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in a single chapter, has been expanded into seven. This is a development in keeping with the promise of the title of the volume, and after treating of the literary activity of the time and the treatises of Herbart and Herbert Spencer turns to the extension of popular education, Frobel and the kindergarten, the professional preparation of teachers, school supervision, manual and industrial training, improvements in methods of instruction, and the discussion of the relative value of studies. These added chapters are very short and give us but a bird's-eye view of the topics but at least open to the student the field of modern pedagogy. Prof. Williams writes clearly and agreeably, and has arranged his materials in such a way as to give a better view of the chronological order of educational development than is afforded by either of the other manuals in common use in this country. He gives indeed a very engaging and connected sketch of the growth of educational opinion since the renascence. The new edition is much more attractive than the old and is illustrated by a series of portraits of the principal leaders of educational thought.
-IN SCHOOL Days, and other Poems, by Duncan Day (published by Ed. L. Luckow, Baraboo, Wis.; 71 pp.; cloth 50c., paper 35c.) derives its inspiration and model from Snow Bound,"in the meter of which it is written. It attempts to depict scenes of village life as it may be seen in Sauk county, and displays considerable skill in selecting and developing the incidents. The execution is uneven, at times attaining a measure of excellence and at others showing very clearly the yet untrained hand. The work suffers from comparison with Whittier's, as the young author lacks wealth of allusion and subtleness of phrase. His verse also hobbles at times. The other pieces besides the one giving title to the volume are very slight.
-Eleazer Williams-His FORERUNNERS AND HIMSELF, by William Ward Wight 171 pages; a pamphlet published by the Parkman Club, Milwaukee), effectually disposes of the claims of this singular man to recognition as the dauphin of France. The history of the pretender and his father is here worked out with commendable care, supported with ample references to authorities, and pursued with such elaboration as apparantly to leave no possible foothold for a revival of his claim. But historical mysteries are too precious to the multitude to be readily given up, and we shall expect to meet his story told in good faith notwithstanding this complete refutation.
-Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris, edited by Lewis A. Rhodes (D. C. Heath & Co. : 139 pp.: 700.). presents in the attractive form of the well known Modern Language Series'' one of the most interesting of Goethe's dramas edited for English students. The introduction discusses the composition and sources of the play, with a critical study of it. and is of much value and interest. The notes are mainly literary and critical, but afford helps to translation wherever this is necessary.
-The PUBLIC DUTY OF EDUCATED Men, by George William Curtis (Maynard, Merrill & Co.; 12c.), deserves to be reckoned one of the classic pieces of American oratory. It was delivered at Union College commencement in 1877 and faithfully represents its author's noble position in politics. It is issued, with biographical sketches and critical opinions, in the publishers' "English Classic Series," and deserves to be widely studied.
Silver, Burdette & Co.
-SHAKSPEARE: THE TEMPEST, (147 pp.; cloth 6oc). A MIDSUMMER Night's Dream 127 pp.; cloth 60c). edited by Homer B. Sprague, belong to the series of Studies in Engligh Classics" which the publishers are issuing. They are attractive books in red cloth, with red edges, containing, besides the text, an introductory discussion of the date, sources and construction of the plays; a collection of critical opinions from more than twenty acknowledged masters of criticism-material of very great value for the study of the plays; and an appendix treating of the study of English literature. The foot notes afford explanation of unusual words, curious customs, historical and antiquarian allusions, etc. The former issues of the series have made the editor's method well known, and it is therefore sufficient to add that these volumes are fully up to the standard previously established. Miscellaneous.
-COLUMBIAN PRIZE Charades, by Herbert Ingalls, author of "The Boston Charades'' (Lee & Shepard, Boston, Mass.; $1.00), contains one hundred and sixty numbers of this sort of puzzle. Prizes, in a series of ten, are offered to persons more or less successful in recording the solutions. The particulars regarding the competition are given in the book itself. The newer volume gives, in an appendix, the solutions of "The Boston Charades.'' Concerning "Boston Charades," Mr. Ingalls' previous book, the "Public Ledger," of Philadelphia, says: "The conundrum has usually done duty to quicken sociability and provoke conversa. tion. But the conundrum must now retire from public life before this collection of charades, which claim originality, wit, and poetic charm. One hundred and sixteen words are thus tortured and twisted from their meaning by ingenious play and turns, and if young people have the mind to learn the verses rather than others of classic and modern beauty, the little book will serve its purpose 'to give pleasure around the evening lamp at home; in the friendly competition of party or of club; in the sweet idleness of summer days by the seashore or among the hills.'"
-Bataille de Dames, par Scribe et Legouvé, edited by Benjamin W. Wells (D. C. Heath & Co., Boston; 108 pp.; 25c.), contains besides the delightful drama, an introduction which sketches the lives and works of its authors, and sufficient notes to guide the learner through the easy text.
-Petite HISTOIRE DE NAPOLEON LE GRAND, with English notes references and vocabulary by Arthur H. Solial (May nard, Merrill & Co., N. Y.; 96 pp.; 25c.), we are told by the author, “is the result of much research and industrious gleaning in the best and most reliable biographies of Napoleon." The story is of course interesting, the French quite simple, and sufficient grammatical and historical helps are afforded in the notes.
--THE STORY OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, and THE STORY OF DANIEL WEBSTER, by James Baldwin (Werner Book Co., Chicago, each 150.), are the latest additions to the "Werner Biographical Booklets' for very young readers. The sto ries are capitally told, and the books in their flexible brown covers very attractive.
-Littell's Living Age enters upon its two hundred and twelfth volume with the number for January 2nd. At the new price of six dollars, and with its added supplement, this sterling eclectic weekly deserves to be more widely popular than ever. The Olney Doctrine, The Duel of the Period in France, Bandi Miklos, a Hungarian story, A Modern Morality, The Puritan in History, Recollections of Coventry Patmore, Catholic Mystics of the Middle Ages-such are the contents of this issue. Published by the Living Age Co., Boston.
-A Century of Social Betterment by John B. McMaster, Dominant Forces in Southern Life by W. P. Trent, Cheerful Yesterdays by T. W. Higginson and the Poetry of Rudyard Kipling by Charles Eliot Norton are among the attractions of the January Atlantii Monthly.
-The Popular Science Monthly for January contains a paper by Dr. Jastrow of the state university on The Popular Æsthetics of color based on studies made at the Columbian Exposition. Prof. Heilprin contributes an interesting paper on Our Present Knowledge of the Antarctic Region.
--The Forum continues to lead in the vigorous discussion of timely topics. It opens the January number with an interesting study of Leo XIII; discussions of the tariff, the Cuban question, presidential elections and intercollegiate debating follow.' Dr. Rice continues his series of educational papers with the Essentials in Elementary Education.
--We are indebted to the publishers of McClure's Magazine for copies of the earliest known portrait of Grant and of an unpublished portrait of Washington. The former appears in the first number of Hamlin Garland's Life of Grant, which promises to be a great attraction in the issues of the present year.
Journal of Education
MADISON, WIS., FEBRUARY, 1897.
ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO
primarily for those who aim to teach in public JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, schools above grammar school grades.” The 23 East Main Street, Madison, Wis.,
accompanying letter of advice to candidates
says of preparation for admission: "A still J. W. STEARNS, Y .........EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS.
more extended training would be helpful, for A. 0. WRIGHT, 1:.
I cannot conceive of a discipline so thorough,
of attainments so great, of culture so high, SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 81.00 A YEAR.
but that all these things may have some pre[Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.)
cious value even in teaching little children. If, however, it is your aim to teach in a high
school, neither you nor the high school should TABLE OF CONTENTS.
be content with any academic preparation PAGE,
that falls short of a good four years' college EDITORIALS......
25-29 Brief Comments--Association Notes—Three Yan
course." kee Solutions - Election of School Boards.
SCHOOL BOARDS are business and not proTHE MONTH..........
......... 29-37 Wisconsin News and Notes-Drawing Teachers'
fessional organizations, and their proper funcMeeting at Milwaukee-Edgar A. Poe Again
tions are determined by this fact. Teachers, Ulalume--Massachusetts Normal Schools-School Reports: Practical Teaching in Rural Schools.
and especially superintendents, ought to be THE SCHOOL Room.....
......... 37-40 Poissional cxpciis
professional experts upon whose advice in all Henry W. Longfellow - Can You Pronounce matters pertaining to educational practice or Them?-A Victim of Chicago Schools-My BoyThe Tortoise's Lesson – Johonie Fresh on Easy
theory the board may rely in determining Writing.
text-books, supplies, assistants in the schools, CHILD-STUDY........
40 rules of organization and management, etc. A Study of Children's Readings.
Any business house that employs an expert CONTRIBUTIONS .....
.... 40-43 and then continually disregards his advice A Novel Commencement Program-The Federation of Graduate Clubs.
brings upon itself well merited disaster. If OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.........
he is not competent he should be discharged Proceedings of the Wisconsin Teachers' Associa
at once; if he is competent the folly of overtion.
ruling him in his own field is self-evident. Book TABLE..........
These sound business principles need to be ap
plied to public school work. The superintendEDITORIAL.
ent or principal of the school ought to be the
educational expert of the board, to be conELSEWHERE we publish some extracts from
sulted in all things relating to educational pola circular of the secretary of the Massachu
icy, and to be rarely overruled, and then only
fcy, setts Board of Education which furnish inter
after the most careful and thorough deliberaesting details regarding the normal schools of
tion. This separation of the educational from that state. It will be noticed that the terms
the business aspects of school work is not difof admission to these schools are practically
ficult to make and is of great importance. At the same as graduation from a high school,
present we need to emphasize it and to dwell We must add that examination in one lan- upon the fact that the school board is a busiguage besides English is required in all cases.
ness organization, charged fundamentally with The specifications for examination may be prof
what the New Englanders used to call “the itably compared with the requirements for our
prudentials” of the school, and as the "prustate examination. The general two years
dentials” are primary and indispensable given course prescribed in the schools is distinctly
the ultimate control. Acting upon "prudencharacterized as designed for those who aim tial" considerations alone they ought to be to teach in public schools below the high school and usually are fully competent for their task. grade. An advanced two years course, the THOROUGHNESS in school work may be requirement for admission to which is gradua- pushed to 'a foolish and mischievous excess. tion from college or its equivalent is designed We mean by the term not merely that a topic
may be pushed into unwise and time-wasting
ASSOCIATION NOTES. details, but also that there may be too strenu
The meeting of the State Teachers' Assoous insistence. upon complete and abiding mas
ciation, just held, was the largest in numbers tery of what is taught. This is one of the
for many years, and the attendance was espeerrors common in the teaching of arithmetic.
cially noticeable for its quality as well as its Children do not have at command some prin
quantity. Every part of the state was well ciple or process and hence are put upon further
represented, and by its leading teachers. The drill in it, when reflection would show the
set papers and addresses were of a high grade, teacher that the lapse is merely temporary and
but the discussions were necessarily confined not significant as to real growth. But we pre
mostly to the section meetings. The difficulty fer to quote from Dr. Harris, in the Report of
here was in the "embarrassment of riches” in the Committee of Fifteen: "The law of ap
choosing among so many inviting programs. perception, we are told, proves that tempo
If another day had been possible for the Asrary methods of solving problems should not
sociation, so as to have fewer section meetings be so thoroughly mastered as to be used invol-'
going on at the same time and more time for untarily, or as a matter of unconscious habit,
some of the sections, it would have satisfied for the reason that a higher and a more ade
many of the members better. quate method of solution will then be found
On the suggestion of Pres. Burch, an effort more difficult to acquire. The more thoroughly
will be made to secure the printing by the a method is learned, the more it becomes a
state of the proceedings of the Association. part of the mind and the greater the repug
Certainly they have long deserved to be prenance of the mind toward a new method.
served in permanent form. There have been Teachers should be careful, especially with
other meetings characterized by special points precocious children, not to continue too long in
of great interest in the addresses or the disthe use of a process that is becoming mechani
cussions, which make them memorable in the cal, for it is already growing into a second na
traditions of the Association, but there has ture, and becoming a part of the unconscious
been no meeting which has held up to so uniapperceptive process by which the mind reacts
formly high standard of excellence and of inagainst the environment, recognizes its pres
terest as the one which has just closed. ence, and explains it to itself.” We refer
One of the leading candidates for the presiteachers on this matter to the portions of the
dency of the State Teachers' Association was a report relating to language and to arithmetic
woman and one who is well worthy of receivwhere it is explained and illustrated in detail.
ing that honor irrespective of the theoretical DISCUSSING the essentials in elementary question of giving the women a chance. Miss education in the January Forum Dr. Rice esti Rose Swart has conquered for herself one of mates that about seventy per cent. of the time the highest places as a teacher by force of her in these schools is devoted to the three R's, own character and ability with no advantage and believes that this might be reduced fifty more than thousands of other country school per cent. by a reasonable exclusion of what is teachers had. unnecessary. This seems not unlikely when In G. G. Williams, of Superior, the new one takes account of the waste of time in pen- president, the Association honored its faithful manship, spelling, reading classes, arithmetic secretary, recognized the demands of the and geography. He urges that the National county superintendents to be represented and Association might appoint committees on these also recognized the new north, which is combranches to investigate present experience and ing to be a power in the state in every line. where necessary to introduce experiments for Pres. Williams is a man of ability and of ordetermining the time necessary and establish- ganizing power and will make a success of his ing rational standards of school work. Much year as president. of reading, spelling and penmanship may be learned incidentally in the acquisition of what
THREE YANKEE SOLUTIONS. he calls "content" studies—those pursued for the knowledge acquired, as history and science. Three solutions of school problems which Obviously what we need most is intelligent have been reached in Massachusetts seem to study of this sort bestowed on elementary us so clearly wise and so fully approved by work, to prepare the way for that enrichment results that we cannot but believe they are of the course in "content" studies towards destined to be widely adopted. We need to which our development is evidently rapidly apply them in Wisconsin, and towards the tending. This is a field of study especially adoption of one of them at least we have interesting to intelligent elementary teachers. already made some progress. We shall call them solutions of the rural school problem, of ing their problems, guiding their teachers, the village and small city school problem, fashioning their administration to secure the and of the large city school problem. Each most approved results. We have tried to of these problems arises out of the peculiar overcome the difficulty by making the high conditions of the institutions to which it re- school principal also superintendent and then lates, and apparently sets up a barrier to fur- loaded him with teaching enough to occupy ther progress in their development.
all his time. Even when he is given an hour The bane of the rural school is its isolation. for such work he is not a supervisor, for his It is in the midst of a scattered community, chief effort and thought are elsewhere directed. with limited resources and undeveloped ideals. He is a teacher, not a superintendent, and Few pupils attend it, and attend it somewhat cannot be both with efficiency. Then we irregularly. They are of various grades of have elected a doctor, or a lawyer, or a attainment, so that beyond the most element: merchant to be superintendent, and found ary training the instruction must be individual, him a inere makeshift, a stop-gap and not an hurried and unsatisfactory. Usually only educational leader. How can it be otherteachers of very limited training and small wise? Massachusetts says, let three or four experience can be secured for the school, and neighboring towns combine to hire a superthey are continually changing. Moreover, no intendent. They can then afford to emprospect opens up before the pupils to develop ploy a man who knows his business and will their ideals and stimulate their ambition. quickly show that the money paid him is the The school has no organic connection with most economical of expenditures. This field higher institutions. Thus it is isolated and will not be more complicated then that of the unprogressive, and the means of infusing. new large city superintendent-usually much less life into it seem to be wanting. And to main- so—and he has the skill and will have the tain such an unsatisfactory school the com time to develop it all properly. Again the munity in which it exists pays heavier taxes solution appeals to common sense and apthan fall upon the patrons of a city school proves itself in experience. system. Is there no remedy? The Yankee The large city problem grows out of the answer is, Yes. Diminish the number of these effect of city and school life upon the characfeeble and inefficient schools by allowing dis- ter and aims of young people. They usually tricts to combine and provide free transporta lack the home duties which fall upon the countion to and from school for those living at a try boy and girl, and to some extent upon distance. Experience has proved that this those of small cities, and keep them in touch can be done at a less expense than is involved with the realities of life while developing the in maintaining the feeble schools, while em- practical and productive side of their nature. ploying better teachers, and even in many Usefulness, the power and habit of contribcases introducing grading so that the teach- uting to the needs of daily life, work, work ing may be more effectively directed. This with the hands as well as the brain, and the plan was permissive in Massachusetts, and respect for work which such experience brings, was first tried in a few neighborhoods; but is greatly needed by city children, and is supthe results proved so satisfactory that it has plied by the manual training school, with its been steadily gaining ground, and promises adaptation to the industrial outlook of boys before long to work a complete reform in the and of girls. We have taken a step towards rural education of the commonwealth. This - this in Wisconsin, and in time shall probably is an important step towards the solution of be ready for another. In Massachusetts every the problem, but there is another. Massa- city of twenty thousand inhabitants or upchusetts provides free high school instruction wards is required by law to maintain a propfor every child in her borders who is prepared erly equipped manual training school. to receive it. The state will pay his tuition We feel sure that the common sense, simin the nearest high school which she has ap- plicity and practical importance of these three proved for such work. In looking at the solu- solutions will commend them to our readers tion to the problem we are surprised at its and secure their ultimate adoption in our simplicity. It commends itself at once as a state.
S. common sense plan for overcoming the diffi'culties, and is therefore worthy of adoption. -The annual meeting of the Wisconsin Li
The small city problem is different and its brary Association has been deferred from Jan. solution is equally simple. The schools of 28-29 to February 22-23. Programs may be such communities lack efficient supervision. expected soon after February 1st. The meetThere is no educational head to them, study. ing will be held in Milwaukee.
ELECTION OF SCHOOL BOARDS.
ends of his own little faction to serve, and if
the public interest and this private interest conIn the country districts and in the villages flict, the public interest is apt to suffer. the people elect the school boards and vote the The chief danger in popular elections is from taxes to support the schools; in the cities gen- the political prejudices which lead the average erally, with some important exceptions, the citizen to vote for his party candidate without people do not elect school boards or vote regard to his fitness for the place. This danschool taxes. Why is this? Are the people ger is not obviated by the method of appointof the cities less to be trusted with the care of ment, as is well known. Party politics conthe most vital interest of local government trols mayor and aldermen fully as much as it than are the people in the country? And if does private citizens. But this danger can be that really is the case, are the city politicians avoided by putting the election at a time who appoint school boards more to be trusted when no other election is held. than the country politicians who do not ap- The members of school boards should be point them?
elected on a general ticket, not by wards, so Under either system exceptionally good or that they shall represent the whole city, not exceptionally bad officers may occasionally be one section or ward. It is better, probably, elected or appointed, but the most of the inem- that they should be elected for three years, bers of school boards will necessarily be fair one-third to go out each year. In that case a avi rage citizens, without professional knowl- city school board of nine members would be edge of educational questions, but with good of convenient size for all but the very largest business capacity. The real question is not cities. so much as to the character or capacity of the It must not be forgotten that in nearly every members of school boards under the two sys- state an election by the people would mean tems. But it is to whom the school boards that women as well as men should vote for will feel themselves responsible, to the people school officers and be eligible. The general at large, or to a little circle of managing poli- laws now providing for women voting in school ticians. Under which system would it be matters would, in most states, come in force easier for an incompetent teacher to retain his without any additional provision as soon as it place? Under which system would it be easier was provided that city school boards should be for political or social influences or business in- elected by the qualified electors, unless it was terests to dictate the appointment or promo- specially provided in the city charters that tion of teachers or the choice of text-books or women should not vote for school boards. the location or construction of school houses? This would be a considerable advantage to the
Our government is said to be “a govern- schools. Women have as great an interest in ment of the people, by the people and for the schools as men have, and usually greater, bepeople.” The great political problem of to cause the mothers have more of the care of day is to secure good government in the cities. children than the fathers have. Women have The only effectual way to do this is to trust served on school boards of several cities with the people and then to educate them. Any marked ability, notably in Chicago and Milscheme which undertakes to put a portion of waukee. And as the great majority of teachthe government out of the hands of the people ers are women, and half the pupils are girls, must inevitably run greater risks from the self it seems no more than fair that women should seeking of the persons entrusted with power hold places on school boards. A large numthan the risks from the ignorance and care- ber of women are now superintendents of lessness of the people themselves. The schools, city and county, and are filling these method of appointment of school boards takes offices with credit. Voting and holding office the control of the schools out of the hands of by women in school matters whereyer it has the people and puts it in the hands of the pol- been tried has been a success. iticians. In a certain sense it is true that every Just now we in Wisconsin are watching with citizen is and ought to be a politician. But the much interest the discussion going on in Milprivate citizen is a politician for the interests waukee over the question of reforming the of his city, his state, or his nation. He is school board of that city. Whatever Milwauaffected doubtless by his prejudices, political kee does has necessarily great influence on the and otherwise, and by his local interests. rest of the state. If Milwaukee would elect. But there is little or no personal interest af- instead of appointing its school board, on a fecting his vote. While the professional poli- general ticket at an election held for that purtician, though an abler man than the average pose only, and would allow women to vote at citizen, necessarily has his own ends and the this election in accordance with the general