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towards the final débâcle at Waterloo. All these effusions next works were Life in Paris, and a series of facetious plates of Cruikshank's pencil represent the French army as made in the Humourist, followed by etchings to illustrate a series of np of lean, thieving scarecrows ; Napoleon as a cruel, bragging German stories, and Points of Humour, which Blackwood's miscreant; and the English as honest, brave farmers, revel. Magazine mentioned with high praise. Cruikshank now had ing in wealth, peace, and all domestic virtues. Cruikshank reached his culminating point as an illustrator of comic books; was too impulsive for a philosopher, too fond of his country, and certainly no one ever surpassed him for broad humour to entertain a wise cold-blooded indifferentism. We were and refined, dexterous etching. He was in great demand now really in danger then, and Cruikshank was our comic Tyrtæus. as an artistic commentator on books.
Soon finding out his own imperfections, and that he was in Amongst innumerable other works, he illustrated Grimm's art but as it were a boy on a rocking-horse compared to the German Popular Stories, and inimitably too, with such in. veteran huntsman on his thorough-bred, Cruikshank set to tense enjoyment and quaint ease; Mornings in Bow Street, work and learnt drawing, resolving to become a careful and very excellently ; Peter Schlemyl, the man who sold his accomplished draughtsman.
shadow, one of his best works for strange diablerie feeling ; “Mais l'homme propose et Dieu dispose.” The skilful and then Italian Tales, Hans of Iceland, Toles of Irish Life, amateur was never to become the learned artist. George, Punch and Judy, Tom Thumb, John Gilpin, the Epping bating his pride, threw himself amongst the enthusiastic Hunt, Three Courses and a Dessert. The latter of these are youngsters, and became a student at the Royal Academy. full of the best Cruikshank manner. And now, having briefly Fuseli, the violent rhetorical Swiss keeper, told him that the sketched the rise and progress of glorious George, from schools were much crowded, and that he must “fight for a struggling adolescence to ripe manhood, let us stop for a place." But George's resolution soon began to wane and moment to take a glance backwards at the position which in fade,-he found it hard to lay by his popular fame and his first starting he seemed destined to fill. Born of a race of previous independence, to toil on pedantic rules, in which caricaturists, he took up the graving tools of the dead Gillray he felt a child, and in practising which the merest boys in a spirit of less sanguinary vehemence and less cruel partycould surpass him. He found, too, that the statues, with malignity. Napoleon defeated, and the old life-and-death which he could scarcely have had much sympathy, were in a struggle ended, there were no longer the same great stakes to dark, small room, and were placed at too great a distance for fight for. Our shop windows no longer glowed with crimson a short-sighted man. Cruikshank attended but one course, guillotines and blood-steeped caps of liberty ; we no longer therefore, and, having drawn one statue, left the place for a bitterly scoffed at caricatures of mob massacres or Rossians short interval of some forty years. Again he emerged into sabring the frost-bitten Gaul ; we betook ourselves to comedy, life, and became caricaturist for the Scourge, a newspaper and learnt to laugh at amusing, though over-strained, reprewasp of the day, that had still some honey at the root of its sentations of the blunders and difficulties of cockney sportssting. Before he was twenty, George, the keen-eyed and keen- men,--that being an age when Theodore Hook, novelist of witted, published, in partnership with a literary man named the supercilious school, represented all persons not having Earle, a half-crown magazine entitled the Meteor, a short-| landed property, or a title, as low, tasteless, London rabble, lived-periodical that perished after a few months,
,-a fruitless only fit to laugh at and borrow money from. warning to other speculators,—owing, I believe, to the careless,
Though never as truly imaginative as our modern Richard dilatory, and self-indulgent habits of Mr. Earlé, -Cruikshank Doyle, or as pure a draughtsman as Mr. Tenniel, Cruikshank himself being one of the most punctual and methodical of always aimed at higher distinctions than that of being a men. Now getting more known, the clever artist produced mere ephemeral caricaturist. He tried to do good, and not caricatures for half the leading London shops, for Humphrey merely to raise a laugh ; let that be the motto on his shield of St. James's-street, Sidebotham of the Strand, Johnson of while he lives, as it would be the best epitaph over him when Cheapside, and Fores of Piccadilly. Some time later, Cruik. he dies. Gillray was only a caricaturist and lampooner like shank acquired his greatest reputation by uniting his wit the elder Doyle, whose special pride was that he could with that of a clever, satirical, and not very scrupulous convey to the clubmen their own ideal of a tranquil, passionman, Mr. Hone, whose barbed political squibs he illus- less gentleman in the drawing-room or in the House. But trated and gave wing to, so that they led the mob any like Stothard, Fuseli, and other better artists, Cruikshank whither.
aimed at being a book illustrator. He tried to carry out the The ribaldry and libellous fun of Hone gained additional not incongruous ideas of Fielding and Smollett. He aimed pungency from his young coadjutor's graphic help. The also, after Hogarth, to portray the manners of the age he print-shop windows were crowded by admirers of George lived in, and to correct the salient vices which the pulpit Cruikshank, and even now you often meet with lovers of seemed far too high-flown and scholastic to reach. As a good caricature who still shake their sides at the recollection of citizen he tried to reform his great city,-tried forty years. Non mi Recordi, the Queen's Matrimonial Ladder, the ago, as he did viva voce at the temperance meeting yesterHouse that Jack Built, the Political Statesman at Home, day. Oye parliamentary changelings, behold a great moral end especially a Slap at Slop. His most violent attacks were lesson of consistency and conscience ! against George IV., whom he pelted with remorseless severity.
Of course, like all other humourists who are compelled, George III. had appeared simply foolish under Gillray's from the necessity for bread, to make more jokes than thes vitriolic colours, but his son, in Cruikshank's modern ink do reflections, Cruikshank has in his time (as we all have) sketches, became a bloated, loathsome débauché. In most laughed at many good men and many good thing3, men then of these cases worthy George V. supplied all the legends and unknown and on their trial, now well approved, and past letter-press which gave wing to the satirical shafts aimed the frontier line. His Illustrations of Phrenology attacked a at our unworthy George IV. But all this political satire, par- true though incomplete science. Like the rest of us, he ticularly as directed against royalty, suddenly ceased, pro- laughed at interloping railroads, and lamented other changes, bably from some conscientious dislike arising in the artist's which we English are so over-slow in making. On great mind towards such violent, and not always principled attacks social questions he was often wrong. Still, like a on merely political enemies.
rich wine, bis fun grew richer and purer every day. His George next attempted to produce a series of etchings entitled mechanical skill, too, grew more dexterous and wonderful. Life in London, which might do good, for that desire has He was never unpunctual, and never careless. Such were always been the lodestar of Cruikshank's life. The
his boasts as a tradesman in wood and steel. pro
For jovial jected work was intended to show the danger of letting boisterous fun of the old times, without much purpose. young men go and see life,” as the foolish phrase was, in except to stop some passing folly and singe its wings, we thieves' dens, low public-houses, saloons of theatres, and may instance his long series of “Comic Almanacks," degraded dancing-rooms. Pierce Egan, a writer on boxing summing up all the fun and jokes of the year, his and a well-known sporting man, wrote the story to ac Illustrations of the Times, his Scraps and Sketches, and his company the illustrations. The story became very popular, Scrap Book. being a sort of guide to low London haunts, but it was so As an etcher, most delicate, microscopic, yet most broad utterly immoral that Cruikshank left off in disgust. His faried, and magical, we think our artist has never yet.
received due praise. The old Dutch masters seem not to me the pump with philanthropic obstinacy. It never seemed to more masterly, more dexterous, more artful, or more true. strike him that to men to whom even temperance is so The finest needle could never delineate with more playful difficult, surely total abstinence must be impossible. In grace than he has done his Wasp and Bee, his matchless aiding Mr. Dickens in establishing the Guild of Literature and Peter Schlemyl, so quaint and wild, his Mornings in Bow Art, and in other works of charity, Mr. Cruikshank has never Street, and his Three Courses and a Dessert. Tom Hood been behind. To his own fame alone is he unkind, and to his alone could write fit verse for such a boundless and grotesque own memory alone uncharitable. fancy to illustrate. His Slap at Slop, and his many hits at A few years ago our great humourist, either as a joke, or George IV. in Hone's gossiping, ribald books, had been from a laudable though tardily developed ambition, made his vigorous and free; but here he became fairy-like and re-debut as an oil painter on the walls of the Academy. His fined, playful and witty. Till we lose him we shall never paintings were heavy handed, as those of amateurs generally know what an artist we have lost.
are, and of strange colour, not ingenious and laughable, as his Pre-eminently the artist of George the Fourth's reign, of etchings would have been. There was the Disturbed Contight pantaloons and short sleeves, of ringlets and coachman’s gregation, the New Situation, the Dressing for the Day, coats,-in the Omnibus, our artist treads side-by-side with us Tam O'Shanter, Titania and Bottom, Grimaldi being the paths of modern life. The piquancy of our own day, more Shared, Cinderella, the Runaway K'nock, etc. They were especially its riflemen and round hats, its crinoline and not remarkable as works of art, but they were very pleasant whiskers, Mr. Leech rules supreme, for Cruikshank is a vete. reminiscences to possess of tho veteran humourist of forty ran, and works less, and gets somewhat too old fashioned and years' standing. passé in his fun for the last crop of youth to thoroughly This practical joke of exhibiting oil paintings was, how. appreciate.
far surpassed by another joke from the same quarter. As a book illustrator, Cruikshank will ever live in his One day Cruikshank appeared at the Academy, on a low and drawings to Olirer Twist and Sketches by Boz, both sound acute-edged stool, among the boy students, drawing from a and excellent. Happy the author who had such an artist to cast of the Venus or the Apollo. He had for forty years felt illustrate his meaning and personify his characters! Happy his deficiency as a draughtsman ; he was now going to rectify the artist who had such an author to illustrate and bear him this deficiency altogether. A very promising student of some up in a higher art and towards a larger and warmer sun of sixty years of age he was, and as I heard him say,
a supper popularity! In his Boz, Cruikshank was so careful in party, with all his droll gravity, so inimitable, so quaint: detail that future antiquarians will turn with rapture “I think I'm getting on very nicely." to his pages.
In his Oliver Twist he nobly backed Cato began Greek at seventy, I think it was; why not the author in starting poor Oliver, old Fagan, and the cruel great George, the artist, drawing at sixty ? Dodger, to henceforth inhabit the world as real flesh and I think we ought to feel grateful to a man who has blood beings, all but sure of immortality. Like jewel eyes beguiled so many a weary hour, who when he dies will be stuck into the head of a clay idol shine out the etchings of followed to the grave by some tens of thousands of droll Cruikshank, too, amid the dreary, faded tale entitled the Tower creatures his pen has created; a man who never gave pain to of London, whose only charm was a certain dramatic vigour, any one,-who never fought on the wrong side ; who from à stage trick of costume, and sham picturesqueness. The grossness has purified himself into refinement;—who has best of these illustrations by far is Mauger the Head.sman laughed at vice, and not with it ;-who has laughed with Sharpening his Are, a perfectly Rembrandtesque imagining goodness, and not against her ;-who has set his axe at the which haunts one like a dreadful dream.
root of some of our great national vices and suffered so often Equal if not superior to this, and in the same manner, we in the right cause from ridicule,-the bitterness of which a may mention the great artist's Will-o'-the-Wisp, a most vivid humourist must feel more than any of us. image of a grinning spectre, whose lanthorn glimmers upon the deadly waters of a treacherous bog. This appeared in
A REALLY PRACTICAL POET. Laman Blanchard's Omnibus, where also figured his best There is a popular notion that a poet is a bright-eyed, longsailors, Greenwich Hospital, some strange social mishaps, and haired, wild and unpractical creature, who passes much of some of his extraordinary Chinese puzzles, swarming with his time in “communion with nature," never answers letters, little men and women, executed with infinite precision. As and never keeps an appointment. These two last defects, these hive drawings could never have paid, they must have -defects from a business point of view,-are held to be been executed, we suppose, as mere tours de force, and display undoubted signs of genius. Without them, a man may be exuberance of skill and fancy. It is the man with a redun. a very good statist, a tolerable historian, a pungent leaderdance of life who does great things; it is this surplus, this writer, and an able reviewer, but he can never hope to rise spirit above proof, that really constitutes what we call to those lofty heights where minstrels are ever striking genius.
their golden lyres. The examples that tell against this theory At what age it was that Cruikshank's growing moral con- are conveniently forgotten. Chaucer, the excellent clerk and victions came upon him with coercive force, and drove him to accountant; Shakspeare, the successful manager of a play. action, I do not know. That such feelings were early pro house; Milton, the reliable political secretary; and Pope, minent in him is palpable from many circumstances. He the best man of business in the eighteenth century, are never had been gross in early drawings, executed in the heat of alluded to. The proofs that ordinary prudence, trading skill, youth ; he had been forgetful sometimes of his responsibilities, and average punctuality are never united to the poetical and of the necessity of passing a moral verdict on what he faculty, are always sought for and found amongst the delineated; he had been gay and thoughtless, but morally secondary class of geniuses. Even here the search is not guilty, never.
always successful, and we have a poet of this quality now A change now came over him, and from one of the heartiest before us who is one of the most practical writers of the day. of boon companions he suddenly became a teetotaller, and Most of our readers may have never heard of a great poem let the water rather get into his brain. He became rather called the Londoniad, which has appeared in seven parts too didactic for a great many, with his powerful invectives during the last seven years. It is one of those productions and dissuasives against drinking. He flamed out with the which few persons will read, precisely because so many other Gin Shop, the Gin Juggernaut, the Upas Tree, the Pillars persons are anxious to see it read. It is a poem, according of the Gin Palace, and, lastly, those eight powerful plates to its author, that comes out “under the auspices of the entitled the Bottle. For nothing else now but some inge - Queen, the Prince Consort, the Emperor Napoleon III., nious fairy stories seemed he much to care. He grew less Leopold, King of the Belgians ; Otho, King of Greece; Sir funny as he grew more of the preacher. He became a great Joseph Paxton, Sir Charles L. Eastlake,"—in large letters,— man, with his grotesque seriousness, at temperance meet-" his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, friend of the ings; but the laughter a little hung back when he mounted author; his eminence, Cardinal Wiseman, writer on art; the (forsooth) the pulpit stairs. “Who made thee a ruler and a Governor-General of Canada, the Governor-General of India, prophet ?" was apt to be the jeer as Cruikshank clung to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, upwards of two hundred ani
fifty members representing literature, science, and art, in both “Light Carriage Poem," and the“ Vegetable Leather Poem,” houses of the British Parliament; and one thousand gentlemen, which are all component parts of the great work. Never, illustrious as inventors, manufacturers, and authors throughout perhaps, had any inspired minstrel so much “ method in his the world.” This highly-patronized poem is published in a madness.” After a long apostrophe to Apsley Pellatt and “home, colonial, royal, and parliamentary edition,” and its Company (which the distinguished glass-maker and parliaauthor is Mr. James Torrington Spencer Lidstone, of Torquay, mentary candidate is doubtless very proud of), the poet winds Devon, late of Toronto, Upper Canada, and author, by his up with the following significant note :-“Osler and many own showing, of the Conquest of Canada, Ancient America, others have presented their cards, but it would be a great and a Pictorial Description of the British Provinces in North piece of impolicy either to introduce a Brummagem house America.*
through the Londoniad, or any inferior firm, while I can There is always a pleasure in discovering new poetical honour myself, and do more justice to my friends, by taking as genius, and in being the first to bring it before the world. hero one acknowledged to be the head manufacturer in Great When Charles Lamb and his friends introduced John Clare, Britain." the Northamptonshire peasant, to London society, they were To speak of a poem, and not give a taste of its quality, is more delighted with what they had done than with all the an unpardonable crime in a reviewer; so we quote the bard works they had ever written. Their kindness took the shape upon marble chimney-pieces of late hours and heavy drinking, and the peasant poet, "I've heard of marbles, and my heart doth warm in due course, became an inmate of a mad-house. His Towards monuments that many nations charm. patrons, however, were hardly to blame, for they never Th’ Carrara gives t' our age a just renown; contemplated such a melancholy result. Their “inten
Was in the distant Julian era known. tions were honourable," and so are ours. In introducing
The Parian, though yellow now with time,
Has borne bright trophies from each classic cline, Mr. Lidstone to the general public, we are actuated by
Blest Paros ! ever midst Cyclades flow, nothing but a friendly love for literature. Notwithstanding O Muge-enchanted Archipelago ! the solid titles of those books which he places after his name, By th' magic wand of Art, for Demos thus we have a strong suspicion that he is not very widely known. Leap'd statues from th' quarries o' Pentelicus; Without going into his presumed merits as an historian and And Mount Hymettus, famed of old for bees, a writer of travels, we merely introduce him as that rarity
And Luini upon the Tuscan Seas." amongst authors,-a really practical poet.
We will not spoil this lofty strain by any allusion to the In turning over the pages of the “ Londoniad,” we are
“firm” in whose interest it appears to be written, nor struck by the originality of the subjects chosen by the by giving, by way of anti-climax, the prosaic trade adver. “ Muse.” There is no nonsense about the moon; no tisement attached to the lines. running after skylarks and nightingales, in the style of
If we read the poet rightly, in his poem upon fire-proof Shelley and Keats; and no “pottering over" water-lilies and safes he seems to be aware of his “mission":purling brooks. The minstrel sweeps the strings to no love
“Had nature not here stamp'd the literary men, sick strain, but twangs them in shops and counting-houses
Gladly I'd represent thy house, John Vann, to the tune of trade. His poem might have begun,
Then should thy saving art myself inspire,
Although I might not strike the awful lyre."
We might quote the great practical bard upon compressed
vegetables and their vendors, upon coach and barness The London shopkeepers have waited long and patiently makers, gas-fitters, carpet manufacturers, bell-hangers, and for their epic poet, and they have got him at last. He was
a dozen other trades. We might quote him upon Alderman sure to come, in the fulness of time, like railways, telegraphs,
, -or rather, as he puts it, “W.T. Copeland (late and other signs of "progress.” To parody anotber well. Copeland and Spode)," —whom he calls the “Mighty Potter," known passage:
with capital letters. We might quote some stanzas he has
written to his mother, which may have been put into the book “The poet's eye in a fine frenzy rolling Glances from lords to hatters,
to flavour it with a little sentiment, but we are checked by Thence to pumps, to clocks, to lamps,
our limited space. One prose passage, however, referring to And those that make them
past, present, and future poems, we are compelled to quote :(Always to those that make them),
“The present Londoniad will be found to contain a greater Nothing is passed."
number of patentees than any yet published.” The poet, we The real design of Mr. Lidstone's poem may, perhaps, be presume, has not included his mother. Every poem in the gathered from the following lines which are given by the Londoniad is copyrighted, and is the sole property of the poet in the for.n of a dialogue :
author; but any gentleman taking one thousand copies and Col. Sykes. “Do you not think it derogatury
upwards, can use the poem written for himself, provided that To your own fame and the Muse's glory,
it does not fall into the hands of publishers." There is little And that your genius, Mr. Lidstone, errs
danger of that. “Should I live to be an old man, I intend to In taking for heroes manufacturers ?"
sit down and make with these pieces one grand national poem Bard. “It is the pride and honour of my days,
on the arts. At present, although each is complete in' itself, That I to men of science poured my lays;
all are like the links of a chain that are not yet joined.” We I list to what each coming age imparts,
like them better as they are. “ The first five Londoniads When the world calls me poet of the Arts !
.” We may add fortunately scarce. Those giant minds that gave the Arts their birth Are all but walking gods upon the earth.
.. The seventh is the first of the London iads through Besides, they always paid for what they got:
which I have heartily entered into business with many genWhich you, Lieutenant-Colonel Sykes, did not."
tlemen therein mentioned.” If the great practical poet wishes us to read the last
On looking over the list of names of " gentlemen therein
passage in a prosaic sense, it may serve as an explanatory guide mentioned,” we are glad to find that poetry, in these supposed to this wonderful epic. It may explain the hidden meaning of hard times, can boast of so many rich and influential patrons. what the poet calls the “Great Scagliola Poem,” the “School. We hope that old and respectable houses like Broadwood and furniture Poem," the “Great Cement Poem,” the “ Farinacea Sons, and Maudslay, Sons, and Field, are able to trace a Poem,” the “State Poem,” the “Great Pump Poem,” the clear trade profit in being the favourites of the “ Muse.” A
poem like the Londoniad may be profitable to the practical • “The Seventh Londoniad (complete in itself), giving a full description of the bard, but is it equally profitable to the" heroes" of its pages ? principal establishments, together with the most honourable and substantial Thousands of copies may be thrown down areas, or crammed business men in the capital of England. Also containing the great prize poems on Prince Albert, and Leopold, King
of the Belgians, and pieces on some of the into private letter-boxes, but readers, as we have said before, North America, forming altogether episodes in a grand national poem on the ture" that is forced upon them gratis. most celebrated personages in the kingdon and in the provinces of British are a very obstinate class, and generally reject the "literaarts." Published by the author, at his town residence, 12, Lower Calthorpestreet, London, W.C. 1800.
are now scarce.
REVELATIONS OF THE HUDSON'S BAY COM. not be parts in which emigrants might settle. Assurances PANY'S TERRITORY.
were, however, given that this region was fit for nothing but As is well known, the British possessions in North America hunting-grounds, and for the support of such wandering tribes occupy the whole of its northern portion, except a small tract as lived there. This was doubtless true of the north, and, in the extreme north-west, where Russia, stretching from the perhaps, of some part of the centre ; but it seemed strange old world across Behring's Straits, appropriates this sterile that a country at no great distance northward from the portion of the new.
fertile Minnesota territory, and known to afford subsistence The Rocky Mountains, the northernmost portion of that to great herds of buffalo, should be unfit for colonization. great mountain chain which stretches from south to north of Perhaps the enormous extent of fertile territory in the the whole American continent, divide the British territories Canadas, which offered the advantage of comparative nearness, into two very unequal parts. That to the east, the larger of retarded the inquiries which, sooner or later, were sure to the two, contains Labrador, the Canadas, and part of the arise as to the capabilities for colonization of at least the possessions over which the Hudson's Bay Company bears southern part of the Hudson's Bay Company's territory; sway; while that to the west includes the remainder of the whilst the tenacity with which the company resisted all Hudson's Bay Company's dominions, the recently created interference with its privileges and all intrusion on its province of British Columbia, and (though not on the con- grounds, and the exclusiveness with which it retained nearly tinent) Vancouver's Island.
all of its information with regard to the interior, prevented The coast-line of “lonely Labrador,” and something of its private persons, or even companies, from undertaking indesolate interior, have long been known, and the fertile quiries surrounded by so many obstacles. regions of the banks of the St. Lawrence, and the shores of But the time came when the increased knowledge of Vanthe Canadian lakes, have become the homes of thousands of couver's Island, and of the capacities of the province west of the our countrymen and their descendants; but the great region Rocky Mountains, now known as British Columbia, suggested of the Hudson's Bay Company's territory has remained the advisability of ascertaining whether, in that portion of the almost untrodden by the foot of the white man.
Rocky Mountains lying north of the American boundary, That portion of the Hudson's Bay territory which lies to which, as already said, runs along the forty-ninth parallel, the east of the Rocky Mountains is a continuation of the there existed passes which could be made available for crossing great central plain of North America. It is drained north the mountains within British territory. and east to the Arctic Ocean and Hudson's Bay. The pecu- Up to the beginning of 1857, there were only known passes liarity of its drainage is that its rivers, after taking their rise far up in the north, which were used only by the servants of in the Rocky Mountains, and flowing eastward for a consi. the Hudson's Bay Company, and passes to the south, which derable distance in broad deep channels, suddenly form great had the disadvantages of being of considerable elevation, and lakes, as they pass from plains of secondary to a rocky of being in the United States territory. In fact, all the overland country of primary formation. The chain of lakes thus traffic between Europe and the western coasts of North formed includes the Winnissey, Deer, Athabasca, Slave, and America passed entirely away from British ground. Great Bear lakes, most of which are connected with each At the same time, nothing was known to the English people other, and cover an immense area. The extreme north of in general, and very little even to the Hudson's Bay Comthis continent presents perfectly Siberian characteristics, and pany, of the vast district lying between the American bounthe harbours eren in the southern portion of Hudson's Bay dary on the south, and a branch of the Saskatchavan river are frozen over by far the greater part of the year. But these on the north, and between the Rocky Mountains on the west, inbospitable regions give a home in their dense forests, and and Lake Winnifrey and the Assiniboine on the east, a district along the banks of their rivers and lakes, to vast numbers of computed to contain an area of 150,000 square miles. The wild animals, valuable, some for their furs, and some for the difficulty lay in the plains immediately to the east of the food which they afford. The buffalo, reindeer, musk ox, mountains, where not only were the fur-bearing animals fallow-deer, beaver, wolf, fox, catamount, wild cat, white, fewer than in the regions to the north, but the Indians who black, and brown bear, wolverine, otter, racoon, musk rat, inhabited them were more warlike in character, possessed of a mink, pinemartin, ermine, porcupine, hare, and various larger number of horses, and much less disposed to trade. squirrels, are all found there in greater or less abundance. An exploration of these regions seemed very desirable ; and Over these districts roam the North American Indians, the on May 9th, 1857, an expedition did actually set out from chief tribes being Crees, Sioux, or Dacotas, Assiniboins, England. Its objects were to survey the water parting beChippeways, and Blackfeet and Blood Indians. These sup- tween the basins of the Missouri and Saskatchavan rivers, port themselves by hunting and fishing, and engage but and also the course of the southern branch of the Saskatrarely in agricultural occupations. Scattered here and there chavan and its tributaries; to explore the Rocky Mountains, are small settlements, formed by the servants of the Hud- for the purpose of ascertaining the most southerly pass across son's Bay Company, to which, after the hunting season to the Pacific, within the British territory; to report on is past, the Indians bring the products of their labour, the natural features and general capabilities of the country; and exchange them for blankets, fire-arms, “ fire-water," etc. and to construct a map of the routes. The command of the The cultivation of the soil around these “forts” (as they are expedition was given to Captain John Palliser, already well called), and in the Red River settlement, to the north-west known for his adventures in the prairies south of the boun. of Lake Superior, is almost the only agricultural use to which dary line; and with him were associated Lieut. (now Capt.) this vast region has been put. To how little this must Blakiston, of the Royal Artillery, for astronomical and phy. totally amount will be seen when we consider that “the sical observations; M. Bouyeau as botanist; Dr. Hector as trading establishments scattered over this extensive region zoologist and botanist; and Mr. Sullivan as secretary. are in the same relative proportion as if in Great Britain The results of the expedition are as yet recorded only in there was one at London, another at Plymouth, another at papers presented to parliament in 1859 and 1860, and in com. Liverpool, and a fourth at Edinburgh, with no roads con- munications made from time to time to the Royal Geogra. fiecting them; and that many of these so-called forts con- phical Society,--at whose suggestion the expedition was sent sist of one or two log-houses, where a single European is out, and in whose “Proceedings ” its doings aro reported. located, with only half-breeds with him, upon whom he has Fuller details are in course of preparation, and will appear in to depend.”
the journal of that society. In the meantime, we propose The privileges of hunting in these vast regions, and of briefly to indicate its chief results. bearing sway there, have not been left entirely undisputed The first inquiries of the expedition, at the commencement with the Hudson's Bay Company. The North-West Company of the season of 1857, were directed to the possibility of of Canada, which was incorporated with it in 1821, for a long establishing a route to the Red River settlement between time carried on a successful trade ; and at present the traffic Lakes Superior and Winnifrey. If a communication from of the southern districts is much interfered with by traders the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans is to be effected entirely from the United States. From time to time, also, inquiries through British territory, it must pass between those lakes. bave been made as to whether, in all that region, there might The swampy nature of the explored country, however, pro
mises very unfavourably for the accomplishment of this object ; This, however, is not always the case, as is remarkably exem. and at present much the easiest mode of reaching Red River plified in the Colunıbia river, which, in its upper course, flows is by St. Paul's on the Mississippi, in Minnesota territory. from a chain of narrow lakes through a valley from three to The remainder of the season of 1857 was distinguished by four miles wide, in a direction parallel to that of the axis of the discovery of a previously unknown water communication the mountain chain, and has so slight an inclination as to between the Red River and the southern branch of the appear more like a sluggish canal than the commencement of Saskatchavan, consisting of a chain of small lakes, called the a great river. Qu'Appelle Lakes, out of which streams navigable for large Over the portion of the chain betireen the American bounboats, perhaps even for a small steamer, run north-west dary line and the fifty-third parallel were found no fewer than to the Saskatchavan and south-east to the Red River. seven passes, of which three, viz., the Vermillion, the KanaThe travelling season of 1858 was spent in the country, naski, and the Kootaine passes appear to be the most available. between the north and south branches of the Saskatchavan These three can be traversed by horses, and might even and in the exploration of the Rocky Mountains to find passes have roads for waggons made over them. The Vermillion available for horses. During that of 1859, the exploration pass, the most northern of the three, in latitude 51 deg. 10 sec., was continued to the west, certain passes before entered were from its gradual descent on the western side, promises best re-examined, and the journeys were continued beyond the for the making of a future railway. The highest points of mountains down to well-known trucks in British Columbia, these passes are about 5,000 feet above the sea level. The whence a direct and long-used route leads to Fort Langley Vermillion pass, the lowest of the three, has an elevation of on the Frazer River. A glance at a map of British North 4,914 feet, and the Kootaine pass one of considerably orer America will show how large a district has thus been tra- 5,000 feet. The snow-line appears to be at an elevation versed ; and how great an addition has been made thereby to between 6,000 and 7,000 feet in this part of the chain, so that our knowledge of that part of the country, which, for want except in winter, these passes would always be practicable. of a better name, has been designated “the Interior."
The geological, botanical, and other details of the expedition The elevated barren grounds which border the Arctic will soon be before the public. Accurate information is much Ocean are succeeded by a broad belt of forest lands, consti- wanted on regions which may, at no very distant time, tuting what are called the “strong woods” or “thick woods.” become the home of many of our countrymen ; which, in fact, These reach down to the district of the northern Saskat- have even now, in their auriferous deposits, held out to many chavan, and sweep to the south-east betweon Lake Winnifrey no unavailing temptation to temporary settlement. and Hudson's Bay. The lakes and rivers of this district No less important is it to know the exact nature of the yield abundance of fish, and the woods abound in fur-bearing British territory lying north, north-west, and west of Canada. animals. South of this district, and drained by the two The Canadian government, as well as our own, has felt this, branches of the Saskatchavan, lies the country whose agri- and while Captain Palliser was pursuing his explorations far cultural capabilities formed one of the things chiefly to be to the west, they sent out an expedition to make researches ascertained. The whole rises gradually from east to west in the country drained by Lake Winnifrey, the Red River, towards the Rocky Mountains, the elevation increasing from and the Saskatchavan. Of this country they report most 700 to 4,000 feet. It is divisible into two parts.
favourably as to its capability for producing grain, and where One part watered by the south Saskatchavan much dis- grain is not possible, pasturage. Lignite, iron ore, and salt appointed Captain Palliser. There he found arid plains, are reported as existing. extending over an area of at least 80,000 square miles, utterly The settlements west of the Rocky Mountains have immense unfit for cultivation at the ordinary level, but, where hills capabilities as a field for emigrants; but for the lands to the rose out of the plain, yielding good grass, covered with east, particularly of the basin of Lake Winnifrey, there is timber and fairly stocked with game. These plains, how. also, probably, a great future in store. For lying as this ever, hold out no agricultural prospects. They appear to be basin does “ between the rich gold-fields of British Columbia a continuation of that elevated barren plateau which stretches and the powerful, populous, and wealthy colony of Canada, it through the United States on the eastern flank of the Rocky is ouly a question of time how soon its vast capabilities and Mountains. The other part, a belt land embracing an
resources will be developed, and that position assumed, when, area of about 65,000 square miles, which lies to the north, as a British colony, it will also become instrumental in carry. already spoken of, is everywhere of the greatest fertility. ing British institutions, associations, and civilization across The northern Saskatchavan and its tributaries flow through the continent of America.” it, and it abounds in lakes. It appears at one time to have been covered with forests, which have been destroyed by fire.
DR. CARLYLE OF INVERESK.* The country is now partially wooded, yields abundance of In the seventy-ninth year of his age the Presbyterian min. grass, and gives subsistence to immense herds of buffalo. It ister of Interesk commenced to record his reminiscences of is to this district that we must look for the establishment of men and things. He had lived in stirring times, and desired future settlements of our countrymen. The climate, though to bequeath to his descendants notes of events within his much modified by the influence of Hudson's Bay and the own knowledge with a view to aid the future historian, and, lakes, is severe, the mean annual temperature being below
“if not to embellish his page, yet to keep him within the that of Toronto in Canada. The rivers are closed with ice bounds of truth and certainty.” for five months of the year, from the second week of No.
Ile was born on the 26th of January, 1722. He died is vember to the second week of April
. But, from experiments August, 1805. Death drew the pen from his hand while made at the forts and mission stations in this district, it has the labours of autobiography were yet incomplete. He was been shown that barley and wheat can be grown, and that all enabled to bring his narration down no later than the year the ordinary vegetables of a temperate climate will come to 1770. As his editor remarks, “ the intended remainder mast perfection.
be counted amongst the world's literary losses." It is The Rocky Mountains and their passes now claim our indeed, surprising that a task, undertaken so late in life, and attention. Just where the
various members of the expe- comprehending the story of nearly fifty years of a busy career, dition conducted their explorations these gigantic masses should have been carried on with the vigour and accuracy reach their culminating point, and in Mounts Brown and which are characteristics of this book. The indications of Hooker, and the recently-named Mount Murchison, attain an
age are very few; garrulity there is none, nor incoherency; elevation of over 15,000 feet. In the latitude of 52 and and the proneness of age to repetition is not strikingly nuani 53 deg. north, such an elevation tells of summits corered with fest. Not a man of genius, hardly indeed of remarkable perpetual snow, and of great glaciers filling up the higher talent, but steady, sturdy, conscientious, for fifty-seven years valleys. The sides of the mountains lower down are lined minister of his parish, reverenced by high and low, valued by with magnificent and dense forests of spruce, pine, poplar,
an aristocracy not given to over-estimation of the clergymen and cedar. The western declivity is much steeper than the of the time, respectful yet never subservient, courtly bizt eastern, and the rivers that flow towards the Pacific are often almost unnavigable from the rapids formed in their course. I sons. 1300.
• Autobiography of the Rer. Dr. Alexander Carlyle. London: Blackwood an