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CONTENTS. Literary Intelligence

117 | Living Wonders A Glimpse at Northern Italy

116 Mrs. Delany. By DUTTON COOK The Prima Donna's Revenge. By GEORGE AUGUS70% SALA

118 Mr. Motley's History of the United Netherlands Eminent Living Artists: Mr. J. E. Millais, A.R.A. By WALTER THORX- Life in Japan BURY

121 Fugitive Slaves in Canada The Commerce of the Central Regions of the United States. By P. F. André 123 Scientific Memoranda A Wild Poet of the Woods. By Join HOLLINGSTEAD

126 Art Notes of the Month. By W. M. ROSSETTI Travels and Adventures of Dr. Wolff

127 | English Books Recently Published

126 191 134 136 188 1:38 100 141

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Fifth Edition, 2s.6d., with Notes and Comments,



"A very useful series of Educational Wor of which Dr. Cornwell is London: Crockford. Or may be had at Mr. Barber's office, Abchurch Chambers, duction. There is vast difficulty in writing a good elementary book, and Dr.

It (the Geography for Beginners) is an admirable introAbchurch-yard, Cannon-street, City. "A calm and able review of the whole case."-Atheneum.

Cornwell has shown himself possessed of that rare combination of faculties "More interesting than any novel.” -Weekly Dispatch.

which is required for the task." --John Bull.

GEOGRAPHY for BEGINNERS. 6th Edition, ls. W. C. BENNETT'S NEW VOLUME. ΤΗ HE WORN WEDDING RING, and other A SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY, 29th Edition, 3s. 6d. ; with POEMS. Ss. Bd.

Maps, 5s.6d.
BABY MAY, and other POEMS on INFANTS. Third Thousand. Is.

A SCHOOL ATLAS, 2s. 6d. plain; 45. coloured.

London: CHAPMAN and HALL, 193, Piccadilly.

2s. red; ls. Od. cloth.

GRAMMAR for BEGINNERS, 36th Edition, 1s. cloth; the Cheap and Valuable series of ATLASES and MAPS (for the school Od. sewed. or private library),

designed under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Uselul Knowledge, gratis, on application.

THE YOUNG COMPOSER, 23rd Edition, 1s. 6d. London: EDWARD STANFORD, 6, Charing Cross, S.W.

SELECT ENGLISH POETRY, 11th Edition, 43.

THE SCIENCE of ARITHMETIC, 6th Edition, 4s. 6d. Railways and Innways; Innkeepers' Liabilities ; Take Care of your Hats ; How Travellers may Insure against Accidents; Innkeepers' Charges: Gulliver Drapers; Simple Innkeepers ; How it is proposed to get the Innkeeper inquired

ARITHMETIC for BEGINNERS, 4th Edition, ls. 6d. for by every Innkeeper, Traveller, and inan of business. “Will obtain an immense circulation." ad.

London : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, and co.; HAMILTON, ADAMS, London: HOULSTON and WRIGHT, Paternoster-row.

and co. Edinburgh: OLIVER and BOYD.


This day, in a Popular Form, price Is., with Portrait,




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States of America: a Memoir,-his Views on Secession, and Extracts from the Constitution of the United States. To which is appended, an Historical RAILWAY PRACTICE,

EUROPEAN and AMERICAN. Sketch of Slavery, reprinted from the Times, by permission. 12mo, cloth, 8s. Ed.;

By ALEXANDER L. HOLLBY. With 77 Plates. Folio. or Popular Edition, fcp. limp, ls.

ID : vols, medium 8vo, printed on toned paper, with 43 Engravings on Copper,

uniform style with Kugler's Works on Painting, edited by Eastlake, 328. LOW'S INDEX to CURRENT LITERATURE. Part 8.
By JAMES J. JABVES, Esq., Author of Art Hinta, Parisian Sights, etc.

Complete in 8 vols. fcp. 8vo, cloth, price £1 88.

for 1860. 8vo. ENGLISH and SCOTCH BALLADS. An extensive

Collection. Designed as a Complement to the Works of the British Poets, THE DEAD SECRET. By WILKIE COLLINS, Author of and embracing nearly all the Ancient and Traditionary Ballads both of England and Scotland, with Notices of the kindred Ballads of other Nasions. Edited by

The Woman in White. New Edition in 1 vol. With Mustration by Johry

F.J. CHILD. A New Edition, revised by the Editor.

In 1 vol. 8vo, cloth, price 6s.
By Dr. J. E. WORCESTER, Author of The Enlarged Dictionary of the English


SAMPSON LOW, SON and Co., have received a fresh Supply of the following :Also, lately published, the Large QUARTO DICTIONARY, the cheapest and best Dictionary of our language, 1,854 pages large 4to, cloth, £1 11s. 60.; hall MR. GEORGE TICKNOR CURTIS'S HISTORY of the ORIGIN, FORMArussia, £2 25.

TION, and ADOPTION of the CONSTITUTION of the UNITED STATES ; In 1 vol. demy 8vo, with pumerous Maps, Plans, and mustrations,

with Biographical Notices of its Framers. 3 vols. 8vo, 244,

ROWAN HELPER, of South Carolina. Post Svo, os. Bd.

the work, The Physical Geography of the Sea. By Commander MAURY, LL.D., SuperMR. PARTON'S LIFE of ANDREW JACKSON, 3 vols. 8vo, 488. intendent of the Washington National Observatory.

LIFE of AARON BURR. 8vo, cloth, 12s. The present work is copyright; it entirely supersedes all former editions, LIFE of JOHN ADAMS, Second President of the United States. 8vo, 148. which are reprinted without the author's permission, are incorrect, and deficient in the results of recent researches.


Plates. SOs. In 1 pocket volume, beautifully Illustrated, cloth extra, price 58.

8 . , es. of Every Rig and Size to be found floating on the Waters in all parts of IRVING'S LIFE of WASHINGTON. Ilustrated. 5 vols. imp. 8vo, £4 48. the World. W. H. G. KINGSTON, Esq. With Numerous Illustrations by DR. DUER'S LECTURES on CONSTITUTIONAL JURISPRUDENCE. Edwin Weedon, engraved by W.J. Linton.

108. 6d. In fep. cloth, uniform with Lord St. Leonards' Handy-Book, price 49. 61.

WHEATON'S ELEMENTS and HISTORY of INTERNATIONAL LAW. Dedicated to the Right Hon. the Lord Brougham.

Each 31s, 03.

cloth, £4 10s. LAW, English and Foreign, for the Use of Inventors, Patentees, Authors and Publishers. Comprising the Law and Practice of Patents, the Law of STORY'S COMMENTARIES on the CONSTITUTION. 2 vols. 388. Copyright of Designs, the Law of Literary Copyright. By JANES FRASER, Esq. STORY on BAILMENTS-AGENCY-CONFLICTS-PARTNERSHIPS-each Post &vo, cloth, 4s. od.

285.--LAW OF CONTRACTS-3 vols. 638. American Booka procured within six weeks of order. American Catalogues, 28. 81. each.


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6, Gote-street, Lincoln's Inn Melds, London.

Have the pleasure to submit the following List of splendid Books for the present Season.

PARADISE and the PERI. By Thomas Moore.

Illuminated and Illustrated by OWEN JONES and HENRY Warren. Price, gilt edges, cloth extra elegant, and bevelled boards, £2 2s.; or calf in relief, gilt edges, £2 12s. Od.

KEBLE'S “MORNING HYMN.” Illuminated by B bere bile Size, smellato, containing ten pages beautifully illumi.

. bound, gilt edgesprice 158. LOVED and , interesting, and

elevating. Small 8vo, sixteen tinted Plates, and thirty Wood Engravings, elegantly bound in cloth, priee 79. Bd. Α.

SUNDAY BOOK. Illuminated by OWEN JONES. With initial letters and borders on every one of its thirty pages,

embodying simple Scriptural lessons in verse. A beautiful gift-book for children, and at the same time presenting on every page a study for the practical illuminator. Elegantly bouna, prioe 5s.

Will be ready in January.

: Size, 4to. 36 Lumipated Pages, by W. R. Tymms, Author of The Art of Illuminating, etc. Each page of the Work will be maminated with Initial Letters and suitable Floral Devices; the style of the Illuminations ranging between the Fourteenth and Sixteenth centuries. The work will be elegantly and appropriately bound. Price 21s.

[Will be ready in January BIRTHDAY GIFT ; or, Thirty and Oce Texts Selected from the Old and New Testaments. By Miss S. HUGHES.

Size, 4to, with Six coloured Plates. Price 10s. 64.



the British Museum, South Kensington Museum, and other Collections, by W. R. Tumms. With an Essay on the Art, and Instructions as to its Practice in the Present Day, by M. Digny Wratt, Architect. 100 quarto Plates, splendidls printed in Colours and Gold ; and 104 pages of Text, with borders in Colour. Bound extra elegantly, price £3 10s. A DESCRIPTION of the HUMAN BODY: uits Structure and Functioneers

Illustrated by Physiological Diagrams, and designed for the Use of Teachers in Schools, and Young Men destined for the Medical Profession, and for Popular Instruction generally. By Joux MARSHALI, F.R.S. F.R.C.S., Surgeon to the University College Hospital, London, and Lecturer on Anatomy in the Science and Art Department, South Kensington. 200 quarto pagey of Text, bound in cloth, and 103 Coloured Nlustrations, arranged on nine Folio Plates, in a Portfolio. Price, completo, 21s. INDIA, all the of

great Interest and Value will be found upon reference to Messrs. Dar and Sox's Catalogue, which may be had on application.


A .

By C.T. NEWTON, Esq., M.A. Being the Results of an Expedition sent to Asia Minor by ller Majesty's Government in October, 1858. The entire edition to be printed of this work will be limited to 500 Copies, and the stones will then be destroyed. A large portion of these Copies have been rapidly subscribed for; it would be difficult to find another instance wherein such extrnordinary interest has been evinced: the list is headed by Her Majesty for the Royal Library, and H.R.H, the Prince Consort, followed by Imperial, Royal, and other august and eminent personages throughout England and Europe, who have thus marked by their support, the value attached by them to the publication of this work. The Publishers look to complete the list of 300 Subscribers considerably before the time at which the Work will be puttished. Detailed particulars will be found in the Prospectus, which may be had on application to Messrs. Dar and Box.

THE COLOURS of the BRITISH ARMY. By R. F. M'Nair. To be published Fortnightly, at 5s. per part of Six

Plates and Text; the Plates fully coloured by Chromo-lithography. Part I. will be published in the conrse of January, SI *PECIMENS of MEDIÆVAL ARCHITECTURE in FRANCE and ITALY. By W. E. NESFIELD, Esg., Architect.

Publishing Monthly, at 35. 6d. per Part of Five Folio Plates ; to be completed in Twenty Parts. The complete Volume will contain 100 Plates, half-bound

morrocco, price £4.

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Lithographers to the Queen, have the pleasure to announce that they are preparing for publication a Work which, they believe, will take the highest rank amongst the artistic publications of the day. They have in the Chromolithographic Press an Illuminated Psalter, or the complete Psalms of David, from the Authorized Version, every page of which will be enriched with Initial Letters and Borders by Mr. OWEN JONE®, and the whole resources of their establishment will he taxed in its production. It will consist of 100 folio pages, and it will be published Fortnightly, in Parts, containing three magnificent folio Plates, for 5 The First Part will be published in the course of January.

for and will be issued in the spring. Its size will be large folio, and it will consist of a series of so splendid illuminations. The prices of the various styles of Copies will be $10 10s., £8 8a. and L8 os. BUNYAN'S PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. Illustrated runt mo Series of 30 Original Water-colour Drawings, by the

Artist A

NATOMY for ARTISTS. By JOHN MARSILALL, F.R.S., F.R.C.S. Embodying and amplifying the substance of

the well-known Lectures on the Human Form, delivered annually by the Author at the Government School of Art, formerly at Malborough House, and now in the Theatre at South Kensington. The work will consist 01224 pages imperial Bvo, and will contain about 120 original Lilnstrations drawn on wood by Mr.J.S. CUTE HEBT. It will be published in four Party, at 5s, per Part. Part I. will appear in the Spring.



1.11), 14" **


Mr. TROLLOPE, to be published in shilling monthly parts by

Messrs. CHAPMAN and HALL, is also announced. The first FEBRUARY 1, 1861.

part is to be published on the first of March. On the evening

of Friday, January 4th, Mr. TROLLOPE inaugurated a course LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

of lectures in connexion with the “Post Office Library and Of the books published since our last issue which are not Literary Association,” the subject of his discourse being noticed at length in subsequent pages, only a few call for

- The Civil Service as a Profession." The lecture was prominent record. These are “The Diary and Correspon- delivered in the Dead Letter Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand. dence of CHARLES ABBOTT, Lord Colchester, Speaker of The second lecture of the series was delivered on the 18th, by the House of Commons, 1802-1807,” edited by his Son, Mr. EDMUND YATES. Both Mr. TROLLOPE and Mr. YATES CHARLES Lord COLCHESTER; Carthage and her Remains; are Post Office employés, holding responsible positions. being an Account of the Excavations and Researches on the

Mr. J. A FROUDE, the historian, is said to have succeeded Site of the Phænician Metropolis in Africa, and other Ad- the late Mr.J.W.PARKER as editor of Fraser's Magazine. There jacent Places, conducted under the Auspices of Her Majesty's was a rumour a few weeks ago that another shilling magazine Government,” by Dr. N. Davis, F.R.G.S., etc.;


was about to be started, to be published by Messrs. HURST its Volcanoes, Geysers, and Glaciers,” by Charles Forbes; and BLACKETT, and edited by Miss Muloch, the authoress of “ The Lost Tribes and the Saxons of the East and of the

“John Halifax, Gentleman." It is now stated that this is West, with New Views of Buddhism, and Translations of not the case, but that a shilling ladies' magazine, to be edited Rock-Records in India,” by GEORGE Moore, M.D.; “Cor- / by Mrs. S. C. Hall, and to number Miss Muloch among its respondence Between the Bishop of EXETER and the Right contributors, is in contemplation,—by what publishing house Hon. T. B. MACAULAY, in January, 1849, on certain state. we are not able to say. ments respecting the Church of England in the first chapter

The Oriental Budget, a monthly literary journal published of his ‘History of England;' “British Artists, from by Messrs. SAUNDERS and Otley, asserts that a new Conser. Hogarth to Turner," by WALTER THORNBURY ; " Six years

vative weekly newspaper is to be commenced immediately. of a Traveller's Life in Western Africa,” by Francesco “ The price of the new paper,” adds the Budget, “ will be a VALDEZ ; "Paul the Pope and Paul the Friar: a Story of penny, while the size will be as large as that of any existing an Interdiet," by Thomas ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE; “Social weekly. It is to occupy the vacant place, no doubt, of the Aspects of the Italian Revolution,” being a reprint of a Weekly Mail, which its constitutional supporters have suffered number of letters contributed recently to the Athenoum to drift into the Court of Bankruptcy. A substantial sum of by THEODOSIA TROLLOPE;“Songs of Labour, Northampton- money, it is said, will be posted' to inaugurate the under. shire Rambles, and other Poems,” by John PLUMMER, the taking, and the conduct of the whole matter will be 'broad, lame working shoemaker of Kettering? “The Worn Wedding liberal, and, while instinctively Conservative, thoroughly Ring, and other Poems,” by W. Č. BENNETT ; a second independent.' One thing appears to be decided upon, that volume of “ Legends and Lyrics," by ADELAIDE Proctor; those in whose feeble and inexperienced hands the superin. and “Garibaldi, and other Poems," by M. E. BRADDON. dence of the journalism of the party has hitherto been

Messrs. LONGMAN and Co. announce that they have in vested shall have no power or control in any department of preparation a fifth volume of the late Lord MACAULAY's the new venture.” “ History of England.” It will be edited by his sister, Lady

Messrs. W. and R. CHAMBERS have commenced two new TREVELYAN. The Publishers' Circular states that the

serials,- Family Edition" of SHAKSPEARE, and a series volume will probably be not quite so large as its solid pre- of “ Social Science Tracts.” The “ Tracts” are under the decessors, but as far as it extends it will be found that it had editorship of Mr. W. CHAMBERS, and are designed to disreceived from its illustrious author all the care and finish seminate useful information among the working-classes on bestowed upon the earlier portions of the work.” Other subjects connected with social, political, and sanitary economy. notable announcements are those of the “Life and Corre. Each tract will consist of a distinct subject, and be adapted, spondence of Admiral Sir CHARLES Napier, from his Private as far as possible, to be read as a popular lecture ; by which Papers,” by Major-General C. NAPIER ; a volume of essays

means it is anticipated that some of the objects sought to be contributed to the Quarterly Review by Mr. JAMES HANNAY; attained by the National Association for the Promotion of new novels by Mr. LAWRENCE, the anthor of " Guy Living- Social Science may be brought conveniently before the operastone ” and “Sword and Gown,” and Mr. GEORGE MAC- tive and less affluent classes.” The tracts are to be published DONALD, author of "Phantastes” and “ Within and Without;" quarterly. The first of the series is on “Co-operation, the first volume of the long-promised “ History of the Invasion in its Different Branches,” and embodies the substance of of the Crimea,” by Mr. A. W. KINGLAKE ; “ Memoirs of the a lecture recently delivered in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Courts and Cabinets of William IV. and Victoria,” by his Paisley, by Mr. W. CHAMBERS. grace the Duke of BUCKINGHAM; “ Serbski Pesme, or

“ The newspaper press

London,” a provincial contemNational Songs of Servia,” by Mr. OWEN MEREDITH; “ The porary recently wrote, “appears to be at present in a transiTragedy of Life, being Records of Remarkable Cases of tory state. Ever since the repeal of the compulsory stamp, Lunacy;" and the long-announced “Life of Edward Forbes, changes and innovations have been of daily occurrence. The the Naturalist,” by the late Dr. GEORGE Wilson, Professor latest novelty is a proposal on the part of Mr. REUTER to do of Technology in the University of Edinburgh.


the Parliamentary reporting for the London morning journals. CHAPMAN and HALL announce the commencement, on the He has already completed his negotiations with seven or first of February, of a new illustrated library edition of Mr. eight of the papers, and when Parliament meets, probably CHARLES Dickens's works, to be illustrated with the whole of only two sets of reporters will appear in the gallery,-the the original plates, and to be completed in twenty-two monthly Times' staff and Mr. REUTER's. The saving to the proprietors volumes at seven shillings and sixpence each ; and Mr. H. G. will be great. Mr. REUTEL proposes to do for £450 what has Bohn announces the commencement on the same date of a hitherto cost each paper £1,250. The temptation is too great series of monthly volumes, to be called “Bohn's English to be resisted, and the consequence will be that many hard. Gentleman's Library,” the first work published in which will working, intelligent men will very soon be out of employ. be Mr. Peter CUNNINGHAM's edition of the Correspondence ment. Under Mr. REUTER's system it might be expected of HORACE WALPOLE. The getting up” of this new that there would be too great sameness in the reports, but “ library” will be more costly than that of the “ Standard this will be avoided. Nearly everything will be reported Library," and its selling price will be nine sbillings per verbatim by Mr. REUTER's staff, and the manuscript will be volume.

condensed after it has been received at the nowspaper offices, Mr. ANTHONY TROLLOPE, the author of “ Framley Parson. and, of course, each paper will make such a selection as age,"

,” “Barchester Towers,” etc., has commenced a series of may be most suitable for its own columns.” We believe stories in the London Review,--which has now raised its that the arrangements here spoken of have, for the present, price from threepence to fourpence, and is no longer announced fallen through; but the plan possesses such manifest advanas "conducted by Dr. CHARLES MACKAY.” A new novel by tages that it can scarcely fail to be adopted eventually.

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It has been stated that when “Framley Parsonage” is dicancy, and ungrudgingly bestow upon him the almns by completed in the Comhill, it will be succeeded by a tale from which he lives. the pen of Mrs. HARRIETT Beecher StowE. Meanwhile, a In the kingdom of Piedmont the abolition of special cos. tale by this lady, called “The Pearl of Orr's Islaud,” is in tumes is complete. The prosaic railway carries French course of publication in Cassell's Family Paper.

fashions to every corner. Did that myth, the shepherdess of In noticing the publication of the issue for 1861 of Messrs. the Alps, exist, the graceful invention would be seen attired LONGMAN and Co.'s “Annual List of Periodicals and News. like a modern housemaid of Westbourne-terrace. The papers,” the Publishers' Circular remarks upon “the notion women of the lower class generally appear with uncovered which this list affords of the activity and enterprise of the heads in summer, and armed with green paper fans. In win. projectors of this class of publications.” Our contemporary ter, their beautiful hair is partially concealed by silk or cotton proceeds :—“The list is, from its length, somewhat bewilder- handkerchiefs. In other respects, nothing original marks ing, and at first sight suggests the inquiry of how a man of their attire ; nothing of that picturesque and bizarre style speculative and deliberate character could ever make up his which formerly indicated different races and peoples, and mind what magazine out of the multitude would be best to separated them into friendly and unfriendly provinces. Dress take in. If he determined to trust no one's authority, but to once greatly served to strengthen and perpetuate municipal take in all, for, say a twelvemonth, on trial, the experiment hatred; now the law of unity is making such progress as would be costly. We calculate indeed that, exclusive of the almost to destroy all distinctions. People are clad heavily or Transactions of the Learned Societies, and many other public lightly according to the variations of climate, and dress in cations which are strictly serials, it would cost about four silk, wool, or cotton, in accordance with their means ; but the hundred pounds, of which about fifty guineas would be laid make of the poor woman's dress is almost identical with that out in quarterlies, one hundred and thirty in monthlies, and of the rich. Crinoline is worn on the Sunday by the Pied. two hundred in periodicals published at shorter intervals, montese girl, who has spent the week in spinning to earn being of course principally weeklies. Nor conld he buy one fifty centimes a day. single copy of each for much less than thirty pounds ; of If you enter Lombardy, Milan will appear to you like a which more than eleven would be spent in the monthlies, large French town, and nothing will strike you as strange in about thirteen in the quarterlies, and about five in the other the appearance of the inhabitants. The men are handsome, kinds. However familiar with our London periodicals, a the women graceful, and the nobleness of the race will remind reader who had not glanced at this list would perhaps hardly you that you are in Italy; but here, as at Paris, you will see guess that they number altogether, varying in price from a well-filled cafés, you will find fashionable loungers, pleasure halfpenny up to ten shillings, nearly seven hundred, of which seekers, and bon vivants. The manners are gentle and the weeklies and dailies are about two hundred and thirty, polished, the address frank and open. At Milan as at Turin, and the monthlies more than three hundred and fifty. The you see splendid palaces belonging to noblemen of fortune. number will probably go on constantly increasing. There All the Lombards have travelled more or less, for the sake of are always new fields for those who have the wit to find inhaling the breath of freedom, and it is difficult to distinguish them.

a Milanese from a Parisian. Austria, so clever in producing

that void which nature shuns, rendered Milan a deserted city. A GLIMPSE AT NORTHERN ITALY.

If you wished to find a Milanese professing liberal views, you

must seek him in Turin, London, or Paris. It was considered MAJESTIC Alps! attired in your stately mantle of ermine, little less than a dishonour for a Lombardian seigneur to reverend is your form, and reverently would we salute you! have his house open at Milan. How Austria could so long When the winds agitate your silvery locks, they fall into the resist the crushing demonstrations made against her rule is valleys below in terrific avalanches. During December's utterly inexplicable ! blasts, the awe-stricken traveller avoids raising his voice In this part of Italy agriculture is at its apogee. Nothing while in your dread precincts, lest the echoes should arouse can be finer, more abundant, or better arranged than the your wrath, and he be overwhelmed by the mighty fragments Lombardian agricultural exhibitions ; nothing more admi. hurled from your frozen regions. His lip quivers, his limbs rably kept than the dairy farms; no system of irrigation are benumbed, and vague terrors seize him as he marks your superior. The fertility and prosperity of Lombardy need, fierce eagles perched above his head, and hears the cry of however, excite no surprise. It was the direct interest of its your vultures greedy of carnage. From time to time, his Austrian rulers to favour the increase of its productions. companions in travel address him in a whisper, and point out The government of Vienna depended upon the millions prothe spot where men perished a few days agone, buried in duced by the province itself to pay the army, which kept it snow drifts or attacked by the ice fiend, Sleep, whose under the yoke. invariable attendant is death. The heart of the wayfarer The Lombard peasant is active and laborious, and only fol. seems relieved of a burden as he reaches the plain; he feels lowed out his own tastes and instincts in cultivating the fertile to have renewed his life's tenure when, instead of the sledge soil which God placed beneath his feet. His sole thought was which toilfully bore him through the midst of perils seen or to maintain his family in comfort, and lay by a little for future imagined, he becomes the occupant of a vehicle that speeds use. In general, he was unaware that his labour tended to him over a macadamized and well-guarded road, and conducts the support of Austria. him in safety to Piedmont.

The women share the field labour with the men, and you Here the stranger asks himself what is the language spoken see them, almost throughout Italy, placed on a footing of by the blouse-clad men who surround him ? At first he thinks perfect equality with the rougher sex. The wife is the soul it is Italian, but quickly changes his opinion. He is sure it is of the family, takes part in the cares of her husband, knows French, and yet does not know what is said. By the difficulty all his affairs, and is his best support and counsellor. Interest he experiences in understanding the discourse, he is made in politics is innate in the Italian woman's breast, and like aware that a patois is spoken in Piedmont. He makes the that felt by Italians in general, consists in love of country circuit of Turin, and according to bis wants is addressed in and hatred of slavery and foreign domination, the desire to French or Italian. His interlocutors, he perceives, are see Italy a strong and compact nation, and the ardent wish neither members of the Institute of France nor compilers of to enjoy those benefits which can alone be possessed in a free the dictionary della Crusca ; they express themselves badly, and independent country. but with facility, in both languages,-to him an inestimable Religious education is much neglected in this province boon. As all know, Turin is a beautiful, clean, and symme. where, from the great number of ecclesiastics, it would be trical city. The Turinese are mild, sensible, amiable, indus. expected to be the most extended. The bonds which should trious, and friendly to free institutions. Pious without being attach a people to their religion and its ministers have no bigoted in religion, and liberal without being fanatic in existence here. Priests are looked upon simply as the actors politics, they respect that which is worthy of respect, and who represent the Catholic worship. Their ministry is conadmire a Garibaldian soldier more than a monk; yet they fined, in the main, to exterior details. The sacerdocy of the peacefully leave the latter to pursue his profession of men towns have little or no ascendency over their parishioners,


while those of the country are treated with the most perfect long black veil, which extended to the knees, in striking con. familiarity by their flock, and seldom take the trouble even trast with the white robe which it covered. The wax-tinted to pretend to explain the Gospel to them.

hands, crossed upon the breast, held an ebony crucifix. A A moonlight religious procession in the rural districts is bridal bouquet adorned the waist, and the pale, senseless extremely picturesque ; but the people who take part in it do brow was crowned with orange-blossoms. Bunches of white so, apparently, with no other object than to amuse themselves. flowers and green leaves placed round the body imparted to All idea of piety seems banished from the ceremony, and it the effect of a picture in its cornice; a veil of white net persons meet to enjoy each other's society, indulge in a pleasant covered it from head to feet. walk, see the fireworks, and admire the illuinination of the Several children carried tapers on each side of the bier. church in honour of the Virgin or our Lord, while the village From time to time the cortège halted, and four young girls, and neighbourhood are gay as a fair.

who had previously walked behind, came forward to relieve The clergy of Lombardy and Piedmont exercise no retro their young friends and take their turn to carry the remains. grade influence over the masses, for the reason that, like the The mother of the departed followed in the attitude of utter Italian clergy in general, they possess neither the external despair. Her eyes were fixed upon her daughter's head, to dignity nor the moral force required to inspire confidence in which the movement of the bearers imparted a regular oscil. the people. The priest is treated with consideration and lation, strangely contrasting with the rigidity of the rest of respect only if he holds liberal views ; not a word will be the body. It seemed as if the mother sought to detect a sign listened to from him if he is known to be of the Pope's party of reanimation in her child's face. When the evening breeze in politics. The people, enlightened by the ever brightening agitated the abundant hair, she stepped rapidly forward, ray of progress, are throwing off the superstitions and preju. perhaps hoping that the fresh air might restore her lost one dices with which the clergy filled their minds for ages. They to life. Each time the procession halted she fell on her now want that true and pure, that elevated and spiritual teach- knees in the dust, and her piteous sighs were heartrending. ing which alone can satisfy man's heart and intellect.

Her strength seemed utterly to fail at these moments; but Upon quitting Lombardy and entering Tuscany, it will be when the bier was again carried forward, she suddenly started found that no distinctive apparel exists in this state any more up as if touched by a spring, and with haggard face and than in the two which we have already visited. Large straw feverish step, pursued the route which was to terminate at the hats at Florence, black or white veils at Leghorn, gold and grave, where she must lay that beloved one whom she had silver pins in the women's hair at Lucca, immense gold fondly hoped would be the support of her own infirmities, and crosses covering the breasts of the peasantesses in the environs close her eyes when her earthly race was run. of Pisa, and coral and real pearls adorning the necks of the Death thus arrayed, with uncovered face, under an Italian common people in the city ; such are the only objects which sky, amidst flowers and torches, seems less lugubrious than strike the stranger's eye as peculiar. The young peasant girl in northern climes, sewn up in a shroud, carried in a dismal consecrates a portion of the fruit of her daily toils to laying coffin, covered with a funeral pall. Yet a mother's despair up a sum of about ten or twelve pounds sterling for the will be the same in every clime. None but she who has lost purchase of her wedding jewellery. No little farmer, hidden her son at Palermo or Castelfidardo has the courage to speak among the mountains and gaining his bread by the sweat of with pride of her loss. A mother is resigned when she can say, his brow, even though he had seven or eight daughters, would “My boy was with Garibaldi ; he is dead now!" Another allow one of them to marry until she had saved enough to hero to add to the list !" is the response; and those whom she buy her marriage adornments. It is to be hoped that this addresses wait until she has retired to sigh and ejaculate, custom, which dates from time immemorial, may always be “Poor woman! poor, poor mother!" preserved. Not only is it a pretty sight to see the women The event of the moment is the return of the volunteers wearing their golden ornaments and cherished trinkets on the from the south. They may be seen traversing the roads and Sunday, but these form, so to speak, a certificate of morality, crossing the mountains, and when a red shirt is espied in the are the proof of long and assiduous toil, and bear witness, distance the people rush to their cottage doors to see which besides, to the general welfare of the Tuscan peasantry.

of their relatives or friends is come home. Look! a woman A little serves to satisfy the wants of the country people, is running down a steep path in a copse of olives and chesnuts. who are sober, economical, and tidy. Their natural gaiety Though very old, radiant joy is depicted on her withered face. endows them with a degree of philosophy which renders life Where is she going in such haste? She has heard that her easy and enjoyable, and the domestic virtues seem to be of son is on the point of arriving at the village, and in her spontaneous growth among them.

excitement, forgets the years which have blanched her hair, The rural districts of Tuscany still offer to the eye and and flies down the steep descent, like a young girl, to clasp heart of the observer much that is poetic and impressive, her son to her heart. many striking customs and ceremonies which excite a species The returned volunteers, few of whom have reached of languid, pensive, soothing sadness altogether indescri. adolescence, narrate splendid stories of their last campaign. bable. On passing the door of a humble cottage at dusk, They tell how intensely they suffered, and each says how you may see the floor strewed with flowers, like a magnificent nobly his comrades fought; but they feel amply repaid by carpet. As your eye penetrates to the extremity of the room the delirious shouts of welcome accorded to them by the into which the door opens, you see four tapers burning. A populace as their liberators ; by the heart-stirring cry everyyoung mother, surrounded by a few friends, is weeping over where aroused by their presence, Vira l'Italia! They speak the mortal remains of her beloved infant, which, crowned with the warmest enthusiasm of their king and Garibaldi, with roses and reclining upon a bed of flowers, is peacefully and are ready to take up arms again when their general shall sleeping during the first hours of its eternal slumber. say, Come! Their countenances, bronzed by the burning

It was a pleasant moonlight evening. A mournfnl company sun of Sicily, wear an expression of inspiration and glory, pursued their way along a cross road, which wound in and out which makes it a pleasure for the eye to rest upon them. among clumps of trees, and meadows, and fields, like a drive Victory is personified in them, and their looks testify that the in a park. The church and convent bells sounded the Avecause which animates them, and for which they fought, is Maria. The air was calm, the clear sky illumined by stars; one which must render them invincible. a hymn for the dead was heard; voices grave and sonorous They are determined to be a great people, inhabiting a intoned the Dies irce; a choir boy carried the cross with the great kingdom, and they will realize their determination. long silver foot. Four monks in brown robes and with The barriers of tyranny and superstition have nearly all been sandalled feet followed, their bald foreheads and long beards swept away, and the waves of freedom and progress will concontrasting with the youthful countenances of two boys who tinue to flow steadily onwards, in spite of all opposing obstacles, accompanied them bearing tapers. Then came the parish until they have reached their destined level of unity and priest in surplice and stole, and behind him a bier, carried by nationality. Italy is now the Italy of the Italians, whose fonr young girls, bearing the stiffened corse of a companion of talents, good sense, reason, and virtue render them worthy of eighteen. The long hair of the departed was left loose to the privileges to which they aspire. hang down on either side of the body, like the two ends of a Pisa, December, 1860.

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