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visited Japan within the last two years, mention that the slaves. At last, whilst in the act of conducting the flight of face of every Japanese, from the peasant to the noble, is con- a number of runaways, he was tracked by bloodhounds, and stantly lit up with a smile of contentment. The Japanese, was captured, after a severe struggle, in which both his arms indeed, are a bowing, smiling nation ; every sentence that a were broken. He was at first delivered to his original, Japanese utters is accompanied by the blandest possible master, but was afterwards sold and taken to New Orleans, smile. Frugality of living and simplicity of dress are rigidly eighteen bundred miles from Canada. Nevertheless, within enjoined upon them by sumptuary laws, which are strictly eighteen months he was in Canada again! enforced, and which not only proscribe certain luxuries, The organization of the underground railroad is very simple. but also define minutely the style of dress to be worn by It consists simply in an agreement on the part of a sufficient each grade in the social scale. They are an eminently number of friends of the slaves; dwelling at suitable distances cleanly people; in no other country in the world is the from each other, that each shall pass on to the next any bath so universally favourite an institution. Religious fugitives that may be brought to him. Of course, the slaves pilgrimages were much in fashion amongst them in Will can thus be taken from friend to friend only at night. They Adams's time, and are so still. It is incumbent upon every are usually conveyed in waggons, hidden amongst merchanJapanese to perform, at least once in his life, a pilgrimage to dise, and the length of each night's journey is generally from Jaze, the shrine of the goddess Teu-sio-dai-zin, the patron six to twelve miles. Excessive caution is required, owing divinity of Japan. The ascent of the saered heights of to the number of ruffians who get their living by tracking Fusiyama, the "matchless mountain," is also an act of runaways, and are constantly on the watch for them. Nor devotion which is often performed. The rugged sides of this is the peril confined to the fugitive, since, even in the free mountain are inhabited by a seet of priests, whose daughters states, to aid or shelter fugitive slaves is punishable with are among the few beggars of the country, and do not, it is very heavy fine and imprisonment. to be feared, confine their occupation to begging.
For some years, Mr. Mitchell's station on the underground The historical portion of Mr. Dalton's book contains an railroad was on the banks of the Ohio river, and he knew aceount of the reigns of the great emperor Tiego-Sama and well the original of Mrs. Stowe's “ Eliza," and bears witness the usurper Ogosho-Sama ; and also the story of the intro- to the substantial truth of the story, as told in Uncle Tom's duction of Christianity into Japan by Franeļs Xavier and the Cabin, of her passing over the crasbing ice. Her real name Jesuits, of the rapid spread of the Gospel by Dominican and was Mary, and Mr. Mitchell gives her history in detail, as Franciscan friars, and of the persecutions which eventually obtained from her own lips. The night after her perilous led to the entire extirpation of Christianity from the country. passage over the river she was brought to his house,
and be The story is told by one of Will Adams's Dutch companions, carried her boy while condueting her to the next station, ten whose own adventures form an interesting part of the narra. miles on. tive.
Seven hundred thousand of the slaves in the United States
are held, according to Mr. Mitchell, by professing Christians, FUGITIVE SLAVES IN CANADA.*
members of churches. Of the nature of the ideas of Chris. The cultivation of the cotton imported into England from tian duty which prevail amongst these pious slaveowners, America employs the labour of a million of slaves. It is not" Mr. Mitchell gives some painful illustrations. Perhaps the endurable that so large a share of our commercial prosperity most horrible story in the whole narrative is one relating the as is involved in the cotton trade should continue thus to be treatment by a deacon of a Baptist church of a slave who based upon the foulest and most inhuman“ institution” the bad gone to a prayer-meeting without his knowledge. world ever saw. Any sudden substitution, however, of free Another story tells how a Methodist minister in Maryland labour for the labour of the enslaved negroes employed in betrayed for a hundred dollars an escaped slave who bad for cultivating our cotton is impossible, and an insurrection of the years been a member of his church ; and a third tells of a slaves would therefore arrest the production of cotton alto minister selling children from their parents, in order to raise gether, and so bring ruin upon many thousands of English money for foreign missions. homes. Moreover, there can be no question that in the The town of Windsor, on the Detroit river, which connects interests of the slaves themselves gradual emancipation is Lake Erie with Lake St. Clair, is the place at which most of much more desirable than any sudden elevation from slavery the fugitives to Canada first arrive. They are thence distrito freedom, whether brought about by insurrection or other buted throughout Upper Canada, the coloured population of wise; so that, on all accounts, perhaps the best and most which now numbers nearly sixty thousand souls. Their conpractical solution of the slavery difficulty would be such a dition is in general prosperous. Many are honourably gradually but rapidly increasing flow of fugitive slaves out | employed in handicrafts, some have made fortunes, and some of the United States into the neighbouring British dominions have entered professions ; but the majority are small cultias would prepare the way for, and indeed render imperative, vators, living, on allotments of from five: to twenty acres of the gradual introduction of free labour in the cultivation of land, in little one-roomed log-houses, usually furnished with the great staple of our manufactures.
a bedstead, a table, a looking-glass, and a burean. They Fugitive slaves are at present pouring into Canada at the often become expert farmers; and many of their homesteads rate of about twelve hundred per annum. There is a regular are models which both the native Canadians and the Irish organization for passing them on, reaching from the banks of settlers would do well to imitate. They are an industrious the Ohio river, on the borders of Michigan, to the chain of people; but, as was to be expected, after so recent a liberation lakes which divides the States from Canada ; and on this from debasing slavery, they have not yet shown any great dis“ underground railroad," as it is called, the author of the position for mental culture. Schools do not flourish amongst little book before us was for twelve years a "station"-master. them, and it is but very rarely that they are customers to a During those twelve years he was instrumental in assisting book-store. the escape of very many slaves, two hundred and sixty.
Much further information respecting the condition of the five of whom were brought to him within nineteen months escaped slaves in Canada will be found in Mr. Mitchell's little by a single individual, one John Mason, whose brief his- volume, which is of considerable value, as showing how ample tory is one of the most interesting things in the volume. for field is presented by Canada, covered as she is by the broad Originally a slave in the state of Kentucky, he sacceeded in ægis of British freedom, to the African who seeks a shelter escaping to Canada, and then determined to devote his life there in the name and honoured rights of “ a stranger.” to the rescue of his brethren from bondage. Returning, not only to Kentucky, but to the immediate neighbourhood of the
SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA. estate of his owner, he succeeded, within four or five years, in SOME recent researches of M. Love, a member of the delivering to "conductors" of the underground railroad, to institution of Civil Engineers of France, favour bis theory be“ passed on” to Canada, not fewer than thirteen hundred that the phenomena of sound, heat, light, chemical attraction, • The Underground Railroad from Servery to Freedorn. By the Rev. W. M. which M. Love regards as being a simple body, capable of
and gravitation, are all referable to the action of electricity, MITCHELL, of Toronto, Canada West.
forming compounds with other substances. Ozone, for
London: William Tweedie. 1801.
example, he considers to be a compound of oxygen and elec- into sulphurous acid, water, and oxygen. The sulphurous tricity, and steam a compound of water and electricity. He acid and the water being condensed in a refrigerator, the regards what is called positive electricity as being simply oxygen is left free. The sulphúrous acid thus obtained may electricity in a state of tension, and what is called negative be readily made to absorb more oxygen from the atmosphere, electricity as the same body, substance, or fluid, in a state of and so be reconverted into sulphuric acid, and may thus be tenuity. Sound, according to his theory, is produced by used over and over again, ad infinitum. The cost of the electricity in a low state of tension, when the vibrations are oxygen obtained by this process is thus simply the cost of few; heat by electricity in a higher state of tension, when the the fuel, the requisite attendance, and the wear and tear of vibrations are more rapid; and light by electricity when the the apparatus employed. The discovery of so cheap a pro. tension is very great, and the vibrations many millions per cess of obtaining oxygen may probably lead to the general second. One of his experiments, showing electricity acting introduction of oxy-hydrogen lamps, sending forth from a on a small scale as gravitation, consisted in electrifying a morsel of lime heated in their flame more light than could number of pith balls, attached to very fine silken filaments, be given by any ordinary number of gas jets. and covering them, when they diverged, with a charged A new green dye, which may be used for silk, and, if they leyden-jar, without contact. When this jar was made to are first morilanted with albamen, for woollen and cotton revolve, the balls, still remaining divergent, revolved also, in goods also, is prepared by M. Kæchlin by the action of the same direction as the jar. M. Love expects that, when hypochlorate of lime, hydrochloric acid, and ammonia, upon a provided with proper appliances, he will be able to effect this solution of sulphate of quinine. The precipitate obtained is experiment without the aid of the sustaining fibras; if so, the the new dye. It resembles resin, melts when heated, and is analogy between the rotation of these pith balls and the rota- insoluble in water, but dissolves readily in either alcohol, wood tion of the planets, accompanied, as astronomers have long sup. spirit, or glycerine. posed it to be, by the rotation with them of an immense sur- The name of cæsium has been given to the new alkali metal rounding subtle sphere, will be nearly complete. The muscular discovered in the water of Kreuznach by MM. Bünsen and movements of animals are known to be attended by the evo- Kirchoff, by means of spectrum analysis. The name is lution of free electricity, and M. Love attributes the exercise of derived from the word “cæsius," meaning greyish blue, and is the five senses to the presence of this free electricity, under the in allusion to the colour of the lines its presence produces in control of the brain as to its determination to any particular the spectrum. It exists in very small quantities, only 250 part of the body. In illustration of his view as to the electricity grains being found in upwards of twenty tons of water conbeing under control, he instances the torpedo and the electri. taining it. Its equivalent is 117, being nearly three times cal eel," which direct at their own will, and in every sense, that of potassium, which metal it much resembles, but from the electric current over which they have power.” In short, wbich it is readily distinguished by the facility with which he believes electricity to be the soul of inert matter, and the its nitrate dissolves in alcohol. means used by the Creator to govern material things, even to Another new metal is announced by Van Kobell, who calls the control of organized, sentient, and thinking beings. it dianium. It is found in tantalite pyrochlore and analogous
From a careful examination of the thermometrical register minerals. It belongs to the same group as tantalium and which has now been kept at the Greenwich Observatory for mobium. Like them, it forms an acid-dianic acid. forty-three years, M. Faye has discovered that the moon A new fusible alloy, consisting of cadmium, bismuth, tin exercises a very perceptible action upon the temperature of the and lead, has been patented. It fuses at 150 deg. F., being atmosphere. This is directly contrary to the opinion hitherto forty degrees below the fusing point of any other known entertained by scientific men,--an opinion which it was fusible alloy. The discovery that cadmium increases the fusithought was confirmod by the fact that when the rays of the bility of alloys is valuable. moon are condensed by a lens so powerful that when the rays A patent has been taken out for a new explosive substance, of the sun are condensed by it they will volatilise platina, the to which the name of "white gunpowder" has been given. most delicate thermometer placed in the focus of the lunar It is composed of yellow prussiate of potassa, chloride of rays exhibits only very faint indications of a rise of tem- potassium, sugar, and brimstone. It is said to be more perature. M. Faye accounts for this by showing that the powerful in action than ordinary gunpowder, and to foul the greater part of the caloric which comes to us from the piece in which it is used to a much less extent. moon, being dark caloric,* and therefore possessing less pene- Considerable attention is being attracted by a new method trative power than caloric associated with light, is absorbed of extracting silver from the ore which has been introduced in the higher regions of our atmosphere, groatly increasing by an Austrian chemist, Herr von Pakera, at the works at the temperature of those regions when the moon, is at Joachimsthal, on the frontiers of Bohemia. This new method full, and thereby causing that dissipation of clouds which of reduction constitutes a very elegant instance of applied has long been popularly attributed to the full moon, and chemistry, and is said to have been suggested by the photowhich scientific observers have often noticed. By thus heat- graphic process of " fixing," with which it is identical in ing the higher parts of the atmosphere, and so dissipating principle. The silver ore is first roasted with green vitriol the clouds, and causing clear weather, the full moon does and common salt, so as to produce chloride of silver. This is not, however, raise the temperature on the earth's surface, dissolved by means of hyposulphate of soda, -and sulphide of but lowers it, inasmuch as clouds obstruct the radiation sodium is then used to precipitate the precious metal as of heat, and radiation from the earth's surfies there. sulphide of silver. On this being heated, the sulphur escapes fore goes on much more freely in clear weather than in as vapour, and the silver is left pure. cloudy weather. M. Faye adds the following rule, which has It has hitherto been customary, in manufacturing coal gas, been propounded by Marshal Bugeaud: " If the weather of to pass the gas tlırough slaked lime, in order to purify it; the sixth day after the full moon is the same as that of the but this process does not remove the bisulphuret of carbon, fifth, eleven times out of twelve the weather of the month will which is the source of all that is offensive and injurious in be the same as that of the fifth day; if, on the other hand, the use of coal gas for lighting purposes. All authorities on the weather of the sixth day is the same as that of the fourth the subject have declared over and over again that it is imday, then, nine times out of twelve, the weather of the month possible to free the gas from this noxious bisulphuret ; bnt will be the same as that of the fourth day."
the Rev. W. R. Bowditch, of Wakefield, has discovered that it Messrs. Deville and Debray, who were commissioned by may be effectually freed therefrom by simply passing it, while the Russian Government to study the dry treatment of platina warm, through lime so dried as to be deprived of all moisture ore, have discovered a cheaper method than any hitherto in save such as it will retain at the temperature of 212 degrees. use for the obtainment of oxygen in large quantities. If sul. This decomposes the bisulphuret into sulphuretted hydrogen phuric acid be brought into contact, in a retort or other suit- and carbonic acid, which may be readily disposed of in the able vessel, with red-hot platina sponge, it is decomposed usual way.
Dr. Marcy has submitted to the French Academy an in• By dark calorie is meant the caloric which is radiated from the moon's heated surface, and which is quite distinot from the small amount of heat strument which he has designed for the purpose of registering which, in association with light, is rclected by the moon's surface.
on paper the alternate acent and descent of the pulse, with a view to indicating whether or not the circulation is in a mate of Mr. Frith's faculties is correct. The following have healthy state. He calls it the "Sphymograph,” and it lately been added to the National Portrait Gallery: Sir Chris. consists of a small delicately balanced lever, one end of topher Wren, by Kneller, 1711; Locke, by Silvester Brownwhich is made to touch the pulsating artery, while at the over ; Pope, by Jervas, a full-length life-size, with a backother end is a pencil, touching a slip of paper, which a clock ground figure of a lady who has not been clearly identified, work arrangement causes to unrol beneath the pencil point. and a bust of Homer ; John Owen, the vice-chancellor of OxUpon the slip of paper, when the pulse is healthy, the pencil ford under Cromwell; Queen Elizabeth at the age of thirtymarks for every beat a perpendicular up-stroke and an oblique eight, a miniature by Hilliard, painted on the back of a down-stroke, the latter twice the length of the former. In “Queen of Hearts" playing card; and Sir Dudley and Lady proportion as the pulse is irregular, the latter line, instead Carleton, afterwards Lord and Lady Dorchester, the former of being straight, is undulating.
dated 1625, by Cornelis Janssens. These two are gifts, and According to the Mechanic's Magazine, the rare ocean should scarcely perhaps rank among national portraits. Some phenomenon known as the “Milky Sea," was observed near approach towards classification of the pictures has now been Amboyna, on the 28th of August last, by Captain Trebuchet, made.-Sir Charles Eastlake is reported to have bought in commander of a French frigate cruising there. For some Rome a fine Fra Angelico for the National Gallery.-A monuhours the sea for miles round the ship seemed to be covered ment to Lord Dundonald is contemplated at Liverpool.with snow. On examining a bucketful of the water it was Mr. Woolner has lately completed a singularly admirable found to be covered with phosphorescent animalcules of the bust of Professor Sedgwick, which will probably be placed in thickness of a hair, and of various lengths. They adhered some part of Trinity College, Cambridge.-Messrs. Theed, together in groups of about twenty each.
Noble, Bell, and Munro, have been invited to compete for the The Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge is about to be monument to Hallam in St. Paul's. Messrs. Foley and enriched with the magnificent collection of fossils which Woolner were also invited, but declined. The group to the belonged to the late Dr. James Forbes Young. Sir Charles memory of Sir Charles Napier, for the same cathedral, now George Young, Garter King-at-Arms, and Mr. Henry Young, stands in its northern transept.-Mr. Noble has received the the brothers of the deceased, bave offered the collection to Government commission of £2,000 for the statue of Sir Jobn the university on the sole condition that it shall be kept Franklin, to be erected in Trafalgar-square. The lions so together; and this offer has been accepted. The collection long needed for the same site are in progress in Baron Marois said to include sixty thousand specimens of fossil fishes. chetti's studio: Sir Edwin Landseer assists in the moulding.
Amongst recent importations from France is a little scienti. Mr. Bell is preparing for the Great Exhibition of 1862 a fic instrument called the Debusscope. It is professedly a statue of Cromwell ten feet high. -A project is afoot for toy, but, in addition to affording amusement, is capable of acquiring from the trustees of Flaxman's relative, Miss Denrendering very decided service to artists iu the production man, a certain portion of the sculptor's designs and other of ornamental designs for textile fabrics, paperhangings, and drawings, to be placed in the hall of University College. The fictile and other manufactures. Its principle is that of the sum of £400 or £500 is required.—The memorial church to kaleidoscope, but its form is much more convenient than George Herbert, in his own parish of Bemington, a village that of Sir David Brewster's famous instrument. Two close to Salisbury, and near the site of his own church, was silvered and highly polished metal plates, about four inches consecrated on the 13th of December. The old church, under long by two inches wide, are set up on edge in a card-board whose altar Herbert is buried, is not to be removed. The new box, the ends of the plates being brought together at an angle church, built by Mr. Wyatt, of London, is of the early of thirty-six degrees, so that their sides form a V-outline. decorated style, and will accommodate three hundred and All that portion of the top of the box which is between the sixty-five persons. Macaulay and Longfellow were among plates is cut away, and the portion of the side between the the subscribers.—Plans for the restoration of Linlithgow two extremities of the V is also cut away. If now a frag- Palace have been prepared by Mr. Matheson. It is proposed ment of vari-coloured paper, a scrap of chintz, a strip of to restore the edifice to the appearance which it presented ribbon or lace, or indeed anything small enough for the pur: before the fire of 1745.-Captain Fowke's plan for the Great pose, be laid between the two plates, owing to the multipled Exhibition of 1862 is to be carried out : arrangements for the reflection of the plates there will be seen, instead of a single contract bave already been entered into.—The Royal Dublin object, an eight-sided regular figure, in which the object is Society intend to hold an exhibition of the fine and ornamental repeated eight-fold, ranging symmetrically round a centre. arts from May to August next, on the most comprehensive Thus, if the object placed at the bottom of the box be a scale. The guarantee-fund already amounts to £9,000.- The holly-leaf, there will be seen a figure consisting of eight original tapestries from Raphael's cartoons, the only duplicates holly leaves, all exactly alike in form, and all springing, of the set in the Vatican, have been lent by the proprietor, star-like, from a common centre. There is, of course, no end Mr. Charles Bianconi, to the committees of the Irish Protesto the variety of forms which may be thus produced by tant and Catholic reformatories, to be exhibited for their means of the most trifling waifs and strays from the garden or benefit.-Mr. Robinson, of the Kensington Museum, has the drawing-room. Nothing comes amiss to the Debusscope; lately bought for that institution, from the Papal government but its effect is most marked when elaborate drawings in in Rome, the section of medieval Italian sculpture of the cele. several colours are used. The patterns formed by the Debus- brated Campana collection. The works are between eighty scope may be readily fixed by photograph.
and ninety; including two bas-reliefs by Donatello, imporThe English Zoological Society has secured a specimen of tant specimens of Jacopo della Quercia, Orcagna, Gliberti, the Babirussa, an animal found in the Indian Archipelago, of Desiderio di Settignano, and Luca della Robbia, twelve which only one specimen had previously reached this country. examples of Majolica, described as unique," and, for mas. The Babirussa derives its name from two Malayan words, terpiece, a life-sized adolescent kneeling Cupid, in marble, by baba, a pig, and russa, a deer, being of a generally swinish Michael Angelo, believed to be the one which Vasari mencharacter, but possessing two horns, which grow backwards tions as executed at the same time as the Bacchus of the over the head, then droop downwards, and finally meet under Uffizi.-A fresh consignment of mosaics from Carthage has the throat. The only other specimen of the Babirussa reached the British Museum : they are believed to be the last ever brought to England was brought by Sir E. Belcher, in which Dr. Davis will send, and are not yet open to public 1851. The French Zoological Society has also received a view. The subjects are hunting groups, animals, and geofresh acquisition, in the shape of two “Golden Birds,”
metrical or fanciful patterns. so called from their gorgeous plumage,-from the Himalaya
A new method of colouring photographs has been discovered mountains.
by Herr (now Professor) Englebert Seibertz, a historical ART NOTES OF THE MONTH.
painter of Munich. He uses the colours in a dry, chalky It is rumoured that Mr. Frith is painting for Mr. Flatou, the state, and fixes them by the water-glass.-The last of Kanl. picture dealer, a picture, “The Railway Station,” nine feet bach's series of cartoons for frescoes in the new museum of long, at a price variously stated at £8,750 and £10,000. The Berlin has been announced as nearly finished. It represents price named either is exaggerated, or ought to be, if my esti. I modern progress, with the reformation as the leading central roup.-M. L. Gallait, the Belgian painter, has been painting Braithwaite on Midwifery, No.5, 12mo, Is. swd.
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