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law on this subject, such action would be soon and others. The old building has been raised followed by like action in the smaller cities of three feet, providing a roomy and comfortable the state. These smaller cities suffer from basement, an addition erected doubling the the same evils of school management as Mil- capacity of the building, steam heating and waukee, except that they do not generally suf- ventilating apparatus provided, and new floors, fer from the arbitrary personal rule of the ward seats, etc., introduced throughout. school commissioner in his own ward as Mil

- The First Biennial Report of the State waukee does.


Library Commission is an interesting document of 130 pages. It contains views of the

present rooms of the state historical library THE MONTH.

and of the new building now in process of

erection for it; of the public libraries of MilWISCONSIN NEWS AND NOTES.

waukee, La Crosse, Eau Claire, Wauwatosa,

Beaver Dam, Menomonie, and Ashland; and -Child-study is one of the subjects on the of a collection of the Stout libraries and four programs for the Door county institutes. of the stations at which they have been set up. -We note the marriage of Supt. C. Georgia

After the reports of the library conferences folBever, of Price county, to Dr. Harmon Soulen,

low a dozen papers on library matters. of Phillips.

- The new List of Books for Township - The High School Recorder is the name of Scho

School Libraries, with supplementary list for a new paper issued monthly by the high school

oo high schools makes a pamphlet of 129 pages. at Ellsworth, Pierce county.

The especially interesting features of the sup

plement are an extended list of books on his-The Tattler is a bright paper in maga

tory desirable in such schools as an aid in the zine form, issued by the Tomah high school.

improvement of work in this branch. A tentThe first number appropriately contains a his- ative minimum library in this line of twenty tory of the schools of Tomah.

volumes precedes the descriptive catalogue. - The Northwestern Wisconsin Teachers' The latter is divided into groups relating to Association will hold its annual meeting at the history of different countries and concludes Eau Claire, March 26-27. F. W. Bixby, of with a list of valuable historical fiction. Other Hammond, is president, and John N. Foster, lists relate to science and natural history, of Shell Lake, is secretary

travel and adventure, literature, ethics, eco-Sup't Keats, of Fond du Lac county, is

nomics and pedagogy. In the two lists the sues a circular on Reading Circle work which

numbers reach to 520. shows the organization of the county into five -Lawrence university has been celebrating districts, and urges all teachers to take part in its semi-centennial anniversary January 19th this effort after self-culture.

and 20th. A large attendance, addresses by -Senator Stout's bill to place the library

prominent persons, and social gatherings were

the features of the occasion. It was signalized work of the state upon a permanent basis by an appropriation for its use, and authorizing a

by the announcement of an endowment of one moderate amount of printing for its service,

hundred thousand dollars, secured, despite the

hard times, chiefly by the efforts of two ladies, deserves the support of all friends of popular education in Wisconsin.

the wife of the president and the wife of the

presiding elder of the district. Honorary de- The citizens of Prairie du Chien are to be grees were conferred: LL. D. upon Bishop congratulated upon the completion of a new William Lawrence of Boston, and Duncan and commodious high school building, which McGregor of Platteville, and D. D. upon five was dedicated Jan. 29th. This school has clergymen, three of whom were graduates of improved much within a few years, and its Lawrence. It is evident that the institution growth made necessary a better equipment has entered upon a new era of prosperity and for laboratory work, library, and class rooms. usefulness. The new building is attractive and commodi

- The celebration of the eighty-sixth birthous, and will facilitate the further develop

day of the Hon. Henry Barnard, at Hartford, ment of the school.

Conn., Jan. 25th, has considerable interest for - The new high school building at Ocono- Wisconsin educators. Dr. Barnard was elected mowoc was dedicated with appropriate exer- Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin in cises Jan. 12. Addresses were made by Judge 1858. He came to the state and plunged into Warham Parks, Sup't Chandler, Prof. Stearns the institute work with a contagious enthusiasm still recalled with pleasure by the older DRAWING TEACHERS' MEETING AT MILWAUKEE. state leaders. He was then suffering with severe headaches, consequent upon nervous

MILWAUKEE, December 29, 1896. exhaustion, which often conpelled him to sus On Tuesday afternoon immediately after the pend his activities, and, after two years forced close of the first general session of the Wishim to resign his position and seek a period of consin Teachers' Association the teachers of much needed rest. On the anniversary occa- drawing met in the assembly room of the norsion addresses were made by Hon. W. T. mal school building. Harris, Col. Francis W. Parker, Prest. C. K. The meeting was called to order by the Adams, Supt. Skinner of New York, and oth- chairman, who explained why the notice of ers. Dr. Barnard, we are glad to add, is this meeting did not appear on the program. still vigorous in mind and body, enjoying the For several years the teachers of manual trainhonors earned by an energetic and public spir ing and the teachers of drawing had co-operited career.

ated in state work, holding a joint meeting. --An interesting feature connected with the

When the program appeared this year it was Wisconsin School for the Deaf, at Delavan, is

seen that manual training was taken up by the the new manual training building just com

high school section and that drawing was pleted and equipped, which is believed to be

omitted. The chairman stated that a call was

then sent to the president of the Association the first of its kind connected with such an institution in the United States, and perhaps in

asking if some place could not be given to the the world. It is a substantial brick and stone

subject of drawing President Burch replied building costing over $12,000, and is equipped

most cordially and appointed a section meet

ing in drawing, although it was too late to for a forging and machine shop, a wood-working shop, a cooking school, a sewing school,

have the subject appear on the printed proand a studio or art department. The building

gram. is heated by steam and provided with an elec

The chairman thought that there was no

lack of cordiality on the part of the Associatric light and power plant. Mr. E. J. Bending is at the head of the industrial training for

tion, but simply a lack of enterprise on the boys, and Miss A. P. Struckmeyer of that for

part of the drawing teachers in making their the girls. The department is certainly a most

wants known, as she understood that several valuable addition to this institution and ought

calls for the meeting were sent in, but not any to contribute greatly to its efficiency in fitting

in time for publication on the program. She deaf children to fight successfully for them

referred to what had been done at different selves the battle of life.

meetings of the State Association, and spoke

of the condition of drawing in the state as —Some details gathered from Miss Martha shown by statistics, which read as follows: Baker's paper in the report of the State Library In December, 1891, while in conversation Commission, entitled “Legal and Statistical with State Superintendent Wells in his office Aspects of Wisconsin Libraries,” may interest at Madison, he expressed to me the fear that our readers. There are several groups of li- the teachers in the public schools of the state braries recognized here, those wholly or in of Wisconsin were not accomplishing what part supported by the state, as the historical, they ought in the teaching of drawing. He university, normal school and state institution said further that he thought this was true of libraries, in which group seventeen are enu- those teachers who had received normal trainmerated with 329, 198 volumes; free circulat- ing in the branch. A short discussion followed ing libraries, of which there are 38, with a and Superintendent Wells suggested that I total of 240, 394 volumes; association libraries, send out a circular for the purpose of ascer14, with 31,433 volumes; college or academic taining the facts, and gave me a printed list libraries, 27, with 138,584 volumes; libraries of county and city superintendents and prinin city schools, 47, with 97, 377; township and cipals of high and graded schools. To each district school libraries, given for each county name on that list a circular was forwarded. in detail and not summarized though the num- The replies were in the majority of cases bers would be very large; and traveling li- prompt and frank, and from them I learned braries, of which there are in Dunn county 23, not a little concerning the condition of drawwith 690 volumes, supported by Mr. Stout, sing in the state. I learned that there were and in Dunn county 12, with 360 volumes, ninety systems of schools in Wisconsin doing supported by J. D. Witter, of Grand Rapids. regular work in drawing as outlined by some The total volumes in all is stated as 1,055,- particular method, that there were forty-one 529.

] Isystems of schools teaching drawing in the

lower grades only, or in connection with some accomplished in drawing by these normal other branch, while only fifty systems reported trained teachers, I wrote to Superintendent no work being done in drawing.

Hardy of La Crosse, for information concernThis report came in about four years ago, ing the work done in drawing by the teachers and I have learned that since then twenty-five of the schools of his city who have had drawor thirty of the fifty reporting no work in ing in the Oshkosh normal school. I wrote drawing have introduced it as a regular branch to La Crosse because there is always quite a large of study.

number of our elementary course graduates I learned also that the chief obstacles in the teaching there from year to year, none of way of teaching the branch are lack of time, whom had had more than twenty weeks inovercrowded condition of schools, number of struction in drawing, and I felt that I had a branches already in the course prescribed, and right to know what degree of success our own scarcity of trained teachers.

students met with in imparting knowledge That there is in the minds of many progres- gained at our school. sive teachers a genuine interest in the subject Superintendent Hardy wrote me that upon the following extracts from replies to circulars consultation with Miss Austin, then supervisor will show:

of drawing for the city of La Crosse, he found One principal wrote: “Drawing is taught in that his teachers of drawing having normal our school this year for the first time. If you training, were the best. He also wrote that could give me any suggestions by which we he had asked these teachers wherein they could make drawing more efficient, accepting found their training inadequate to the work our present conditions, I would regard it a great done in the city schools, and that they replied favor.” :

that, “The ground principles, the theory, the Another wrote: “This circular has directed aim are the same, but the course is too short.” attention to the matter, for which I am thank- I appreciate this condition of affairs, and ful.”

would gladly prolong the time to thirty or A third said: “I see no reason why we forty weeks, were it in my power to do so, but cannot overcome each and every obstacle and in the brief period allotted to us, I strive to do teach drawing. It is needed in the school, and all I can in the presentation of underlying printhe discipline derived therefrom is valuable ciples and the awakening of a love for the and necessary."

work and a faith in its powers as an educaAnd a fourth wrote: “I believe drawing and tional factor that shall make the work, howword analysis to be of greater importance ever elementary, educative and uplifting. than many of the studies taught in our With this condition of affairs in our state, schools."

three things appear to me necessary. First; Such remarks as these lead me to the con that more time be devoted to this branch in clusion that there are many energetic, intelli- our normal schools, so that the per cent. of gent teachers in the state well able to handle teachers who have had normal training may this branch successfully, if they could only work with greater potency in the schools where have a little help and direction in the subject they teach. Second, that we have a state as a whole, so that the different phases of the director of drawing the same as is employed in work form-study, clay-modeling, drawing, and the states of New York and Massachusetts. color, might be unified and given their proper Third, that we have regular work done in this place in relation to each other, and also to the branch in every institute. other branches pursued by the pupils.

But so long as ideal conditions do not exIn answer to the second doubt of the state ist, we must strive to secure them by every superintendent that normal trained teachers legitimate means in our power. To this end were not doing what they might in this branch, I offer the following suggestions to the drawI found that of the ninety systems of schools ing teachers and supervisors here assembled: reporting regular work in drawing, thirty per 1. That we, the members of the drawing cent. of their teachers had had normal train- teachers' section of the Wisconsin Teachers' ing; of the forty-one systems reporting draw- Association, ask for a permanent place on the ing in the lower grades only, or in connection program of its annual meeting. with other branches, only ten per cent. of the 2. That the executive officers of the Assoteachers employed had had normal training; ciation be requested to appoint the chairman while of the fifty systems of schools reporting of such section ineeting as early as possible. no drawing, only nine per cent. of the teach- 3. That the chairman be empowered with ers had had normal training. In order to as- authority to choose his own committees, precertain something of the quality of the work pare program, and call for exhibits of work.

These suggestions were accepted as resolu- story in our reading books about the painter tions, voted upon, and unanimously adopted who had achieved what he thought was a perby the meeting.

fect painting and hung it up in public, requestThe program for the meeting was then taken ing critics to mark the features of it which up. The chairman explained that she had they did not approve. The painter, to his chosen a subject presented at the last meeting chagrin, found on a visit of inspection that the of the Western Drawing Teachers' Associa- painting was one blotch of disapproving tion, thinking that as so many of the Wiscon- strokes. Taking better counsel he repainted sin drawing teachers were present at that the same picture and exposed it in a similar meeting it was better to take up a subject al- manner requesting the public to mark the feaready more or less familiar and seek to make tures which they specially approved. This was application of the truths so ably presented by followed by the result that the picture was one Dr. Dewey.

blotch of commendatory strokes. The program read as follows:

Some months ago I made an attempt to

state the special significance of Edgar Poe in IMAGINATION AND EXPRESSION.

American literature in a letter which I wrote a, Their Mutual Relations, Miss Mitchell, to encourage the movement to save the Fordnormal school, Milwaukee.

ham cottage of which you give a picture in the b, In Primary Grades, Miss Cravath, super- January 'number of your JOURNAL, and I envisor, Madison.

close an extract from this letter. C, In Intermediate and Grammar Grades.

Very sincerely yours, . General discussion followed, led by Miss

W. T. HARRIS, Tanner, normal school, Stevens Point.

Commissioner. The attendance was good, and much interest manifested. But as many persons desir

Poe's Significance in American Literature. ous of attending the meeting were unable to do so because of the lateness of the notice is

(Extract from the letter of Dr. Harris.) sued December 15th, it was unanimously voted "Edgar Poe will occupy a larger place in to have a report of the meeting published in the history of American literature than he has the different educational journals of the state done up to this time. He had the fortune to in order that all interested might be informed represent a type. He was a new departure of the action taken.

as distinct as the great group of writers in the HARRIET CECIL MAGEE, Chairman.

transcendental movement in Massachusetts.

Art and literature were disparaged and it was EDGAR A. POE AGAIN.

vainly supposed that with the Puritan religion

and the poor Richard's" doctrine of utility Department of the Interior, Bureau of Educa that no place was left for works of art. Nearly

tion, Washington, D. C., January 15, 1897. all of the worthy literature of Massachusetts

My Dear Professor Stearns:--Among the has orignated from the transcendental movevery many interesting things of your JOURNAL ment which uttered a firm and zealous protest for January I notice an appreciative article on against the prosaic life prescribed by religion Edgar Poe and some quotations from him at and economy. The American life of those the end. The one from “Ulalume," a poem days was dominated by a materialistic spirit or that has always interested me very much, else by an abstract theological bias. The age seems so much marred in the printing of it by of new inventions had begun and the reaction the changing of certain essential words that I against supernaturalism was so great that think it deserves reprinting—the whole of it poetic genius found itself chilled. . this time. The words “dank tarn of Auber" Edgar Poe represents the full reaction are made by your printer to read dark tank against the mechanical view of the world in of Auber.” Then in the following stanza the which we find impossible either immortality or expression "scoriac rivers" is printed “soriac freedom. He reduces this mechanical view to rivers.” The volume of miscellanies (in the practice, uttering the doubts of the soul espefour volume edition of Poe's works) gives his cially as they relate to individual immortality. critical writings which are very interesting and This is the content of “The Raven,”the “Ulasuggestive although not always just. Criti- lume" and some others. The death of a soul cisms, however, are generally apt to be one- sinking in despair under the influence of insided. The critic throws his whole force on toxicants is portrayed in “The Fall of the to some error or omission and blackens the House of Usher” with its beautiful poem “The whole composition. One remembers the good Haunted Palace.”

Come up, in despite of the lion,

To shine on us with her bright eyes-Come up through the lair of the lion;

With love in her luminous eyes."

The pain caused by the contradiction between the aspirations of the soul and the mechanical theory of the universe impels a resort to intoxication to blunt the sharpness of the agony. The life is shattered by the use of opiates, as symbolically described in “The Fall of the House of Usher.” Edgar Poe is a true artist because of his representing this point of departure in reaction to some essentially prosaic drift in modern times. His works will long deserve careful study as illustrating the moods of mind which aspiring young Americans met victoriously, or disastrously, in the days from 1840 to 1860. They form a declaration of independence against the spirit of an industrial civilization. Of course I do not speak of a philosophical conviction but only of an unconscious instinct working in the soul of the artist and poet."

But Psyche, uplifting her finger,

Said: "Sadly this star I mistrust

Her pallor I strangely mistrust:Oh, hasten!-oh, let us not linger!

Oh, fly!-let us fly!—for we must." In terror she spoke, letting sink her

Wings until they trailed in the dust-
In agony sobbed, letting sink her

Plumes till they trailed in the dust-
Till they sorrowfully trailed in the dust

I replied: "This is nothing but dreaming:

Let us on by this tremulous light!

Let us bathe in this crystalline light! Its Sybilic splendor is beaming

With Hope and in Beauty to-night!

See!-it fickers up the sky through the night! Ah, we safely may trust to its gleaming,

And be sure it will lead us aright-
We safely may trust to a gleaming,

That cannot but guide us a right,
Since it flickers up to Heaven through the night."


The skies they were ashen and sober;

The leaves they were crispéd and sere

The leaves they were withering and sere; It was night in the lonesome October

Of my most immemorial year;
It was hard by the dim lake of Auber,

In the misty mid region of Weir-
It was down by the dank tarn of Auber,

In the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir.

Thus I pacifed Psyche and kissed her,

And tempted her out of her gloom-

And conquered her scruples and gloom; And we passed to the end of the vista,

But we stopped by the door of a tomb-

By the door of a legended tomb;
And I said: "What is written, sweet sister,

On the door of this legended tomb?''
She replied: "Ulalume-Ulalume-
'Tis the vault of thy lost Ulalume!"

Here once, through an alley Titanic,

Of cypress, I roamed with my Soul

Of cypress, with Psyche, my Soul. These were days when my heart was volcanic

As the scoriac rivers that roll

As the lavas that restlessly roll
Their sulphurous currents down Yaanek

In the ultimate climes of the pole-
That groan as they roll down Mount Yaanek

In the realms of the boreal pole.

Then my heart it grew ashen and sober

As the leaves that were crisped and sere-

As the leaves that were withering and sere, And I cried: "It was surely October

On this very night of last year
That I journeyed-I journeyed down here--
That I brought a dread burden down here--
On this night of all nights in the year,

Ah, what demon has tempted me here? Well I know, now, this dim lake of Auber--

This misty mid region of WeirWell I know, now, this dank tarn of Auber,

This ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir."


Our talk bad been serious and sober,

But our thoughts they were palsied and sere

Our memories were treacherous and sere, For we knew not the month was October,

And we marked not the night of the year,

(Ah, night of all nights in the year!) We noted not the dim lake of Auber

(Though once we had journeyed down here) Remembered not the dank tarn of Auber,

Nor the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir.

And now, as the night was senescent,

And star-dials pointed to morn

As the star-dials hinted of mornAt the end of our path a liquescent

And nebulous lustre was born, Out of which a miraculous crescent

Arose with a duplicate horn-Astarte's bediamonded crescent

Distinct with its duplicate horn.
And I said: "She is warmer than Dian:

She rolls through an ether of sighs--
She revels in a region of sighs.

[Extracts from a circular of the Secretary of the State Board of Education.]


Candidates for admission to any one of the normal schools must have attained the age of seventeen years complete, if young men, and sixteen years, if young women; and must be free from any disease or infirinity which would unfit them for the office of teacher. They must present certificates of good moral standing, give evidence of good intellectual capacity (records of their scholarship standing in the high schools are desired) and be graduates of high schools whose courses of study have been approved by the Board of Education; or they must have received, to the satisfaction of the principal and the Board of Visitors of the school, the equivalent of a good high school

She has seen that the tears are not dry on

These cheeks, where the worm never dies, And has come past the stars of the lion

To point us the path to the skies--
To the Lethean peace of the skies--

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