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Fig. 50.-Sectional Views Showing Construction of Typical Spark Plugs.

at the top of the plug cannot reach the ground, which is represented by the metal portion of the engine, until it has traversed the full length of the central electrode and overcome the resistance of the gap between it and the terminal point on the shell. The porcelain bushing is firmly seated against the asbestos packing by means of a brass screw gland which sets against a flange formed on the porcelain, and which screws into a thread at the upper portion of the plug body.

The mica plug shown at D is somewhat simpler in construction than that shown at A: The mica core which keeps the central electrode separated from the steel body is composed of several layers of pure sheet mica wound around the steel rod longitudinally, and hundreds of stamped mica washers which are forced over this member and compacted under high pressure with some form of a binding material between them. Porcelain insulators are usually molded from high grade clay and are approximately of the shapes desired by the designers of the plug. The central electrode may be held in place by mechanical means such as nuts, packings, and a shoulder on the rod, as shown at A. Another method sometimes used is to cement the electrode in place by means of some form of fire-clay cement. Whatever method of fastening is used, it is imperative that the joints be absolutely tight so that no gas can escape at the time of explosion. With a mica plug the electrode and the insulating bushing are really a unit construction and are assembled in permanent assembly at the time the plug is made.

Other insulating materials sometimes used are glass, steatite (which is a form of soapstone), and lava. Mica and porcelain are the two common materials used because they give the best results. Glass is liable to crack while lava or the soapstone insulating bushings absorb oil. The spark gap of the average plug is equal to about 1/16 of an inch for coil ignition and from 1/64 to 1/32 of an inch when used in magneto circuits. A simple gauge for determining the gap setting is the thickness of an ordinary visiting card for magneto plugs, or a space equal to the thickness of a worn dime for a coil plug. The insulating bushings are made in a number of different ways, and while details of construction vary,

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Fig. 51.—Group Showing Wide Diversity in Spark Plug Design.

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spark plugs do not differ essentially in design. Four different .forms of plugs using porcelain insulation are shown in part section at Fig. 51. Porcelain is the material most widely used because it can be glazed so that it will not absorb oil, and it is subjected to such high temperature in baking that it is not liable to crack when heated.

The spark plugs may be screwed into any convenient part of the combustion chamber, the general practice being to install them in the caps over the inlet valves, or in the side of the combustion chamber, so the points will be directly in the path of the entering fresh gases from the carburetor. The methods of spark plug installation commonly used are shown at Fig. 52. At A the plug is screwed into a threaded hole which passes through the valve cap in such a manner that the points are in a pocket. This is not considered to be as good as the method depicted at B, where the interior of the valve cap is recessed out so there is considerable clear space around the spark points. When the electrodes are carried in a pocket they are more liable to become short circuited by oil or carbon accumulations, because it is difficult for the fresh gases to reach them and the pocket tends to retain heat. Ignition is not so certain because some of the burned gases may be retained in the pocket and prevent the fresh gas from getting in around the spark gap. With a recess, as shown at B, conditions are more favorable because the fresh gases can sweep the points of the spark plug and keep them clear, and also because of the larger space any burned products retained in the cylinder are not so apt to collect around the plug point. The method of installation shown at C causes the plug to heat and is not as efficient as that outlined at D, which permits ready transference of heat to the cooling water in the jacket spaces.

On some types of engines which are not provided with compression relief, or priming cocks, plugs are sometimes installed, as shown at Fig. 51, C. A special fitting, which carries a priming cup at one side, is screwed into the cylinder and the spark plug is fitted to its upper portion. When it is desired to relieve the compression, the valve portion is turned in such a way that a passage is provided from the interior of the fitting to the outer air.

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Fig. 52.-Illustrations Showing Proper and Improper Placing of Spark

Plugs.

At the same time when the valve is in the position shown in illustration, gasoline may be introduced into the cylinder for priming purposes. It is advanced that this method of construction also provides a simple means of freeing the plug points from oil or particles of carbon if the cock is opened while the engine is running. The high pressure gas which brushes by the points on

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