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Che life and fols for all chools that no child and

ish the ward school course. As it is, one or is, as it were, the flowering time of the school. two attempts to keep up with their classes Its value is very great both to the school and generally satisfies them that their education the community, for it serves to rekindle intermust close. It is very desirable that as many est in the higher welfare of the children by pupils as possible shall complete the ward bringing to the consciousness of the people school course, which is the proper preparation their progress and their promise-a time of for life and for citizenship. All the arguments kindly emotions and enlarged sympathies for free schools for all children are arguments which makes for the higher things of life. for so shaping these schools that no unneces- How it may serve to entrench the school in sary barriers shall stand between the child and the affections of the community need not he a good common school education.

told. How it promotes the growth of the 2. Another sort of children for whom an pupils every thoughtful teacher knows. ungraded department is much needed are those Arbor day has done much to develop a sense whose deportment is so bad in the graded of the value of school festivals. It stands as schools as to interfere with their own school a yearly example of the practical worth of a work and that of others, and also those who school festival in moulding the ideas and habfrequently stay out of school without their its of a people. Trees and birds have added parent's consent. These children are likely interest by reason of it, and the state looks to turn out badly if simply expelled from forward to more attractive towns and villages, school or allowed to drift away from it. They to wiser husbandry and more humane conduct ought to be saved. An ungraded school with in consequence of it. Authors' days in a simia skillful and firm teacher will save many of lar way look to improving the life of our peothem from the idleness and other bad influ- ple by means of the interest in good literature ences of the street. It is better to reform thus awakened. For the cultivation of patrithese children at home if we can rather than otism we have school celebrations of such ocin a state reform school. In many cases these casions as birthdays of Washington, Lincoln children are not very bad, only they have no and Grant, as Decoration day and Forefathers' great love for study, and the teacher has not day. tact or time to attract them. A little per Parents' day has much to recommend it for sonal influence would save them, but that little general adoption. The name indicates sufis not given, for the reason that we cannot get 'ficiently its purpose to bring the parents into all the wisdom and patience and power of a closer relation with the school, and suggests great teacher for thirty dollars a month. With several forms of observance. One may be by cheap teachers we get cheap work. If this class declamations, compositions, and parades by of boys and girls are sent to the ungraded the pupils; another by addresses from promischool it will be necessary to have a man of nent citizens and educational leaders; another special character and power of government as by an exhibition of the work of pupils, kinderwell as tact in managing and making school garten work, sewing, baking. wood work, attractive. He must be a born teacher but he drawing, calesthenics, etc. Sometimes the need not be a great scholar.

school building and appliances may be shown Such an ungraded department ought to cost to advantage at a social evening gathering, something. But it would pay, in relieving especially when additions to, apparatus or the regular schools of some hard problems, library, to the building, or to the teaching, and in saving the boys and girls. W. such as singing, or manual training, have been

made. It is best that such a festival should CONCERNING SCHOOL FESTIVALS.

come in the winter, perhaps in February,

when out-of-door attractions are few and Closing exercises, for which in later times when the school year is advanced enough to the schools have substituted the singularly in- have produced something to be shown. appropriate college designation commence- Two or three out-of-door occasions are dements, are an old time feature of school life. serving of mention. School athletics just now There has always been a sort of exhiliration take the form of contests between different about them. The excitement of those who schools. These awaken much interest, but are to take part in the exercises is shared by have drawbacks in the way of undue excitetheir fellows who are looking forward to future ment and effort which it is difficult to keep occasions, and the well filled school house or under control. But already we are escaping hall with the holiday attire, and a certain from the phase of development in which footpomp of circumstance give a dignity and at- ball and baseball usurp the whole attention, tractiveness to the last day of the term. This and “meets" with a variety of events" are springing up. This is certainly a wholesome larger purpose, to engage the pupil in hearty, growth and may well be promoted by discern- sympathetic, genuine effort after knowledge ing principals. The school excursion has not and culture. When instead of being passively yet taken a strong hold in this country, but receptive he becomes active, eager, enthusihas great possibilities, as will be seen by the astic a great step has been taken. Upon this account published elsewhere in this number of fervor, which, in youth is apt to be fleeting, such a festival in Germany. School exhibi- is to be welded, by patient tact and skill, the tions, especially at county fairs and educa- habit of steady, continuous pursuit until the tional gatherings, deserve mention in this con- fascination of it and of growing insight is felt, nection as akin to the subject under discussion and has had time to lay strong hold of the naand of approved value.

ture. This is the essence of modern methods, But these things interfere with the regular to secure the result we have indicated. work of the school, it will be urged, and the Formalism is the great impediment to its suggestion deserves consideration. It is quite attainment. Formalism results from failure obvious that too much time and energy may on the part of the teacher in fully recognizing be expended upon school festivals, and that the larger aim. The immediate aim, the thing they may be so managed as to keep the young to be taught, becomes supreme, and shuts out people almost all the time in a fever of excite- of view the state of the learner and the need ment. Good sense and wise management are of rightly influencing him. Thus the immedinecessary to hold this feature of school life ate is gained to the sacrifice of the more imwithin proper limits and in due relations. portant, the formal to the injury of the vital. That they may be abused, however, is not The great art of the teacher is to keep the pusufficient ground for refusing to recognize their pil in a right attitude towards his work. Of usefulness. We have held too exclusively to course a great many elements contribute to the conception that the object of the school is the successful achievement of this task, but to fill the children with knowledge. We must we must limit ourselves to a brief glance at recognize now that it has the broader mission two. A sufficient motive must be appealed to of helping to form them for life. They must in the pupil by a person who is in such relalearn to take their part in common enterprises, tions that he can make it operative. These to prepare carefully for public appearances and are the two elements. to bear themselves well in them. Their school The more the subject is studied the more life must call out and strengthen useful social certain does it become that the really valuemotions; it must refine them by appreciative able motives are always to be found in a contact with nature, with art, (especially in large view of the thing to be done. They are literature), and with graceful social forms. inherent, but must be brought to view and The school festival founds its greatest claim made operative. Thus, the motive for learnupon our support in that it serves effectively ing to read is the pleasure and profit to be dethese educative purposes, and at the same rived from reading. This can be brought to time helps to keep in sympathetic touch the view not by talking about it but by reading to school and the community.

the pupil such things as he delights in. Thus

the desire to learn to read is kindled and THE INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF THE SCHOOL. kept alive, if a little tact is shown in the man

agement of the inatter. Of course the diffiDoubtless the highest evidence of success culties to be overcome are skillfully arranged in teaching is that a powerful influence is ex in the most helpful order, and constant aids erted upon the character and tastes of the pu- and encouragements are afforded to keep alive pils. To such a result mere formal acquisi- the desire and prevent disheartenment. The tion, whether of knowledge or skill, is wholly case is typical. A pupil who has been made secondary. For when the character and tastes to feel how grammar aids to get at the meanare determined the direction of effort for a ing of sentences—and this may be done quite long time after the school period has closed and early by a thoughtful teacher—himself reaches even for life is established. The desire after at- out after the new and helpful study, and finds tainment, the impulse or purpose steadily to its applications attractive. When arithmetic pursue it, are thus of much more importance is so brought into relation with concrete fathan the actual attainment. Clearly to recog- miliar things that its value as an instrument nize this will cause a great change in a teach- for getting accurate knowledge and practical er's way of working. The teaching will be results—its real significance—is felt, the purcome vital. The specific thing to be taught, suit of it becomes attractive. This develop. the immediate aim, will be taken up into a ment of the motives inherent in a larger view

of the subject of study so that they become - J. J. Williams who gave $25,000 to erect operative in the mind of the pupil is then an a building for the free library at Beaver Dam important element in the more vital kind of left a bequest of $5,000 to endow it when he teaching.

died a few weeks ago. Success in it depends in a large degree upon -Principal Lewis Stern, of Fountain City, the relations between teacher and pupils. writes: «The JOURNAL is so valuable to me There must be a free and vigorous play of that I would not do without it at five times mind upon mind, an intellectual sympathy the subscription price.” which brings them for the time into harmony _Stevens Point has forty-six teachers emof effort and mutual understanding. Some ploved in its public schools of whom five are conditions prevalent in our schools stand in

in the high school.
in the

There are four kinderthe way of this. When the number to be in

garten teachers and six ward principals. structed at one time is too large it renders impossible this free and genuine interplay of

-By a majority vote of the Executive Com

mittee of the Wisconsin Teachers' Associaminds. The individual pupil is lost among the

tion it has been decided to hold the next sesmany, his point of view is not grasped, he re

sion of that body in Milwaukee Dec. 28–30. ceives but fitful and undiscerning attention, and consequently is not stimulated and helped. -From the Northwestern Mail we quote: A formal conception of the work of recitation "The WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION prevents free and natural intercourse in thot. for April has, among many other good things, Rigidity of administration hinders adjustment an article on the Educational Value of Manual of the work to the needs of individuals. Training. It ought to be read by every parAbove all there is too little opportunity for ent and friend of education.” kindly and informal converse. Ten min- -The Milwaukee Telegram says: "Just utes of frank friendly conversation is some

how a Wisconsin teacher can get along withtimes worth more than an hour of recitation

out the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, published at

out the JOURNAL OF EDUCATIO The latter is apt to be mechanical and only Madison by Doctors J. W. Stearns and A. O. vaguely useful while the former may succeed in Wright, is a mystery. Each number is worth touching the springs of life. When teacher

more to a teacher than the cost of the publiand pupil talk together and work together the

cation for a year." stronger life of the former subtly pervades and forms the thought of the other. This is the

—The township high school at De Forest, strong point in what is called the individualis- in the town of Windsor, has been growing tic plan of teaching: formalities are thrown off rapidly under the management of Principal and mind touches mind directly and effectively.

E. C. Meland. It now employs two teachers, A private tutor, the companion and friend of

with an enrollment of fifty-six pupils, and his ward, has always been found to have a

there is talk of employing another teacher marvelous formative power due to this direct

and adding the modern classical course to its and sympathetic contact. The wise teacher curriculum always seeks such contact with his dull or un- -W. H. Bradley, of Tomahawk, has folmanageable pupil in order really “to get at lowed the example of Senator Stout and of him." A sense of the larger work of the J. D. Witter, and has founded a system of teacher, to give direction to the tastes and traveling libraries with Tomahawk as a center. character of the pupil by calling out the vital Last May Mr. Stout sent out the first travelizing motives, always leads to seeking more ing libraries in Wisconsin. Now there are six íully after this intercommunion.

independent systems of such libraries in the state containing nearly 100 libraries.

-The total enrollment of the Oshkosh norTHE MONTH.

mal school for the quarter ending March 26th WISCONSIN NEWS AND NOTES.

was 825, of whom 597 were in the normal de.

partment. In addition there were 64 enrolled -Mr. A. O. Wright has been chosen Pres- in the academy. Stevens Point had a total of ident of the Children's Home Society of Wis- 508, of whom 326 were in the normal departconsin, to succeed Prof. J. J. Blaisdell, de- ment; Whitewater 448, in the normal 318; ceased.

Platteville 663, with 467 in the normal. —The vacancy on the executive committee - The Janesville high school recently held of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association has its annual competition in public speaking. been filled by the appointment of Supt. J. E. The contests were of three kinds, in orations, Riordan, of Sheboygan.

in declamations, and in extempore speaking,


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the subjects for the last exercise being as- which his pupils had made and advised the lisigned by the judges twenty minutes before brarians to interest the country boys in deviseach speaker was to appear upon the stage. ing means to make better use of their opporThe young people acquitted themselves well. tunities for out-of-dour enjoyment as the trav-The ladies of Stevens Point have recently

eling libraries are unusually rich in books like raised $800 for a free library and the city

“The Boys' Book of Sports." Miss Brickley, council has added $300 to their fund. The

the county superintendent, asked the co-opschool board has also turned over to the new

eration of the librarians in extending the inlibrary association a good library of more than

terest in “traveling pictures." 1,000 volumes which was committed to its

Senator Stout will purchase 800 pictures of care by a former association. The new library

high artistic merit and send six or eight to any is managed by a competent board and seems

country school in Dunn county where the peodestined to be permanently successful.

ple will make the school room neat and attrac

tive, tint the walls and make other suitable -The Blaisdell memorial edition of “Beau

preparations. The pictures will be occasion1 Charity contains a fine, engraving of ally exchanged, passing from one school to Prof. Blaisdell and a picture of his library, and

another when the pupils desire new pictures another of his classroom. Any of our sub

to study, each picture may be accompanied by scribers can secure a copy by sending a stamp descriptive texts and interesting facts concernto the Children's Home society at Milwaukee. ing the artists. It is a very beautiful memorial of a grand teacher who spent forty years of his life in

-The North Wisconsin Academy at Ashteaching in this state in the same college.

land had a unique entertainment recently.

It was a Hiawatha pantomime in which real -The Arbor and Bird Day Annual issued

Chippewa Indians took an active part. Ashby the state superintendent, is a handsome

land is in the heart of the region on Lake Sufifty-six page brochure, containing, besides the

perior which Longfellow's poem, following the selections, articles by Ella M. Gardner, Prof. Chippewa legends, makes the home of the F. H. King, Prin. Chester W. Smith, Sec.

mythic Hiawatha. E. P. Wheeler, the presiWilliam J. Anderson, Mrs. W. H. Upham, dent of the trustees, is the son of a missionary B. S. Hoxie, Maybelle M. Park, Henry Nehr

to the Chippewas, and was brought up near hug, Philip Wells and Sec. L. E. Gettle, with

Ashland among the Indians and speaks their poetry by Marion Lisle, Mary F. Tucker, and

language, and is familiar with their customs. Mrs. Mary M. Adams.

In the character of Pau-Puk-Kee-Wis he made -The Oshkosh and the Waupaca high a speech in Chippewa which was understood schools had a debate recently on the question: by the Indians present. The patomime was “Resolved that municipal ownership of water enacted by students of the academy, assisted and gas lighting plants would be preferable to by several Indians with wigwams, canoes and private ownership in the majority of Ameri- dress exactly after the Chippewa paterns. A can municipalities.” The decision of the judges real birch bark canoe was used, and the eagle was in favor of Waupaca, which had the neg- plumes and head dress worn by Hiawatha ative. Such practical questions as this are of were the court dress of the head chief of the real value to all concerned. The citizens of tribe. The head chief “Cloud” was present Waupaca who crowded the hall not only heard and beat the war drum while other braves a living subject of immediate interest in their danced. In the scene representing Hiawacity ably discussed, but they were incidentally tha's childhood an Indian woman sang in Chipgiven occasion to see that education in their pewa a genuine Indian lullaby song. The obhigh school prepares for citizenship as well as ject of most historic interest was the peace gives scholarship.

pipe captured from the Sioux at the battle of -The librarians of Senator Stout's travel

the Brule in 1842, which has ever since been ing libraries in Dunn county held their second

a treasured relic, having been smoked when institute in Menomonie late in March. There

peace was made between the tribes, and twice was an interesting program and a notable talk

with two different presidents at Washington. by Prof. F. W. Kendall of the manual train

War clubs, bows and arrows, and birch bark ing school who has been using a library of

vessels were used in abundance. The princibooks upon out-of-door sports, hunting, fish

pal of the academy read the poem while the ing, boating, tenting, skating and camping

students acted it out. with the boys of his classes with the best of results. He showed models of boats and tents SUBSCRIBE FOR THE JOURNAL.



use. She can add, subtract, multiply and

divide numbers up to 1,000, and she can cut Prof. 7. W. Stearns, Wisconsin Journal of and sew her own garments and recognize her Education, Madison, Wis. :

friends by touch. All this has been done in My Dear Mr. Stearns:-I learn that a party three years for a girl of average ability and in professing to represent an educational Aid As- a school, but with a special teacher for her consociation in Chicago is canvassing for some stant companion. It is one of the triumphs Encyclopædia of Modern School Method of modern methods of education, applied to Charts in the state of Minnesota, and is quot the special needs of one deprived of both ing what purports to be a letter from me rec- sight and hearing. ommending the Encyclopædia of Modern School Method Charts. The letter as printed

A SCHOOL EXCURSION IN GERMANY. is certainly a forgery. Should any of your readers know anything

I shall never forget the events of this day, about this matter they will confer an obliga

and my readers, I am sure, will enjoy an action on me by writing to me such facts as have count of it. Pursuant to a

count of it. Pursuant to a polite invitation I come under their knowledge.

accompanied the teachers and pupils of the Asking you to kindly insert this in the next

Realschule of D- on an excursion to a number of the WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDU

neighboring hill about four miles from the city. CATION,

The school marched in companies behind a Very truly yours,

drum corps, the teachers acting as captains. W. J. HARRIS,

The students all wore light grayish-blue flanCommissioner.

nel suits and a cap, and carried suspended Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Education, Wash

from the shoulders by a strap a tin box called ington, D. C., Mar. 25, 1897.

a botanizing drum. This contained a lunch,

small hammers for breaking minerals, pinchers THE CEDILLA.

for dissecting plants, cork and pins for secur

ing beetles, and a drinking-vessel. A few DR. STEARNS:—Will you kindly tell me, boys carried spades and shovels, ropes and either by letter or in the columns of the JOUR- hammocks. NAL, just how the cedilla is formed? If I mis- The “regiment” afforded a beautiful sight take not our Wisconsin teachers teach that it as it marched from the school-yard between is a “comma” placed just below the ç like this. five and six hundred in number. As soon as I am told that the French mark is the figure the country road was reached, the music five, with top stroke to the right omitted, thus teacher began a patriotic song in marching b. Will you please tell me which is right, and time and the whole school chimed in. Oh, oblige,

A SUBSCRIBER. the exhilarating influence that song had! [The form in common use is a comma. The When we came to the villa of a noted philanmatter is of trifling importance.—ED.] thropist who had recently given a large sum

of money to the school fund, the regiment A SECOND HELEN KELLER.

drew up in line and gave him a serenade which

wound up with three rousing hurrahs. On we A second Helen Keller has been found in went, more singing followed, but never a a pupil in the South Dakota school for the break in the ranks nor a case of disorder. deaf, who is deaf, dumb and blind. Not be- When we reached the foot of the hill a rest ing the child of wealthy parents, as Helen was taken at an inn, where milk was served Keller is, she did not begin her schooling till and lunch was enjoyed as only youth can enshe was fourteen years old. In addition the joy it. Then we plunged into the woods, each same disease that caused her double defect of class by itself, one botanizing, one looking for the senses also left her partially paralyzed. minerals, another studying geography, and so By the use of the same methods of instruction on. I joined the history class. The profeswhich had such success in the other case she sor took took us to the summit of the hill and has in three years made remarkable progress. there gave us a lesson on local history which She can now read her teacher's lips and speak was interesting to a high degree. so that the teacher can understand what she “There it was,” said he, "where Prince says. She can write on a typewriter with Ferdinand chased the Frenchmen across the proper spelling and punctuation. She can Rhine. Yonder castle is the ancient residence read the books with raised letters for the of the Dukes of Jülich-Cleve-Berg, and in that blind and she can write on such tablets as they castle it was where the beautiful Princess

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