and Any school text-book on United States history will enable
the study of minerals, plants and animals. candidates to meet this requirement, provided they study (d) Drawing, vocal music, physical culture enough of geography to illumine the history, and make them- and manual training. selves familiar with the grander features of government in Massachusetts and the United States. Collateral reading
3. Observation and practice in the training in United States history is strongly advised.
school and observation in other public schools. IV. SCIENCES.
Graduates of colleges and universities, and (a) Physical Geography.—The mastery of the elements of
of high schools of a high grade and standing, this subject as presented in the study of geography in a who give evidence of maturity, good scholargood grammar school. If the grammar school work is supplemented by the study of some elementary text-book on
ship and of aptness to teach, may, with the physical geography, better preparation still is assured. consent of the principal of the school and of
16) Physiologi, and Hygiene. -The chief elementary facts the Board of Visitors, select from the above of anatomy, the general functions of the various organs, the more obvious rules of health, and the more striking effects
curriculum of study a course which may be of alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those completed in one year, and when such course addicted to their use. (c), (d) and (e) Physics, Chemistry anit Botany. --The ele.
is successfully completed they shall receive a mentary principles of these subjects so far as they may be
certificate for the same. presented in the courses usually devoted to them in good
Four Years' Course. high schools. Study of the foregoing sciences, or of some of them, with the aid of laboratory methods, is earnestly The Framingham, Westfield, Salem and recommended. V. DRAWING AND MUSIC.
Bridgewater schools have also a regular course (a) Drawing. --- Mechanical and freehand drawing,
of four years, which includes the studies of enough to enable the candidates to draw a single object,
the two years' course and the following sublike a box or a pyramid or a cylinder, with plan and eleva- 'jects:tion to scale, and to make a free-hand sketch of the same
1. Mathematics, -algebra, geometry, trigin perspective. Also any one of the three topics, --form, color and arrangement.
onometry and surveying. (6) Music.-The elementary principles of musical nota- 2. Science, - physics, chemistry, botany, tion, such as an instructor should know in teaching singing in the schools. Ability to sing, while not required, will be
geology, astronomy, mineralogy and zoology. prized as an additional qualification.
3. Language, --English language and liter
ature, Latin and French; German and Greek, It may be said, in general, that if the ordinary work of a good statutory high school, even if it is of the second or
as the principal and Board of Visitors of each lower grade, is well done, candidates should have no diffi- school shall decide; drawing and vocal music. culty in meeting any of the academic tests to which they 4. History,-general history. may be subjected. They cannot be too earnestly urged, howwer, to avail themselves of the best high school facilities at
At Framingham and Salem this course for tainable in a four years' course, even though they should pur- the first two years is the same as the regular sue studies to an extent not insisted on, or take studies not prescribed, in the admission requirements.
two years' course. At Bridgewater and WestThe importance of a good record in the high school can
field the order is different, the study of the not be overestimated. The stronger the evidence of char- languages beginning with the first year of the acter, scholarship and promise, of whatever kind, candidates bring, especially from schools of high reputation and
course. from teachers of good judgment and fearless expression, the
Advanced Course of Two Years. greater confidence they may have in guarding themselves against the contingencies of an examination and of satisfy
The requirement for admission to this course ing the examiners with their fitness.
is graduation from college or its equivalent.
Promising graduates from the general two or botanical name. Our ignorance of trees is years' course are also permitted to take it. It but an example of the wide spread ignorance is designed primarily for those who aim to of our people concerning the daily marvels teach in public schools above the grammar which transpire around them in the natural school grades. It may be taken in any of the world. France and Germany, Belgium and existing normal schools, but the question of Switzerland, Austria and Russia have thousproviding for it in the four new normal schools ands of little school gardens connected with recently authorized has not yet been consid- the elementary schools and the normal schools, ered.
not gardens metaphorically speaking like the The course comprises substantially the fol- kindergartens, but literal gardens in which lowing subjects:
the pupils and their teachers learn how to pre1. Psychology, the history of education, the pare the soil and plant the seed, how to weed science and the art of teaching, school organ- the garden and destroy the noxious insect, ization, school discipline and the school laws and how by skillful tillage and the use of ferof Massachusetts.
tilizers two blades may be made to grow 2. Methods of teaching the following sub- where but one grew before. Secretary Edge jects:
says that of the four million dollars which the (a) Language and literature, - English, farmers of Pennsylvania expend annually upon French, German, Latin and Greek.
fertilizers, one million is wasted through ig(6) Mathematics, -arithmetic, algebra, ge- norance of the commonest principles of agriometry, trigonometry and surveying.
culture. May we not hope for an (c) Science, -chemistry, physics, astron- education in which the
battle of the omy, physical geography, geology, mineral- kine and the swine will have been fought ogy, botany, zoology, physiology and hygiene and won, so that the money now wasted and the preparation of specimens and appa- upon fences may be expended upon school ratus.
gardens, an era in which the rural school will (d) History, economics and philosophy. no longer be satisfied with words, words,
(e) Drawing, vocal music, physical culture words, with figures, sums, problems and anand manual training.
swers, an era in which the boy's eyes and Persons of exceptional maturity, of high mind will observe the marvels and enjoy the standing in college, and who give evidence of beauties of the farm, the garden and the forsuperior scholarship and special aptness to est, an era in which the average man will think teach, may, with the approval of the principal it as great a disgrace to be ignorant of the of the school and of the Board of Visitors, se- common trees, plants, flowers, birds and inlect from the above curriculum of study a sects as he now deems it to be ignorant of the course which may be completed in one year, letters of the English alphabet, or of the canand when such course is successfully com- didates of his political party, or of the people pleted they shall receive a certificate for the who have been his next door neighbors during same.
half a life-time.
Extravagance in School Expenditures.
A good teacher is worth his weight in gold.
To Practical Teaching in Rural Schools.
employ an inferior teacher for the sake of savThe celebration of Arbor Day is part of a ing a few dollars, is an inexcusable waste of larger system of education which is surely resources because it wastes the time, efforts coming. Said a Yale professor: “I have re- and brains of the children, than which there is cently talked with students, sons of well-to-do nothing more valuable in the commonwealth. families, who could not give the names of No extravagance in the purchase of books, three kinds of trees in our streets. They have charts, maps, apparatus and other appliances grown up as ignorant of the trees of our for- can make up for the loss inflicted upon the ests and the crops of our fields as a Hottentot community by the employment of an ineffigrows up ignorant of the stars." To know the cient teacher. name of a tree is to know the one thing about There is a form of extravagance of which a tree with which the Creator has had little or the taxpayer justly complains. No sooner nothing to do; yet ignorance of the name is was our general school appropriation raised to evidence of ignorance of its qualities and uses five millions than the sharks began to scent and beauties. Had the tree been observed
prey from afar.
First came the agent with and studied and discussed, it would have re- charts for teaching physiology which were ceived a name even if it were not the scientific sold at high figures so as to permit, when per school.
necessary, the payment of large commissions and school apparatus to twenty-five dollars to sub-agents and liberal fees to directors' sons
This may partly explain why for delivering the same to the various school certain charts, maps and globes can be purhouses in the district. Sometimes careless chased by the school trustees for almost half directors were inveigled into signing contracts the price paid by school boards in Pennsylwhich made them individually liable for the vania. Claims against school districts, if just, purchase if they failed to ratify the sale at the can always be collected; hence the honest dinext meeting of the board or to lift the charts rector ought to be able to buy books, maps, at the express office. Next came the block globes and charts at the lowest market prices. man selling lumber at fancy prices in the shape So long as our state has no law to prevent exof geometrical forms which the skillful teacher travagance in the purchase of school apparaconstructs out of paper in so far as she needs tus, the superintendents cannot be too vigilant them in the elementary school. Finally came in their efforts to counteract the seductive the map man, seliing relief maps at one hun- methods of the chart agent, the map man, the dred dollars per set. The consequences were globe seller and the block peddler. soon, visible. When school boards in rural districts invest from thirty to one hundred dollars per school house for maps and other ap
THE SCHOOL ROOM. paratus, it means lower wages, inferior teachers, stinting of text books and school supplies,
HENRY W. LONGFELLOW. and sometimes shortening of the school term. "I am well satisfied," says one county super
Born Feb. 27, 1807--Died Mar. 24, 1882. intendent, “that if I had the money that has
His father was a lawyer and member of conbeen spent in the purchase of charts, globes,
gress, his mother, Zilpah Wadsworth, was a blocks and other apparatus which is rarely used
descendant of John Alden. He was a second and which lies in the closet or in some corner un- son in a family of eight children; graduated at der the dust for nine-tenths of the time, I could
Bowdoin College in 1825 second in rank in his supply every school under my jurisdiction with
class, and began the study of law in his father's an International Dictionary, the People's Cy- office. When nineteen years of age was clopedia, a set of good outline maps and have
elected Professor of Modern Languages at at least ten dollars for each school with which
Bowdoin, and five years later was called to a to start a library.” “Teachers and school of
similar position at Harvard. His life was unficers,” says another, "are beginning to recog- eventful. Whittier says of him: Pure, nize that elaborately constructed charts and
kindly, and courteous, simple yet scholarly, complex apparatus will not take the place of a
he was never otherwise than a gentleman." good teacher. And unless used by one who
PROSE WORKS. - Outre-Mer, "A young is skillful and thoroughly equipped, such apparatus is absolutely worthless. The purchase poet's sketch book;" Hyperion, "The companof expensive appliances has in a number of in
ion of all romantic pilgrims to the Rhine," and stances necessitated the reduction of the sal
Kavanagh, a story of New England life. aries of the teachers or the shortening of the His POETRY.—Part of his popularity is due school term. This is not only a deplorable to his healthy mind, his calm spirit, his vigorcondition of affairs, but a most reprehensible ous sympathy. His thought, though often practice on the part of those who are charged deep, was never obscure. His lyrics had alwith the mission of expending the money of ways a grace that took the ear with delight. the people in the interests of the children. They have a singing simplicity, caught, it may Reading charts, outline maps, globes, diction- be, from the German lyrists, such as Uhland aries and books of reference are among the
This simplicity was the result of essential devices to aid teachers and pupils, rare artistic repression; it was not due to any and these can be purchased at a comparatively poverty of intellect. As he understood the small cost.”
children, so he also sympathized with the poor, "Some restriction,” says a third, is needed the toiling, the lowly-not looking down on to guard against occasional fits of lavish out- them but glorifying their labor, and declaring lay in fancy school charts whose chief use the necessity of it and the nobility of work. seems to be to gather dust or to be locked up He could make the barest life seem radiant in a hard-wood case in some out-of-the-way with beauty.-Mathews' American Literature. place in the schoolroom.” The Consolidated His verse is peculiarly open to the test of School Code of New York limits the amount Milton's requirement, that poetry should be which can be spent annually for charts, maps simple, sensuous, passionate. Simple, even
So comes to us at times from the unknown
And inaccessible solitudes of being
The rushing of the sea tides of the soul; And inspirations that we deem our own,
Are some divine foreshadowing and foreseeing Of things beyond our reason or control.
elementary, it manifestly is, despite the learning which he put to use. It is sensuous in much that charms the ear and eye, and in little elşe; for the extreme of sensuousness is deeply felt, and feeling results in passion, and passionate the verse of Longfellow was not nor could be. His song was a household service, the ritual of our feastings and mournings, and often it rehearsed for us the tales of many lands, or, best of all, the legends of our own.
Stedman's Poets of America.
One peculiarity of the short poems is at once noticed. Each contains a single idea. The most conspicuous feature of his style is the constant use of analogy. He is always discovering points of resemblance and suggesting comparisons. To him
"The hooded clouds like friars
Tell their beads in drops of rain:" and for him
"The cares that infest the day Shall fold their tents like the Arabs And as silently steal away."
--Smith's American Literature.
It Is Not Always May.
The darting swallows soar and sing,
The bluebird prophesying spring. So blue yon winding river flows
It seems an outlet from the sky, Where, waiting till the west wind blows
The freighted clouds at anchor lie. All things are new;-the buds, the leaves,
That gild the elm tree's nodding crest, And even the nest beneath the eves
There are no birds in last year's nest. All things rejoice in youth and love
The fullness of their first delight! And learn from the soft heavens above
The melting tenderness of night. Maiden that read'st this simple rhyme,
Enjoy thy youth, it will not stay: Enjoy the fragrance of thy prime,
For O, it is not always May. Enjoy the spring of love and youth,
To some good angel leave the rest, For time will teach thee soon the truth,
There are no birds in last year's nest.
Or solitary mere,
Its waters to the weir.
Of spindle and of loom,
And rushing of the flume.
Thou dost not toil nor spin,
The meadow and the lin.
And round thee throng and run
The outlaws of the sun.
And tilts against the field,
With steel-blue mail and shield.
Thou art the Iris, fair among the fairest,
Who armed with golden rod
The message of some god.
Haunted the sylvan streams Playing on pipes of reed the artless ditties
That come to us as dreams.
LONGFELLOW'S SERVICE AS A POET.-But they are wrong who make light of Longfellow's service as an American poet. His admirers may form no longer a critical majority, yet he surely helped to quicken the New World sense of beauty, and to lead a movement which precedes the rise of a national school. I think the poet himself, reading his own sweet songs, felt the apostolic nature of his mission --that it was religious in the etymological sense of the word, the binding back of America to the Old World taste and imagination. Our true rise of poetry may be dated from Longfellow's method of exciting an interest in it, as an expression of beauty and feeling at a time when his countrymen were ready for something more various and human than the current meditations on nature. Puritanism was opposed to beauty as a strange god and to sentiment as an idle thing. Longfellow so adapted the beauty and sentiment of other lands to the convictions of his people as to beguile their reason through the finer senses, and speedily to satisfy them that loveliness and righteousness may go together. His poems, like pictures household walls, were a protest against barrenness and the symptoms of a new taste. --Stedman's Poets of America.
The Sound of the Sea.
And round the pebbly beaches far and wide
I heard the first wave of the rising tide Rush onward with uninterrupted sweep. A voice out of the silence of the deep
A sound mysteriously multiplied
As of a cataract from the mountain's side Or roar of winds upon a wooded steep.
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