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Normal School Graduates Now Undergraduates
form schools in 1890, 98 per cent. went from
pressions of the Ashland Library Meeting-Library
on farms. The chief cause of this result in
Milwaukee Society for Child-Study.
home. The writer says: “In June, 1896, I
Edgar Allan Poe-A Bird Day-How to Teach
received a statement announcing that two
and that city officials, parents, school teach-
cannot see why any city government in the
country should hesitate to enact the ordi-
nance.” Instead of being irritated by the op-
eration of the law it is found that most of the
parents welcome it as an aid to family disci-
Review, treating of “Some Characteristics of happiness lies in doing your duty in the sphere Prussian Schools,” says: “At the end of the in which you find yourself, with the teachfirst recitation there was a recess of several ing of the new school that it lies in rising minutes, during which the windows were above that station. He notes the profit to opened and the boys were given an opportu the nation coming of this universal ambition, nity of stretching their muscles on the play- and also the danger resulting from the more ground. These recesses, which varied in and more complete closing of opportunilength from five to fifteen minutes, occurred ties to rise as the country fills up. In our between all recitations, and all the boys were opinion it is not the school but the society, required to spend the longer intervals out of which has been preaching this discontent." doors, except a few invalids who were ex- It is stimulated by the possibilities, the speccused by the order of a physician. This cus- tacles of success on every hand, the talk of tom of relieving, as often as once an hour, the the marts and the shops. It is the courage nervous tension generated in growing children and hopefulness of national youth. Doubtby the physical and mental restraints of the less the spirit brings dangers, especially with class-room, was an established rule in every the diminution of opportunity to advance. The school that I visited, and seemed to me a prac- remedy will not be to return to the old teachtice worthy of general adoption.”
ing, which means stagnation, but in rational
izing the new, so that joy may be found in SELECTING text-books is really a matter
effort and success in the development of requiring large experience in school work,
strength and character, a success which all maturity of judgment and thorough scholar
may achieve. This comes to the same thing ship. This is especially true in our American
as saying that with maturity must come an schools, where the text-book determines almost absolutely what shall be taught, in what
escape from the purely materialistic ideals of
youth, to the rational and attainable ideals of order it shall be taugh:, and even the method of teaching it.
maturity. The schools must help this develIf there be in the whole field of education a matter which ought to be de
opment. termined by the judgment of experts it would
THE NORMAL SCHOOLS AND THE UNIVERSITY. seem to be this. Yet in our practice this is left to the school board, a body very properly
A friend, who had been looking over the constituted of business men, whose chief func
statistics published in our last issue as to the tion ought to be to look after the material and
qualifications of high school teachers in Wisbusiness side of school management, and whose
consin, suggested that a considerable number members presumably in the great majority of
who are reported as university graduates are cases are very far from educational experts.
also normal graduates. We are glad to call What results? Why, the decision is deter.
attention to the fact that there are such teachmined by all sorts of secondary considera
ers. We have been examining the list again tions,—the price of the books, the trades that
with a view to ascertaining as nearly as poscan be made, above all the tactical skill and
sible how many such are now in the schools, manipulations of the interested book agents.
and are surprised at the relatively small numAs our larger cities come to employ thoroughly
ber. Out of a total of one hundred and fiftytrained expert superintendents, and our prin
six university graduates now teaching in the cipals in smaller places devote time and effort high schools we have been able to find but to forming sound judgments in this matter,
tter, twelve who are also normal school graduates. and securing such respect for their judgments We may have overlooked one or two cases. as they will then be entitled to, we may hope
but not enough materially to modify the profor an escape out of the present anomalous
portion. The reasons for this are probably and unsatisfactory situation. Thus we shall
many. We are able to think of four such gradreach the only rational solution of the vexed
uates who are teaching in the normal schools; "text-book problem."
three are teaching in the university; several RARELY has a monthly magazine crowded are pursuing graduate courses; some have colso much that is stimulating to thought as is lege or normal school positions out of the found in the December number of the Forum. state; and some of course have entered other Our purpose at present is to call attention to callings. It is very much to be desired that a single paragraph in Mr. Goldwin Smith's the number of such in the schools should be "The Brewing of the Storm," a review of the increased, and the development of a special conditions giving rise to the Chicago platform course for normal graduates at the university, and party. Among other conditions he con- which will be inaugurated next year, will, it is trasts the old-fashioned school teaching, that hoped, tend rapidly to add to their number
trained experter places devote timchis matte
But the remark carries with it a suggestion ANOTHER REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCAthat there exists such a rivalry in this matter
- TION. between the normal schools and the university as makes the correct exhibition of the number Dr. Harris is effecting a most desirable adof teachers contributed by each to the high vance in the work of his office by bringing schools a matter of justice and importance. about a more prompt issuance of the annual Such is not our view of the case. In this mat- reports. These had so far fallen behind that ter the interests of these institutions are the the volume for 1893-94 appeared at the close same and not opposed. The influence of some of 1896 and was noticed in our last issue. of the normal schools we know to be in favor Close upon it follows the report for 1894of the largest culture on the part of those seek- 95, the first volume of which now lies before ing to become teachers, and they make open us. This indicates increased efficiency and and easy the passage of their students to thoroughness of organization in the work of higher institutions. The list of normal grad the office, which is also shown by many feauates now in the junior and senior classes at tures of this very interesting volume. We the university, which we publish elsewhere, is may be permitted to specify particularly the evidence of this fact. The normal schools reports for secondary schools in this country, and the university are working together for which are remarkably complete and very satthe upbuilding of the schools of the state: the isfactorily systematized. The large volume of field is large, larger than all of them can ade- 1,152 pages presents so many matters of inquately supply; so that any other relation than terest that we must content ourselves at presthat of co-operation and mutual helpfulness ent with a brief allusión to a few of them. would be wholly inexcusable. Moreover, the In addition to the general account of Edu crying need of the schools at the present time cation in Great Britain, which sets forth with is greater culture, more breadth, on the part considerable detail the important controversy of those who teach. By this alone can the over religious instruction and public support schools be rescued from formalism, so that the for denoininational schools, we find here an work in them shall develop intellectual life in admirable summary of the important report of the pupils in place of the conventional routine the royal commission on secondary schools, still too common. This breadth of view which which incidentally gives a detailed view of the gives meaning and inspiration to studies is present system of secondary instruction in needed in the grades below the high school. England. The papers appended to this reOur conception of grade work is undergoing a port are of even greater interest. American rapid expansion. We are not merely intro. readers will be especially profited and pleased ducing new subjects and curtailing some which by Mr. Findlay's able report on certain feathad grown out of proportion, but we are com- ures of secondary education in the United ing to recognize that the awakening of real in- States and Canada, in which he reviews Ameriterests—the forming of the human spirit to can interest in education, the kinds of schools, right ways of action and to far reaching ideals the educational authorities and their powers, is the proper aim. This can be done only by the training of teachers, and instruction in rethose who have the insight and knowledge ligion and in citizenship. Add the memoranda that result from thorough culture. We must on Canadian education, Mr. Fitch's memoranhave better trained grammar school teachers. dum on the training of teachers in England, It is impossible longer to limit our demand for Mr. Herbart Ward's on the training of teachhigher attainments to the high school teach- ers for secondary schools in France, and Mr. ers. Thus the field expands before us. We Findlay's on their training in Germany and the cannot take the measure of it, or of the use. range and value of these studies will be seen fulness of the agencies for training teachers, at once. by simply reckoning with the high schools. Of at least equal interest is the chapter enTherefore while it has seemed to us occasion titled Education in Central Europe. It opens for rejoicing that the number of broadly trained with a paper on the new (Herbartian) educateachers in our high schools—still far too lim- tion in Germany, by Prof. Rein, of Jena, the ited—is on the increase, it does not seem use- leader of this school, followed by one repreful to try to measure the relative value of our senting the views of the opposing school in institutions for training teachers by so narrow pedagogy, entitled “Is German Pedagogy in a a standard as the number of high school teach- State of Decomposition,” by Dr. F. Dittes. ers they may furnish. Such a standard would The account of supplementary and industrial be especially unjust in its application to our schools in Germany, of ungraded schools, of normal schools.
S. German views on monitorial instruction, of