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sermons of the bishop in the cathedral,--a simple church, celebration, and there is no doubt that many of her relatives though dignified with that imposing title, without organ or were seriously displeased. But the marriage was in every choir; “no, we have no such Popish proceedings," writes respect a happy one. She had sufficient interest to procure the lady merrily; "a good parish minister, and bawling of her husband's advancement to the deanery of Down. There the psalms is our method of proceeding.” The perfect were sighs and longings at one time for a bishopric, but these liberty of her life in Ireland is a great enjoyment to her. Pony soon abated. The worthy couple lived together in great conriding, rowing on the river, walking; breakfast at ten, with tent and comfort. Mrs. Delany survived her husband many tea, coffee, chocolate, buttered toast, and caudle; then battle- years. The present volumes bring down the story of her life dore and shuttlecock or the harpsichord,--the hall is so no later than the year 1761. A further volume will comprise large that both pursuits are carried on at the same time, her papers and letters until her death in 1788. The reminiseven with the occasional addition of breakfast; a four-mile cences of George III. and his queen, promised on the titlewalk before the two o'clock dinner, a dance for two hours in page, have yet to be given. the evening to plenty of good music, then prayers at nine, With a glance at Opie's admirable portrait of her in her the organ or harpsichord till supper and afterwards, and age, still with her delicate rose-leaf complexion and her then to bed. No wonder the lady was healthy and well and kindly eyes; her silver hair turned from her forehead, her happy, leading so pleasant a life.
lace muffler round her neck, and Queen Charlotte's pearl-set In Ireland she made the acquaintance of that grand mys- locket, with her royal hair enshrined in it pendent on her terious man the Dean of St. Patrick, upon whom it is bosom,–let us gather further traits of life and manners from evident she made no inconsiderable impression, and who the correspondence of the “Pearl," as Dr. Delany aptly entertained for her a regard that ripened into the warmest called his admirable wife. Yet she cannot be taken as a admiration and affection. “An odd companion," she thought type of a woman of her age, for she was infinitely in advance him at first, for he was talking in very madcap spirits, not of it. While other women were simply painting their faces, waiting for answers, but sprinkling about an abundance of or having their hair greased and gummed to keep its place good sayings in the most effortless way. And while she is for a month without use of a comb, or playing at the eternal writing about him, the other ladies and gentlemen in the faro and quadrille, or in heartless coquetry with heartless room are reading aloud Prior's Hans Carveld!“ and some gallants, Mrs. Delany was ever bent upon advance and self. other pretty things of that kind, and how can one help listen.culture. She had all the restless energy and industry of a ing ?” so the letter is brought to a close. Hardly a note is thoroughly intelligent Englishwoman. Now she is busy addressed to her correspondents but there is mention of the painting portraits of her friend and relatives,-some of these dean in it. “He was then in very good humour. He calls adorn the book, one of them, Prior's Kitty, being especially himself 'my master,' and corrects me when I speak bad beautiful,-landscapes from nature, copies from Vandyke, and English, or do not pronounce my words distinctly. I wish he Kneller, and the old masters. And she has judgment as well lived in England. I should not only have a great deal of as skill. “I am passionately fond of Hogarth's painting,” entertainment from him, but improvement.” Jonathan Swift, she writes, and this before there was anything like to-day's who could be as gay as he could be grim, as playful as regulation praise of that artist; there is more sense in it terrible, delighted to bend before the graceful, good, winning than any I have seen. She releases Lady Sunderland from
When she has quitted Ireland, and is once more in her promise to have her picture done by Zincke, so that it London, Little Brook-street, Grosvenor-square, the dean may be executed by Hogarth. In return he promises instrucwrites to her in terms of great friendship and intimacy. His tion in drawing that will be of great use to her,-rules of his letters have not before been printed. He complains of own, that are to improve her more in a day than a year's chronic attacks of giddiness and deafness which last a month learning in the common way. She is a charming performer with him, but for three days he did not care for these, as her on the spinnet, and a friend and enthusiastic admirer of letter was his constant entertainment during that time. He Handel. He has two operas in his portfolio, Erminivs and proposes to make it high treason for her ever to quit her Justino. He calls to play over to her the overtures. She Irish friends again. Then he compliments adroitly her deems them churming and applauds warmly. At one time admirable good sense and honesty. “Nothing vexes me so she is busy writing for the great composer the words of an much with relation to you as that with all my disposition to find oratorio founded on Milton's Paradise Lost, though it does fault, I was never once able to fix upon anything that I could not appear that the work ever came out in Handel's time. find amiss, although I watched you narrowly. For when I She is a collector of insects and of shells; of the last manufound we were to lose you so soon, I kept my eyes and ears facturing most ingenious candlesticks and lustres of admirable always upon you, in hopes that you would make some design. She is indefatigable with her needles, her knitting, boutade." "If I have tried yon, it is the effect of the great knotting, silk, and worsted. Now she is applauding Garrick esteem I have for you, -do but lessen your own merits, and I at the theatre in Goodman's-fields, the first year of his perwill shorten my letters in proportion.”. Further on :-"I am forming ; now she is delighted with Farinelli and Cazzoni at grown sick, weak, lean, peevish, spiritless, and for those very the opera house. Now she is laughing over Harry Fielding's reasons expect that you, who have nothing to do but to be novels, now over Smollett's,-no one then dreamt of Tom happy, should be entertaining me with your letters and Jones or Count Fathom being condemned as too coarse civilities, although I never return them. Your last is dated for female perusal, -anon she is crying over Richardson. above two months ago, since which time (as well as a good time she agreed with the verdict of her time, and thought the before) I never had one single hour of health or spirit to author of Pamela the greatest, cleverest, best of writers; the acknowledge it. It is your fault. Why did you not come world bas since overturned that opinion. She was broken. sooner into the world or let me come later? It is your fault hearted about Clarissa Harlowe. She adored,-how all the for coming into Ireland at all. It is your fault for leaving it. women did then adore !—Sir Charles Grandison. Yet she was I confess your case is hard; for if you return you are a great no blue-stocking, she was not even a literary “woman of her fool to come among beggors and slaves; and if you do not, you time;" with all her artist talent, and skill, and industry, she are a great knave in forsaking those you have seduced to was a genuine English lady. She had her eye on the fashions, admire you."
the Duchess of Bedford's green paduasoy, Mrs. Dashwood's In 1743, Mrs. Pendarves married Dr. Delany, then green damask, Miss Cartaret in her mamma's jewels, Miss Chancellor of St. Patrick, whom she had known and regarded Fortescue, "like Cleopatra in her bloom, in pink and silver," many years. He was in his sixtieth year, a man of and so on. Nothing escapes her. She can love her birds and great talent and accomplishments, and in every respect tortoiseshell kittens, her garden and its flowers, with a worthy of her. The Granville family strenuously opposed the thought also to the orchard and the kitchen-garden for dessert union. Dr. Delany was a gentleman and a scholar, and pos- and preserves.
She doctors her neighbours and friends sessed of considerable wealth, but his family was of less (some of her prescriptions are certainly things to shiver at), ancient descent,-much less,-than their own. The widow but some medical knowledge and practice was then con. overruled these objections, but the marriage to k place so sidered indispensable in the head of a family, and she cuts privately that it is difficult now to fix the price of its out drooore and distributes patterns, and makes pipes of orange and carrant wine. And with all this how good and assumed world-wide proportions. “Had it been merely the simple and affectionate! No wonder her fascinations still rebellion of provinces against a sovereign, its importance survive in her letters, seventy years after her death.
would have been merely local and temporary. But the period Lady Llanover has prepared these volumes for the press was one in which the geographical landmarks of countries with a reverence and a painstaking that go far to redeem her were nearly removed. The dividing line ran through every errors as an amatear editor. The book is over-burdened state, city, and almost family. There was a country which both with matter and notes; and while it is furnished with believed in the absolute power of the church to dictate the many luxuries, it is without such literary comforts as an relations between man and his Maker, and to utterly extermiindex or even a digest of contents, very necessary in such a nate all who disputed that position. There was another work. Still a public would be hard to please that did not country which protested against that doctrine, and claimed, receive with thanksgiving pages so full of interest and amuse theoretically or practically, a liberty of conscience. The ment as are those of Mrs. Delany's Diary and Letters. territory of these countries was mapped out by no visible
DUTTON COOK. lines, but the inhabitants of each, whether resident in France,
Germany, England, or Flanders, recognised a relationship MR. MOTLEY'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED which took its root in deeper differences than those of race or NETHERLANDS.*
language.” The story of the contest between the States and Mr. Morley, in the volumes before us, takes up the history Spain is therefore much more than simply a chapter of the of the United Netherlands at the date of the assassination of history of Holland. “It is the story of the great combat the Prince of Orange, William the Silent, on the 10th of July, between despotism, sacerdotal and regal, and the spirit of 1584, when sixteen of the eighty years during which the rational human liberty. The tragedy opened in the Nether. States waged a war of revolt against Spain had already lands, and its main scenes were long enacted there; but as elapsed. Spain was then “one of the most powerful and popu- the ambition of Spain extended, and as the resistance to the lous world-empires of history," and her movarch, Philip II., principle which she represented became more general, other surnamed the " Prudent,"_“ a small, dull, elderly, imperfectly nations were, of necessity, drawn into the struggle.” educated, patient, plodding invalid, with white hair and pro
During the earlier period of this struggle, William the truding under-jaw and dreary visage," who,“ seldom speak. Silent stood at the head of the Netherland commonwealth, ing, never smiling," sat“ day after day, seven or eight hours in an attitude such as had been maintained by but few of ont of the twenty-four, in a cabinet far away beyond the seas the kings, or chiefs, or high priests of history."
There was and mountains, in the very heart of Spain, at a writing-table such general confidence in his sagacity, courage, and purity, covered with heaps of interminable despatches, which were that the pation had come to think with his brain and to act constantly departing for, or arriving from, the uttermost ends with his hand.” Philip believed that to get rid of William of the earth.-Asia, Africa, America, Europe,-and which would be to render the suppression of the revolt perfectly contained the irresponsible commands of this one individual, easy. The machinery of assassination," a regular and almost and were freighted with the doom and destiny of countless indispensable portion of the working machinery of Philips millions of the world's inhabitants," and who, “invisible as government,” was therefore set in motion, and at last "prothe grand lama of Thibet, clothed with power as extensive duced, after repeated disappointments, the result which had and absolute as had ever been wielded by the most imperial been so anxiously desired." The murderous act, however, Cæsar, as he grew older and feebler in mind and body, had not the effect which Philip had hoped from it. On seemed to grow more gluttonous of work, more ambitious to the contrary, while it filled the States with a poignant sorrow, extend his sceptre over lands which he had never seen or it deepened their implacable detestation of the Spanish sway, dreamed of seeing, more fixed in his determination to annihi-- sway under which their fields had been made desolate, late that monster Protestantism, which it had been the busi. their cities burned and pillaged, their men hanged, burned, ness of his life to combat, more eager to put to death every drowned, or hacked to pieces, and their women subjected to human creature, whether anointed monarch or humble every outrage,”'--and strengthened their determination never artizan, that defended heresy or opposed his progress to again to submit to it. A high executive council, of which the universal empire,"- :-was then “ the autocrat of a third part murdered prince's son, Maurice, then only in his seventeenth of the known world.” At his absolute command were the year, was appointed president, was formed, and every premost accomplished generals, the most disciplined and daring paration was made for continuing the struggle to the death. infantry the world has ever known, and the best equipped and
It soon became necessary for the States to consider what most extensive navy of the age ; yet the inhabitants of a aid they could obtain from other countries. England having slender group of cities upon the sand-banks of the North Sea, thrown off the yoke of Rome, it was to her that they first " a morsel of territory attached by a slight sánd-hook to the turned their eyes. They were sure of her sympathy; but it continent, and half submerged by the stormy waters of the was doubtful whether they could obtain from her any active German Ocean,-a territory, the mere wash of three great and effectual assistance. In the first place, the England of rivers, which had fertilized happier portions of Europe only those days was what would now be considered as rather a to desolate and overwhelm this less favoured land,-a soil so petty power, and certainly presented no semblance of equality ungrateful, that if the whole of its four hundred thousand with the gigantic power of Spain. In the second place, acres bad been sown with grain, it could not feed the labourers England was full of active conspirators, working day and alone,--and a population largely estimated at a million of night in the cause of the church of Rome, while Mary Stuart, souls,” dared to throw off his tyrannous yoke, and to defy all the next heir to the throne, was a Papist, so that it was imhis power in the assertion of their right to civil and reli- possible to say how long the English government would be gious liberty. The struggle which ensued was of momentous favourable to the reformed faith. If the States turned to interest for others besides the Netherlanders. “Philip stood Germany, the prospect in that quarter was still less satisfacenfeoffed by the Pope of all America, the East Indies, the tory. The Emperor of Germany was not only Philip's nephew whole Spanish Peninsula, the better portion of Italy, the seven- and brother-in-law, but a strait Catholic besides. It was to teen Netherlands, and many other possessions, far and near ;
France alone, therefore, that the States could look for assist. and he contemplated annexing to this extensive property the ance against their wily foe. The adored chief whom they kingdoms of France, England, and Ireland. The Holy
had lately lost had always favoured a French policy, and lud League, maintained by the sword of Guise, the Pope's bar, always felt a stronger reliance upon the support of France Spanish ducats, Italian condottieri, and German mercenaries, than upon that of any other power. The French monarch, was to exterminate heresy and establish the Spanish domi- Henry III., was certainly a Catholic, but he had for some nion in France. The same machinery, aided by the pistol or years tolerated the reformed religion in his dominions, and it poniard of the assassin, was to substitute for England's Pro. was probable, not only that the fast expanding power of French testantism and England's queen, the Roman Catholic religion Calvinisın would compel him to continue so to do, but also and a foreign sovereign." The stinggle soon, therefore, that upon his death the crown would legitimately devolve
upon the champion and chief of the Huguenots, Henry of * Histwy of the "wited Netherlands. By J. R. MOLE. London: Murray. 1961. Navarre. The Netherlanders, therefore, with some besito, tion, persuaded themselves to offer their country in full sover- should fail to read in Mr. Motley's glowing pages bow a eignty to France. To their surprise, llerry and his mother, cloud of fire-ships, vomiting vengeful flames, and two floating Catherine de Medicis, evinced no eagerness to accept the volcanoes, awaiting in darkness and silence the moment when mumificent offer. They prolonged tho negotiations over they should burst forth into a wild cataract of ruin, floated eight months, raising endless objections to every condition down from under the walls of Antwerp to the famous bridge, with which the offer was accompanied, and at last, when every --how the fire-ships proved harmless, being extinguished by condition had been withdrawn, rejected the proffered gift. the Spanish troops, one by one,-how one of the two floating
The real motives which influenced the French court to this infernal machines, the “ Fortune," drifted helplessly upon the rejection were not known to the Netherlanders at the time, shore,--and how the other infernal machine, the "Hope," but are well known now. During eight tedious months the floated with wonderful precision, unguided by human hand, Netherland envoys sent to make the offer were used as a cat's right under the most important point of the bridge, and there paw to extract money from Philip. Catherine de Medicis exploded, opening a mighty chasm in that structure, and had long set up a rivolous claim to the crown of Portugal, whirling away in an instant the lives of a thousand of the which had now fallen by conquest into the hands of Philip, Spanish troops. Blunders innumerable robbed the Antand, faint as their title was, she and her son were bent on werpers of all the advantages obtained by the success of the changing it against Spanish gold. “Let Philip,” they said, “ Hope.” At last they made up their minds to cat the dykes. "purchase our legal right to the crown of Portugal, and we A desperate sally was made for the purpose, but was unsucwill dismiss the Netherland envoys ; let him refuse, and we cessful, and the city, after being reduced to the verge of star. accede to their wishes and make their cause our own." Philip, vation, had finally to surrender, almost unconditionally, to “the Prudent,” made amicable overtures, and the Netherland the victorious Parma. envoys were at once sent away.
Previous to the fall of Antwerp, almost immediately after In the meantime, the Spanish monarch's famous general, the failure of the negotiations with France, the States had Alexander Farnese, Prince of Parma, was carrying on the offered to become a province of England, and England bad memorable siege of Antwerp, then the commercial centre, not displayed considerable readiness to accept the proposed gift. only of the Netherlands, but of Europe. Antwerp stands The scheme eventually broke down, ostensibly on account of upon the Scheldt, and William the Silent, foreseeing the certain matters of detail, but really because Elizabeth, while probability that Parma would seek to strike a blow at so she bore the greatest goodwill towards the States, was vital a spot, had proposed to protect it by destroying the unwilling to burden herself with a new kingdom at a time dykes which protected the lowlands along the Scheldt against when Ireland was in a state of chronic rebellion, when Scotmarine eneroachments, and converting Antwerp for a period land was a hostile power, and when the most powerful sove. into an ocean port. William, however, was now dead, and reign in the world, Philip of Spain, was straining every nerve the chief command in Antwerp had devolved upon Sainte to remove her by assassination, and make her kingdom his Aldegonde, the scholar, theologian, diplomatist, swordsman, own by conquest. But although Elizabeth would not accept orator, poet, and pamphleteer, who had a genius for all things, the sovereignty of the States, she was willing to lend them and was eminent in all, save only the ability to exert autho. men and money, conscious as she was that their cause was in rity. He could persuade his fellow-citizens readily enough of fact her own; and after much hard bargaining on both sides, the necessity of carrying out the plans of their late prince, she agreed to lend them six thousand troops---five thousand bat when the guild of buteliers opposed him with the prac- foot and a thousand horse,--the towns of Flashing and Brill tical argument that to do so would involve the destruction of being placed in her hands until her expenditure on this head twelve thousand head of cattle, he had neither nerve nor should be reimbursed. Accordingly, after a very long delay,perseverance enough to insist on what he knew to be right. it was at first intended that the troops should be sent in timo Meanwhile, the Prince of Parma bad been prosecuting a to relieve Antwerp;---the Earl of Leicester, and what would carefully matured plan for closing the navigation of the now be called a brilliant staff, arrived in Flushing at the Scheldt, and now occupied, with about half his army, a posi- head of the stipulated number of English troops, and was tion on the left banks of the Scheldt, nearly opposite received with the utmost enthusiasm. Antwerp, whilst the remainder of his army, under Count As may well be supposed, so considerable a man as the Mansfeld, was stationed upon the right bank, ten miles Earl of Leicester, one of the most prominent personages in further down the river. His object was to throw a the kingdom, was not sent to Holland merely to command a fortified bridge across the Scheldt, for the purpose of few thousand soldiers. Ho went as the representative of his cutting off all traffic up the river from Zealand, and thus, royal mistress; and the most influential Netherlanders were as the country on the land side about Antwerp had been anxious that he should assume an absolute governor-generalreduced, of completely isolating that city, and reducing it by ship of the whole country. Elizabeth had foreseen this offer, famine. Summer and autumn wore on, however, and still and bad forbidden its acceptance. Leicester accepted it, the bridge was hardly commenced, and the fleets of provision nevertheless ; and forty days afterwards the news of what he boats which were perpetually arriving with supplies would had done reached Elizabeth, and threw her into a frenzy of bave provisioned the city for more than a year, had not the passion. How she sent despatch after despatch, couched in magistrates committed the incredible folly of establishing the most violent terms, abusing both Leicester and the States, a maximum price for corn, and compelling the adventurous and how at length she was persuaded to acquiesce in the skippers, who had run their cargoes through the gauntlet arrangement, it would take us beyond our limits to relate in of hostile forces all the way from Flushing to Antwerp, to detail. The effect upon the minds of the Netherlanders was take in exchange for them only the exact sum which the most painful. A feeling spread amongst them that Elizabeth Antwerp board of trade might consider reasonable. This was playing double, and was treating with Spain; and this traffic ceased at once, and winter and famine stared the feeling was not diminished by the fact that her parsimony ninety thousand inhabitants of Antwerp in the face. left her troops to starve or beg about the streets of Flushing
After infinite delays, Parma’s bridge was finished at last, and Ostend. The seeds of distrust thus sown were not slow and on the 25th of February, 1585, the Scheldt was closed by to produce manifest results, the most prominent of which was a fortified barrier, two thousand four hundred feet in length, an open demonstration on the part of the municipal authostretching from shore to shore. The patriots, who had been rities against the Earl of Leicester. This led Leicester to lulled during the winter by the delusive negotiations with appeal to the people against their legal representatives, and France, now perceived that the city must fall unless a decisive thus to lay the foundation in the United Netherlands of a blow could be struck by themselves, and such a blow they nominally democratic party in opposition to the municipal one. determined to strike. No transformation scene in a Christ- In the meantime a negotiation between England and Spain mas extravaganza could present a more brilliant spectacle really had been going on. It was an underhand negotiation, than was afforded by the effort which the Antwerpers made and constitutes one of the many curiosities in the history of to destroy the bridge which shackled the free current of the diplomacy. Set on foot by two adventurers, who had created Scheldt, and was but too emblematical of the tyranny themselves ambassadors and diplomatists of their own mere impending over themselves. No one who can obtain them will, it had been taken up by Lord Burghley as a means of crushing Leicester. Walsingham, the steady friend both of in the United Netherlands of those parties and factions which Leicester and the States, blew it to the winds as soon as he are invariably called forth by the ill-defined interests of a heard of it, but this was not until it had already done its young state. Towards tbe close of the year, to the infinite work,-until it had sapped the very pith and marrow of gratification both of himself and of the States, Leicester was Leicester's enterprise, and prevented Elizabeth's ostensible recalled by his sovereign, who announced his recall to the assistance being of any real service to the States.
Netherlanders in letter which, if words were blows, would Early in the spring of 1586, Philip's general resumed hos- have effectually prevented them from playing any further part tilities in earnest. He had already in January sent Count in the history of Europe. But whilst Leicester departed, Mansfeld to lay siege to the city of Grave. Leicester, how. shaking the dust off his feet, he hit upon an, ingenious plan ever, had been informed of the intended attack, and had sent for making his absence even more hurtful than his presence. three thousand men to its defence. The English and Spanish He went away, but did not resign his position, so that the troops met, the Spaniards were repulsed, and Grave was supreme authority, so far as he could claim it, was transapparently secured to the States. But what valour had ferred with his person to England. The consequences were effected treachery rendered of no avail ; for the governor of immediate and disastrous. All the Leicester faction in the the city was soon afterwards induced by a Spanish mistress States refused to obey the state-general. Utrecbt, the strong. to open his gates to the enemy. The fall of Grave was soon hold of the party, announced its intention to annex itself, followed by that of Neusz. Twice Leicester got together without any condition whatever, to the English crown, whilst a force of four thousand men to go to the relief of the many governors of towns who had taken the oaths of allegiance latter town; but twice he was forced to disband them for to Leicester pretended that they still considered themselves want of funds to set them in the field. The town was burnt, bound by those oaths. The result was, in many quarters, a
eight houses escaping destruction, and four thousand mutiny against the legal authorities which almost amounted persons, citizens and soldiers, were put to the sword. The to civil war, and threatened to render nugatory at one blow result to Parma was immense, for Neusz had previously all that the Netherlanders had done and suffered for freedom ; barred his communications with Germany, whence alone he nor was it until this state of things had endured five months could obtain supplies, and his army had thus been threatened that Leicester at length sent in his formal resignation. with famine.
At this point Mr. Motley leaves for a time the direct While Parma was gaining this great success, Sir Philip history of the Netherlands, and completes his second volanie Sydney, who had accompanied his uncle Leicester to the with a minute account of those negotiations with the English Netherlands, obtained a countervailing advantage for the court, under cover of which Philip gained time to complete the patriots by the capture of the city of Axel. Parma, prose- preparation of his invincible armada, and a magnificent .cuting the campaign with his usual vigour, next laid siege to description of that stupendous failure. Rheinberg. Leicester, determined to make some attempt to check the Spanish general's victorious career, resolved, in
LIFE IN JAPAN. spite of the numerous difficulties which beset him, and which It is a Japanese custom to present a departing guest with a arose, partly from the hatred with which he was now regarded piece of dried salt-fish. The slice of fish is intended to symby the Netherland authorities, and partly from the extra. bolize the origin of the nation; and its presentation and ordinary parsimony of the Enghish court, to lay siege to acceptance imply a reverential recognition of their fishermen Zutphen, the capture of which would give the patriots the ancestors by a people who, in the midst of their present command of the Yssell, on which it was situated, while any civilization and prosperity, have not become effeminate and demonstration against it would doubtless compel Parma to luxurious, but still retain their forefathers' thrift and fru. raise the siege of Rheinberg. Leicester's calculations on the gality. latter point proved correct; and it now became the question
The legends of the early history of Japan will be especially Thether a convoy of provisions which Parma had collected acceptable to all who believe in the faultiness of recognised with extraordinary rapidity should succeed in eluding Lei. chronology, and who, instead of estimating the age of the cester's forces and entering Zutphen before the arrival of the world by thousands of years, do not hesitate to introduce into latter under its walls. Leicester was led to believe that the the computation millions, and even still higher powers of convoy was guarded by only a small force, and he accordingly ten. The legends record, with admirable precision, that for sent five hundred men to intercept it, believing that that 2,342,467 years Japan was subject to the united rule of five number would be amply sufficient for the purpose. When demi-gods, whose successors continued to control the country's the morning mist which at first hid the convoy from its destinies down to the year 660 B.C. In that year, a theocratic attackers rolled away, the latter discovered, with a surprise form of government was established, which existed, without which might reasonably have been dismay, that they were in alteration, for more than 1,800 years. Supreme power was the presence of a compact body of three thousand five hun- vested in a single ruler, called the “Mikado,” who united in dred Spanish troops. There was no thought of retreat, how- his own person hereditary ecclesiastical authority and absoever, and the battle began. After the first charge, it became lute control over the numerous princes whose territories a series of personal encounters, such men as Sir Philip composed his empire. In the middle of the twelfth century Sydney, Willoughby, and Stanley, fighting as private soldiers. of the Christian era, in order to check the growing spirit The most desperate struggle took place about the train of of contention among the subordinate princes, the command waggons, the English and Spanish soldiers both struggling of the imperial army was entrusted to a generalissimo, with the horses, and striving to gain exclusive possession of to whom was given the title of “Ziogoon.” The Ziogoons the convoy. The contest lasted an hour and an half. Three for a while shared the temporal power with the Mikados, but times the enemy was driven back; but at length two thou- at length obtained exclusive possession of it. Japan thus sand fresh troops sallied out from Zutphen to the help of came to be governed by twoemperors, the Spiritual Emperor, their comrades, and the English,-the odds against them or Mikado, and the Temporal Emperor, who is called, in time being now nine to one,—were forced to retire. In this battle, of war, Ziogoon, and in time of peace, Tycoon. The functions which must ever be regarded as affording one of the most of the Mikado are, at the present day, strictly ecclesiastical. brilliant examples of English valour, Sir Philip Sydney He is the head of the national Sintoo church, and traces his received his death-wound.
descent from the goddess Teu-sio-dai-zin, the patron deity of Altogether, the results of the campaign of 1586 were most Japan. In him rests the power of canonization, and he is unfavourable to the patriots. We cannot follow Mr. Motley also an intercessory mediator between his living subjects and through the history of the year following. It is the history the spirits and canonized beings of the other world, who, in of the Earl of Leicester's misgovernment of the country he their turn, act as mediators with the patron goddess. was sent to strengthen by his presence; the history of the Nominally, the supreme temporal power is still vested in the painful vacillations and duplicity of a sovereign who, at this Tycoon ; but, just as he in former times wrested the power he time, appears to have thrown aside all the qualities which for a long time wielded from the Mikado, so are the council make her name glorious, and to have been only a suspicious, of state now slowly compelling him to yield all actual control timid, irritable woman ; the history, finally, of the first growth into their hands.
Except in this transference of power, the Japan of to-day ductions, and the ignorance of the English merchants with differs but slightly from the Japan of two hundred and fifty respect to Japanese resources, were the causes of the failure years ago, when William Adams, the first Englishman who of the enterprise, which was abandoned after about £40,000 ever trod this strange country, wrote to his friends at home had been spent upon it. quaint accounts of the people amongst whom he was Will's last years were saddened by the discovery that the sojourning. His letters have furnished Mr. Dalton with the report which had reached him of the death of his first wife, groundwork of an interesting historical romance, in which Mabel, was false. Mabel really survived him. He died in May, personal adventure, authentic history, and descriptions of 1620, to the deep sorrow alike of his Japanese wife, whom he manners and customs, in part derived from the writings of had treated with kindness and affection-of his numerous derecent travellers and missionaries, are skilfully interwoven.* pendants, over whom he had exercised a wise paternal control,
Will Adams was born early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, -and of his true wife Mabel, whose love for him had never at Gillingham, in Kent. He served an apprenticeship to ceased, and who died of grief soon after receiving the news Nicholas Diggins, a shipmaster, of Limehouse, and in of his death. 1588, the year of the Spanish Armada, married Mabel, In Will Adams's time, as for ages previously, Japan was the daughter of Master Saris, a wealthy London merchant. divided into sixty-eight separate principalities. The minor He was now in the Queen's service, as a master and pilot in potentates who ruled over these were eventually found to the Royal Navy. Ten years later we find him piloting one of possess too much power, and, in order to put an end to their the ships of a Dutch fleet, dispatched by merchants of Am. frequent rebellious outbursts, their territories have from time to sterdam on a mission of trade to the East Indies. His ship, time been subdivided, until at the present day the number of which carried a cargo of woollen cloth, soon became sepa: feudal princes is not fewer than three hundred and sixty. rated from the rest of the fleet, and had to pursue its voyage Each prince is obliged to have a residence at Jeddo, the alone. After many fruitless attempts to dispose of its cargo, capital, and to spend six months of every year at it. During and after its crew had undergone many hardships, one of the the other six months he retires into the country, leaving his sailors suggested that as woollen cloth was in great estimation wife and children at Jeddo as hostages for his good behaviour. in Japan,
it would be well to make for that island. The sug- The nobility of Japan are encircled by such a net-work of gestion was acted upon, and in April, 1660, the vessel reached etiquette, that they would enjoy less personal liberty than any à Japanese port. At first, Will and his Dutch shipmates aristocracy in the world, were it not for a practice by which were put into prison ; but they were kindly treated, and were they may occasionally be freed from the ordinary restmints eventually set at liberty, in spite of the utmost efforts of the of their dignified position, and do as they like. This consists Spaniards and Portuguese, who were bent on keeping Japan in a kind of recognised incognito, which serves as a loophole closed to all nations except their own. They presented through which escape may be made from the irksome routine memorial to the then Ziogoon, Ogosho-Sama, entreating him of official and court life to the fuller freedom which unto exclude from Japan all foreigners except themselves and titled mortals enjoy. their countrymen ; but Ogosho drove the petitioners from his
A distinguishing feature of both official and private life presence, vehemently declaring that if “ devils from hell amongst the Japanese is their spy system, which crushes all were to visit his dominions, they should be treated like angels individual freedom, except the freedom of every man to act from heaven, so long as they conducted themselves
according the spy upon his neighbour
, and to report to the
government to the laws laid down by himself and his royal predecessors." whatever he sees amiss in his neighbour's conduct. It re. Will, by his manly conduct, soon attracted the favourable sults from the universal prevalence of this system, that the notice of Ogosho, who now insisted that the Englishman Japanese government officials are absolutely
, and should enter his service, in order to superintend the building that fower injuries are committed by individuals against of vessels for the use of the state. Will, though his foremost the community in Japan than in any other country in the desire was to quit Japan and return to his home in England,
world. served his master faithfully, and attained to great honour.
Another peculiarity of Japan is the extreme secrecy with “For my service, which I have done and daily do,” he writes which all government affairs are conducted. Perhaps the in one of his letters," the emperor has given me a living most singular instance of this secrecy is that which occurs very like unto a lordship in England, with eighty or ninety when an emperor dies. The fact of his death is kept hidden husbandmen, that be as my slaves or servants, which, or the from all but a few of the royal family for several weeks, or like precedent, was never here before given to any stranger. until the successor to the throne has obtained secure posThus God hath provided for me after my great misery, and session of the imperial honours. A similar custom is preto Him only be honour and praise, power and glory, both now valent in the families of the grandees. and for ever, world without end."
As already stated, the government of Japan, which in In the midst of his prosperity, Will was grioved by the Will Adams's time was in the hands of the Tycoon only, is receipt of intelligence of the death of his wife Mabel. After. now practically, for the most part, in the hands of the council wards, not of his own free will, but in obedience to the com.
of state. A good deal of power, however, is exercised by the mands of his imperial master, he married a lady of the princes of the blood. If the council and the Tycoon should Japanese court, who had been converted to the Christian be at variance on any important matter, the question in disreligion by a Jesuit missionary. Several of her kindred were pute is referred for decision to a tribunal composed of three also converts, but were put to death by Ogosho, who had
of the royal princes. If they endorse the opinion of the discovered that the Japanese Christians, in conjunction with council, the Tycoon is bound to abdicate in favour of the the Portuguese, had formed a conspiracy against his life and nearest heir ; but should the umpire decide in favour of the throne. The lady in question was absolved from the same
Tycoon, the council are compelled to accept the privilege of fate only upon the condition that she became the wife of
kara-kiri," or the "happy despatch” from this world to Will Adams. The Englishman's services were valuable to the next. This kara-kiri, in Will Adams's time, and for long the Ziogoon, who chose this way of securing his permanent abdomen. It has ceased to be such of late years. When
after, was a method of committing suicide by ripping the residence in Japan.
In May, 1613, Captain Saris arrived at Japan, in command any one now has had the privilege of kara-kiri accorded to of the Clove, bearing a letter from King James I. to the him, he calls his wife and children around him, and his Japanese emperor, with whom, through Will's instrumen. dearest friend, ---armed with a keen sword, -to his side. With tality, he negotiated a most favourable treaty. The result of the knife which was formerly used to cut open the abdomen, the treaty was the establishment of an English factory at he then makes a slight incision, as a sign of his wish to be Firando; but this factory existed only for ten years. The put to death. This incision is a signal which the friend bitter animosity of the Dutch, their unscrupulous obstruc- obeys ; the sword flashes, and the victim's head rolls at the tions, the absence of an adequate demand for English pro
feet of his forlorn family.
The government of Japan, despotic as it is, seems to be • Will Adams, the First Englishman in Japan. A Romantic Biography. By wielded with wisdom, and to be conducive to the happiness
of the people. Both Will Adams and travellers who have
WILLJAM DALTON. London: A. W. Bennett. 1861.