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TEACHERS are wanted to solicit subscriptions for an old and well known literary magazine. Large commissions are given, and teachers looking for pleasant and remunera. tive employment during the holidays or at special gatherings of educators, will do well to write for further information to “EDUCATOR," P. O. Box 5206, Boston, Mass.

mer at 7:00 o'clock. (There are some exceptions for the very smallest children). A few years ago they even began an hour carlier than now. The entire amount of vacation is about eight weeks yearly. School is held six days in the week, though usually Wednesday and Saturday afternoons are free.



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Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

—THE ILIAD OF HOMER, translated into English blank verse by William Cullen Bryant (two volumes in one, 332 and 355 pp.; $1.00). places within easy reach one of the best translations of the Iliad yet made into English. Of course tastes differ as to which is best-even as to what kind of verse is the most suitable for rendering Homer. We confess, on the whole, a decided preference for the unrhymed pentameter, the English heroic verse if we have any. which Mr. Bryant has chosen. It has a dignity and suppleness well suited to the matter, and while perhaps sometimes lacking in rapidity, is much more agreeable to read than the rhymed couplets of Pope for instance. Bryant's translation has been long before the public and its merits have been pretty thoroly discussed; sufficient to say, that this American version has attained very high rank among those in the English tongue, It is finely printed, on good paper, and every way creditable to a house which takes as its motto, nothing except the best, while the price is surprisingly low. The two volume edition, the only one hitherto obtainable, costs $2.50. A large demand ought at once to spring up for so desirable a work. It ought to be in all our school libraries and to find purchasers among teachers and pupils. It will interest some to know that the publish'ers, in case the demand for this volume warrants the venture, propose to issue in like form and price, Bryant's Odyssey, Longfellow's Dante and Bayard Taylor's translation of Goethe's Faust. D. Appleton & Co.

-The Plant World, its Romance and Realities; a Reading book of Botany, compiled by Frank Vincent (228 pp.; 60c), belongs to the "Home Reading Books'' series, edited by Dr. Harris. The fifty selections which it contains represent a wide range of authors, and treat of specially interesting features of the vegetable world-its giant productions, its curiosities, interesting special groups of plants, the habits and life history of plants, especially rich botanical gardens, etc. Among them are a few well chosen bits of poetry relating to plant life. The book has fourteen beautiful full page illustrations and is in every way attractive and entertaining

-The STORY OF Oliver Twist, by Charles Dickens, condeosed for home and school reading, by Ella Boyse Kirk (348 pp.; 60c), has been made on the principle of omitting everything which a child in reading would naturally skip. Thus we have a stirring and rapid narrative which sweeps on continuously to the final outcome. Dickens may be condensed in this way much more readily than most of our authors, for his long dissertations and elaborate preachments are thrust into his story in such a way that dropping them leaves no sense of lack. There seems to be no reason why this book should not at once become a favorite with young readers. Silver, Burdett & Co.

-INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ECONOMICS, by Charles Jesse Bullock, (511 pp.) has several new and valuable features as an introductory text-book. Foremost among these we place the sketch-all too brief but exceedingly valuable -of the industrial history of this country condensed in the first three chapters. These strike the key-note of the book which seeks to deal with American problems in a historic and scientific manner. Next we note the careful bibliographies, not merely the general one at the close of the volume, but also those at the close of the chapters, which indicate more closely sources of information on the topics discussed. What students need is a discriminating bibliography, not a miscellaneous list of all books bearing on the subject but a selection of the most valuable authorities. This Mr. Bullock gives. We note further with satisfaction that difficult topics are not simplified away into nonsense

Total receipts...... ............... $1,084.51 The following is a list of the bills paid during the year: Feb. 15, 1896, rent of Recreation Hall (paid by Mr. Sims) ......................

$ 5.00 July 6, 1896, D. D. Mayne for Buffalo N. E. A., 100.00 Oct. 6, “ Arthur Burch, printing and other expenses..........

...... 43.34 Dec. 30, 1896, Chas. R Skinner, address and expenses.....

75.00 Dec. 31, 1896, Hon. Melville Dewey, address and expenses....

97.80 Dec. 31, 1896, Prof. John M. Coulter, address

and expenses........ Dec. 31, 1896, Cr. J. H. Kellogg, expenses ..... 5.00 " Hugo Bach, orchestra....

20.00 Grand Ave. church choir........

Apollo male chorus .............
Rent of Grand Ave. Cong.church, 75.00
Rent of Calvary church ......... 7.00
Rent of Recreation Hall......... 5.00
Janitor Cong. church............ 10.00
Western Union Telegraph Co.... 16.29
Arthur Burch, expenses .....

" G. G. Williams, salary and ex-

...... 58.22 Dec. 31, 1896, Mary D. Bradford, salary and expenses......

20.70 Dec. 31, 1896, S. Y. Gillan, printing, postage,

etc .................................... Dec. 31, 1896, Walter Allen, miscellaneous bills,

- Alice H. Shultes, postage, etc.... 6.00
" R. J. O'Hanlon,
" Wm. F. Sell,
- Anne K. Holt, typewriter service, 5.00

" Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict,
typewriter supplies ....
Dec. 31, 1896, Schwaab, Stamp & Seal Co., rub-

ber stamps..... ...... Dec. 31, 1896, J. C. Iverson & Co., framing World's Fair Diploma . ......

6.00 Dec. 31, 1896, Swain & Tate, circulars ........

" " Houtkamp & Cannon, letter heads,
etc ......

12.35 Dec. 31, 1896, Wm. Meyst, postage............ 7.34



1.75 1.00

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$774.46 Balance sent to R. J. O'Hanlon ....


$1,084.51 MARY D. BRADFORD


Journal of Education



No. 7


208 East Main Street, Madison, Wis. J. W. STEARNS, I A. O. WRIGHT, ..



(Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.)



....... 145-148 Brief Comments—The Summer Vacation-Salt

Lake City.
The MONTH.........:

..................... 148–157 Wisconsin News and Notes-Commencement Subjects—The Meetings at Milwaukee—The Convocation at the University-Vacation School School Yard Improvements-Beauty in a School HouseThe Ideal School House—The Forty-Eight Hour Day. THE SCHOOL Room........

...... 157-164 Nathaniel Hawthorne - Kindergarten Program Work in West Superior-Rhymes to Teach Direction-A City in a Volcano-A Bunch of Nature

Poems. CONTRIBUTIONS ........

........ 164-168 A Vacation Glimpse of Pisa-Continuous Sessions

of Schools. Book TABLE.

.......... 168-vii

lections; and in the next issue, Dr. Holmes will be found not less attractive. We hope to make the Institute number of special interest to all readers.

AMONG the announcements at the university commencement was that of the establishment of a School of Education, under direction of Prof. Stearns. The university extension department was connected with this School, and Prof. M. V. O'Shea, of the Buffalo School of Pedagogy, was elected Professor of the Theory and Art of Teaching. Prof. O'Shea is a graduate of Cornell University, and was for a time Professor of Theory and Practice in the Mankato, Minn., Normal School, from which place he was called to Buffalo. He has written a good deal for the periodicals, the Atlantic Monthly, Educational Review, etc., and has made a brilliant reputation as a lecturer on educational subjects. We have time merely to mention these changes this month, but the expansion they give to the pedagogical work of the university is evident.

SPELLING reform has made no more notable conquest of late than results from the adoption of Mr. Vaile's resolution at Indianapolis, directing the secretary of the N. E. A. to use, in the official publications of that body such simplified spellings as a committee, composed of Dr. Harris, Sup't Soldan of St. Louis, and Sup't Balliet, of Springfield, Mass., might agree upon. That committee adopts the following: “Program—(programme); tho(though); altho—(although); thoro — (thorough); thorofare(thoroughfare;) thru — (through); thruout-(throughout; catalog(catalogue); prolog –(prologue); decalog(declalogue); demagog—(demagogue); pedagog—(pedagogue).” The secretary of the N. E. A. announces that these recommendations will be brought before the Board of Directors in Milwaukee for official adoption. Everyone of the changes approves itself to right reason, and we do not see why all teachers should not adopt them. The JOURNAL gives them its cordial support.

CONSIDERABLE doubt seems to have arisen as to the effects of the shorter course at the summer school this summer. One question relates to credit at the university. This is al


A SUMMER number of the JOURNAL such as we have planned to make this, may suggest to many of our readers to reflect upon the various forms of summer activity now presented to them. The oldest is the “outing,” boating, fishing, hunting, camping, travel at home

ome and abroad. some sketches of which we offer in this issue. The beautifying of school grounds and rooms may naturally be connected with this. The great educational meetings, of which the N. E. A. in Milwaukee is by far the most important, comes next in historical order. . Then come the organizations for summer study, the summer schools, the vacation schools, and, the latest to appear, the "continuous session." This enumeration of interests represented in the present number, leaves out of account one of the oldest organ

can izations for summer study—the Teachers' Institutes, which will receive special attention next month. In the American Literature Series, Hawthorne affords delightful''outing” se

ways for work done, and by arrangement with we have 140 with four year courses, and all of instructors students may concentrate on fewer them much stronger in attendance and teachstudies and accomplish the usual amount in ing power. In 1887 the university catalogue them for credit. This answer applies to those showed an enrollment of 505 students, against who are working continuously towards a course, 1,650 in that of the present year. The gradto those making up deficiencies, and to those uating class numbered 75 ten years ago against seeking only special credits. As to the state 208 this year, Thus secondary and higher examination, the completion of the four weeks education have certainly made remarkable adwork before that takes place is an advantage vances in this state within the last decade. which all candidates will appreciate. The provision for the school made by the last leg

THE SUMMER VACATION. islature becomes available next summer, and will permit such expansion of courses and The long summer vacation seems to be enteaching as has long been desired. The sum- croached upon on every side, and likely to dismer school at the university is firmly estab- appear under the sharp competition of modern lished, and will be able to meet the demand life. How charming it was, we say to ourrapidly growing in Wisconsin as elsewhere, for selves as we watch its rapid vanishing, with its able and varied summer instruction in the long bright days of tranquil leisure, and its more advanced studies.

summer delights. One escaped from business “Has not your state been too much isolated

cares, and ripened ideally and in close contact in its educational work?” asked an intelligent

with nature. Literature finds us in such periobserver from another state recently. It is usu

ods, the poets become our interpreters, and we ally not profitable to take up an attitude of de

catch gleams of the hidden meanings of things. fence against such friendly criticism, but rather

Children too ripen naturally in the simple and to remove all occasion for its repetition. It is

unconstrained freedom of country living. Hot quite possible for a system of schools to keep

house culture may be valuable in the winter too much to itself, and a body of teachers to

season, but summer holidays even more deeply fail sufficiently to mingle with outsiders so as

determine life and character.

Of course there is another side to this. We to feel and participate in movements about them. Are there not peculiarities in our

must remember that the school vacation usucousses of study for high schools due to such

ally occupies from a fifth to a quarter of the isolation? Are there not great movements

entire year—a large proportion to be given to child-study, growth of skilled supervision, con

comparative idleness. We must remember solidation of feeble and scattered schools, etc.

also that while a few days of leisure seem de-in which we have not participated as we

lightful, they soon begin to hang heavily on might because of a certain aloofness? The

our hands. We demand occupation and begin coming of the N. E. A. to Milwaukee this

to invent for ourselves forms of "laborious

idleness.” Common sense says, too, that these year affords a grand opportunity for establishing closer relations with educators in other

are best when they contribute most to the states, and deriving fresh impulse from the

deepening and enrichment of our own lives, ideas and movements which prevail in other

travel, elevating companionship, reading and sections of the Union.

study. Thus the vacation takes on a serious

aspect, becomes, in fact, rest and refreshment SIX YEARS ago we called attention emphat- through change of labor. The summer school ically to the smallness of the graduating and the continuous session are the product of classes at our normal schools and to the fact this experience. They afford help toward that that two-thirds of their enrollment was of pupils enrichment of life which common sense combelow high school grade. Since then a great mends. and satisfactory change has come about. High An important distinction may be drawn school graduates now fill the upper courses of between the summer school and the conthe normals, and the graduating classes are tinuous session. The former is a “go as you better proportioned to the enrollment of the please" institution. It offers advantages but school and growing rapidly. In fact normal does not set up requirements, so that the stueducation in Wisconsin has greatly changed dent who chooses may march tranquilly in a in character in that period. We turn back limited and chosen path. This is the best type ten years and find only 136 free high schools of vacation work, —best for real growth and in the state, whereas we now have 200. At ripening of mind as well as for rest and rethat time schools of three and of four years' freshment. One may devote weeks to a single courses were not distinguished in the list; now study, with such boating, riding and out-door pleasures as he may prefer. There is no rank- sand persons already in the east or the middle : ing to pique, no examination to worry over. west to see the western half of our country, "The calm air of delightful studies" may be As a lesson in geography such a trip is breathed to the full. The continuous session, worth its cost to any teacher. The geography on the other hand, imports into the summer learned from books and maps is never so vivid the exciting artificial stimulants of the estab- or so valuable as that learned by actual travel. lished institution.” It has requirements, rank- It is one thing to look at a map of the western ings, examinations, and the promise of a de- half of the United States and to see moungree at the end of a course. Thus the vacation tains, rivers, lakes and deserts marked there, is fully overcome-engulfed in life's endless and it is quite another thing to see the magtoil and endeavor.” Mighty forces are work- nificent mass of the Continental Divide stretch ing steadily to this result, whether for good or from north to south through two hundred ill the future must determine.

miles of vision, and then to stand upon the The vacation school runs along different summit of Pike's Peak with the great plains lines. Its immediate end is to help city chil- stretching away to the east and the billowy dren who have no pleasant homes and no op- mountain ranges below and around you to the portunity of going to the country. They are west and south and north; it is quite another not all children of want, or street Arabs, but thing to crawl up the Royal Gorge of the Archildren of the poor, to whom the spacious kansas with cliffs towering thousands of feet rooms, order, cleanliness and comfort of the on each side and the river brawling far below, school with its occupations, kindly helps and to wind up to the top of the Marshall Pass, wholesome companionships come with charm twice the height of the Alleghanies, and then and blessing. For such, a summer on the plunge down through the Black Canon of the streets brings decided retrogression. The in- Gunison, and come out on the Great Utah fluences under which they fall are not only un- Desert where there is not a spear of grass or pleasant but degrading. The rise of the va- a sign of insect life; it is quite another thing cation school, however, is causing many to to bathe in the Great Salt Lake with head ask why school is not valuable to all children and shoulders above the heavy water, and eyes in the summer, and why public schools should and nostrils smarting from the salt plunge; it not also hold a summer session. But the sum- is quite another thing to see the original sage mer schools and the continuous sessions are 'brush, bunch grass and alkali dust with which conditioned upon the release of teachers from you have become only too familiar on one their tasks at this season. Thus the present side of a road and the desert blossoming into movement seems to meet its limitations at this fertility on the other side under the magic of point. The long vacation has been the teach- an irrigating ditch. The practical student of ers' opportunity for self-improvement; but the geography who learns from his own observaeager use of it by large numbers for such ends tion soon realizes that the western half of our has set up a movement which threatens to country has a very different set of conditions sweep away the vacation itself. Can we wit- for its population from the eastern half, which ness the developments now going on without are rapidly moulding a different type of man. seriously reflecting upon the usefulness and As a study of nature such a trip is far better reasonableness of this summer vacation; and worth its cost than a trip to Europe. With whether the rush of American life, in threat the exception of Niagara and the great lakes ening to overwhelm it, is not seriously increas- there is nowhere in this country and rarely ing the strain of life, its hard and practical anywhere in the world such a display of the character, and taking away one of its human- great forms and forces of nature as can be seen izing as well as its most delightful features? even from the car windows on a trip to the Rocky

S. Mountains and beyond. To climb up the

west side of the Cascade Mountains through SALT LAKE CITY.

dense forest of two hundred feet fir trees, and

at the top to suddenly come almost to an end A determined effort will be made at the of vegetation, and to go down the east side of Milwaukee meeting of the National Educa- the same mountains between hills bare and tional Association to secure the next meeting brown for lack of the abundant rains that nourof the N. E. A. for Salt Lake City, Utah. ished the giant forests on the western slope is The usual railroad inducements will be offered a lesson on air currents and rainfall as well as which are given for all great national gather- on forestry. To see the trees grow smaller ings held in the Pacific or the Rocky Moun- and smaller and at last cease entirely while tain states, which have enabled so many thou- climbing the summit of Pike's Peak, is a lesson

in the influence of elevation on temperature. and then draw the lines of incidence and reThe geysers in the Yellowstone Park, the soda fection which the sound waves must follow. springs everywhere, the mines of Colorado But to actually experience it, is still better. and Nevada, the great glaciers of Alaska, now We need not say that the use of such a buildeasily reached by steamer, the yawning chasms ing is of material advantage to a great naof the Yosemite and of the Grand Canon of tional gathering. Few other buildings in the the Colorado, are examples of natural forces, United States can hold the numbers who now and their effects well worth a long trip to see. attend the National Educational Association, Much of this can be seen in the course of an and none of anything like the size will allow excursion which at the rates usually offered is the audience to hear without difficulty a within the reach of a teacher's modest purse. speaker with an ordinary voice. The effect

Salt Lake City has two special attractions, of having a great national meeting using this the Mormon church and the great tabernacle. tabernacle ought to be to so impress a large The Mormon church is a sociological study number of intelligent people with the value of well worth going a long journey to see. Orig. this form of building as to cause others like it inally only one out of many exhibitions of to be built in every large city.

W. human gullibility, the pilgrimage of the outcast Mormons to Salt Lake in the days before the railroads had brought that remote region

THE MONTH. near to the rest of the country, gave an opportunity for a peculiar civilization to be built up

WISCONSIN NEWS AND NOTES. on a basis of sound sense and practical statesmanship mingled with priestcraft and unscru

-The Madison high school graduated a pulous despotism. But one only has to see

class of fifty-eight. the five acre lots supporting families under -The Horicon high school had a graduatirrigation, the cooperative stores, the avoid- ing class of 13, five of them men. ance of mining and other speculation, the plain

—The Mayville high school graduated a food and clothes, the repression of the ordi

class of ten, four of whom are men. nary vices of the frontier, and the thorough organization of the social life, to discover that

-The Prescott high school graduated four the most successful experiment in socialism May 28th, three of whom are men. ever made is before him, disguised under the -The Third ward high school of Appleton forms of a fantastic faith, an experiment which graduated six, of whom four are men. like all socialism reduces society to an average

— Ten graduated from the Lake Mills high of comfort and of opportunity, preventing

school this year, of whom three are men. both the social gains and social losses of the competitive system under which most of us

-At Phillips the Price county summer live.

school will continue five weeks from July 12th. The Mormon Tabernacle is the best audi- -Examinations for state teachers' certifitorium in the world. Ten thousand people cates occur at Madison, August roth, ith and can be seated in it and can hear an ordinary 12th. speaker without effort. If the object of a church or a public hall is to enable speakers to

-The De Forest high school graduates five,

all women. This is the third class from the be heard and an audience to hear, then this tabernacle is the best constructed meeting

school. house in the world. But if the object of a - The summer school at Elkhorn, Walchurch or a hall is to show off the beauty of worth county, will continue five weeks from the architecture, then it is one of the worst. July 12th. It is a homely turtle backed ellipse, which dis

backed ellipse, which dis- – Vernon county is to have four different regarded all rules of architecture and follows summer schools, but we are not informed furthe laws of acoustics. It is a whispering gal- ther concerning them. lery. A person standing at one focus of the ellipse can be heard in the lightest whisper by

-At Seneca, in Crawford county, J. E. a person at the other focus, or a pin can be

Brindley and W. H. Shipley will conduct a heard to drop into a hat. From one focus of summer school July 5th to Aug. oth. the ellipse a speaker can be heard in all parts -The fourth session of the summer school of the hall with the greatest ease. This de- at Appleton, Outagamie county, opens July pends upon the laws of physics. To prove it 12th, with A. W. Loettien, Chas. O. Merica, theoretically one only needs to draw an ellipse and A. O. Greeson conductors.

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