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OF FACTS AND OCCURRENCES RELATING TO LITERATURE, THE SCIENCES,

AND THE ARTS.

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CONTENTS. Notes and Memoranda

1 Some Queens of Society Eminent Living Artists—Sir Edwin Landscor. By WALTER The Honey Bee TROBNBURY

3 Curiosities of Civilization The Ornamental Art Collections at the South Kensington Spoils from the Animal Kingdom Museum

6 American Institutions Slop-Shop Literature. By JOHN HOLLINGSABAD..................

9 Yorkshire Ballads An Australian Book Store .....

12 Fire Engines and the London Fire Brigade Mr. Albert Smith's “Wild Oats and Dead Leaves." By Weather Theories ..... EDMUXD YATES................................

13 The Alleged Planet Vulcan Easy Law. By JOHN HOLLINGSHBAD. ..........

14 The Naturalist in Australia and the Austral Islands The Origin of Species Controversy

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17 English Books Recently Published Lord Dundonald's Autobiography

20 Recent German Books............................ Physiology as & Branch of General Education

23 Advertisements

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NOTICE.

fashioned somewhat upon the model of Punch. It is to be Tho conductors beg to announce that a TALE, entitled, called the Porcupine, and will number amongst its contri. THE PRIMA DONNA'S REVENGE,

butors Mr. JOHN HOLLINGSHEAD, Mr. H. J. BYRON, Mr.

WILLIAM BROUGH, Mr. FRANK TALFOURD, Mr. EDMUND A ROMANCE IN SIX CHAPTERS,

YATES, Mr. LEICESTER BUCKINGHAM, and others of the genBy Mr. GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA, author of A Journey Due North, tlemen who, on the evening of the day on which this is written the “Hogarth Papers,” in the Cornhill Magazine, etc., etc., will (September 24), will give a second amateur performance in be commenced in the November number of the REGISTER,

Liverpool for the benefit of the widow and family. of poor Another serial tale, to be entitled,

ROBERT BROUGH, the founder of Liverpool's first satirical

journal, the Liverpool Lion. The price of the Porcupine will ALL THE TALENTS,

be one penny, and as its proprietors possess capital and will be commenced in the same number, and both tales will then energy, and its staff includes some of the best wits of the day, be continued from month to month until completed.

it will start with every prospect of success. It will be strange,

indeed, if a city the exact size of New York cannot support a NOTES AND MEMORANDA.

light cheap magazine of this kind. A similar journal was The daily newspaper which the “National Newspaper announced in Manchester about a year since, but the project League Company, Limited” was founded for the purpose of never assumed any practical shape. In politics, the Porcu. establishing, under the name of the Dial, is to be started, it pine will represent the school of the “Liverpool Financial is now decided, in connexion with the Morning Star. The Reformers.” Its first number will appear early in October. shareholders in the Dial company have deputed four of their directors to join four of the present proprietors of the We congratulate the bookselling, and we may add the Morning Star, and these eight gentlemen are to form a new book-buying, world upon the announcement that the “London limited company, to which the Dial and Morning Star,-for Catalogue" and the “British Catalogue” are now one prowe presume that this is the name which the Morning Star perty, and that the proprietors are actively engaged in will go by after the junction of its proprietary with the Dial preparing a new and complete Catalogue, combining the company,--will belong, the four directors of the Dial company advantages of both the old ones, with many new improveholding their shares in the new company as trustees on behalf ments, and in all respects thoroughly adapted to present of their nine thousand fellow shareholders in the Dial company. wants. It is evident that such a Catalogue was only to be The nominal capital of the new company will be £35,000. secured by united ability and exertion ; but two or three men The proprietors of the Morning Star consider their copyright, in an age possess the qualifications necessary for the proconnexion, building, and plant to be worth £17,500, and will duction of such a Catalogue, and they ought not to waste any contribute these as their half of the capital of the new com- of their time or resources by competition. The old“ London pany, the Dial company contributing its half in hard cash. Catalogue” had many valuable points ; the chief advantage So we are to bave, at last, if not exactly what the promoters which its younger rival, the “British Catalogue,” had over it of the Dial scheme have been promising us for the last three consisted in the latter specifying the month and year in which years or so,--what scheme ever was carried out precisely after each book was published. We are glad to learn that this the manner in which its promoters originally intended it should feature will be retained in the new catalogue,—the proprietors be ?-at least something in the shape of a daily Dial. of which have done well, and deserve the support of the trade

We are about to have a new weekly newspaper, too,--one and the public. Vive l'alliance ! wbich is to be printed half in English and half in French, and to be called the Treaty. As indicated by its title, it “Messrs. CHAPMAN and Hall have concluded an arrange. will advocate opinions in harmony with the international ment with Mr. CHARLES DICKEns for a new serial, which trading negotiations now being completed at Paris by Mr. will be commenced very shortly.” So we read in Dr. CHARLES COBDEN.

Mackay's London Review. We read also, however, in the A recent addition to the number of trade journals may also Publishers' Circular of the same date, -"The report to claim mention here. The new-comer is called the Weekly which we alluded in our last number, as a report that Mr. Traveller, and is devoted, according to its prospectus, " to Dickens is engaged in writing a new work of fiction, is, we the best interests of grocers, cheesemongers, and oilmen.' believe, incorrect. The statement originated in a provincial These organs of particular trades or professions are rapidly journal, and was copied into many of the London papers. increasing in number, both in England and in America. London correspondents who furnish letters full of news for

provincial enlightenment, appear to be of the opinion of Liverpool is determined to have a local weekly masazine, I that Duchess of Rutland alluded to by Horace Walpole,

OCTOBER 1860 ?

That a story need not be thrown away because it's untrue,' you would not have made any such prediction as to a future state as it will at least do for news for the country'” We of the weather, I had no hesitation in giving the report an incline to think that, in this matter, the Publishers Circular unqualified contradiction. As my simple contradiction, however,

may not have much weight, I would feel obliged if you would be is the better authority of the two.

kind enough to state whether any circumstance, wrongly under

stood, may have originated the rumour. Such reports are freThe Miss CATHERINE FRANCES B. MACREADY, whose name without exciting surprise; but when circulated by gentlemen of

quently heard among ignorant people, during a season like this, stands on the title-page of the volume of poems entitled position, they tend to throw discredit upon science, and are very “Leaves from the Olive Mount," published by Messrs. prejudicial to the reputation of those who are slandered by them. CHAPMAN and Hall during the past month, appears to be a

"I am, sir, your obedient servant,

“W, PATE SOX. daughter of Mr. W. C. MACREADY, the celebrated tragedian.

“Sir J. F. W. Herschell, Bart., F.R.S." The “Leaves," which have a gentle religious character, are chiefly in blank verse. They are preceded by the following lines, addressed

“Collingwood, Hawkhurst, Kent, August 31, 1860. “TO MY FATHER.

“Sir,-I thank you for contradicting any statements to the “For ever loved, revered,-my heart's first friend,

effect that I have predicted the weather,' or that I have said we Tender as love itself, and true as truth,

should have heavy floods, etc., during the present month. At the I would that men might see thee with my eyes,

same time I do plead guilty to having formed an opinion, from Know thee as I have known-then should fame's wreath

some remarkable phenomena exhibited by the sun last year, and (Bound on thy brows of yore) new semblance take,

others which it has since continued, and still continues, in a And show thee halo'd with celestial light!

somewhat diminished degree, to exhibit, that this summer woald Yet I, who know thee best, and have enshrined

prove, as it has done, a rainy one; and I have, perhaps, expressed Thy virtues in my soul, shall feeblest prove

that opinion in private conversation among friends, though asSo speak, how dear thy worth !- That which has been suredly never in such a way as I could suppose would come to bo Most noble in thee, never can be known.

publicly cited. I have received many letters about my 'predictions,' Oh, loving lips, long silent in the grave,

informing me that I stand charged with predicting the most dread. Could but the old ļife warm them for a space,

ful storm ever known, and asking me when and where it would How would they echo now my poor applause!

take place. One gentleman,-having heard that I had stated that And oh, if this adventurous pen can boast

several feet thick of ice are interposed between the earth and the The transcript of one pure intent, true thought,

sun, thereby causing this cold summer,-very consecutively and Or generous aspiration, unto thee

very rationally calls on me to publish a letter in the Times, informing Alone be praise! All good my life can show

the world“ how it got there." Yon, sir, seem to have clearer Is of thy teaching, and in offering thee

and better notions about such things; and, I dare say, can easily This lowly tribute of my grateful love,

understand how it is possible for an observant person, connecting God knows, I give thee but thine own again!”

many scattered indications and some very remarkable and unusual

phenomena with speculations on their possible or probable conA new book by Mr. Ralph WALDO EMERSON is announced character of a season in advance, without aspiring to the rather

sequences, to have been led to form a general opinion as to the by Messrs. SMITH, ELDER, and Co. It is entitled, “On the unenviable reputation of a weather prophet. Scientifically speak. Right Conduct of Life.” It will be published simultaneously ing, and connecting those phenomena (which are publici juris) on both sides of the Atlantic.

with the laws of solar periodicity, established by Schwabe and Wolf, I am disposed to regard the meteorology of the last twelvo

months as more pregnant with instruction than that of any equal The Critic of September 22nd has the following:-"Apropos lapse of time on record ; and I may take some opportunity to of the Cornhill, the curiosity of literary quidnuncs has been state my views on that matter in a more definite and public form.

But I certainly shall consider myself obliged by your repudiating not a little piqued by a sentence in the weekly gossip of the for me the announcement of any given sort of weather for any Illustrated London News of Saturday last. New blood, given time and place, as a thing which I think is at present quite said the gossiper of our illustrated contemporary, will beyond the power of any meteorologist, except in a very few shortly be infused into the Cornhill, and those who are apt to grow weary of dull verbosity will be glad to learn that regions, from barometric indications, and one or two other strong

indications of immediately pending changes, which general the seemingly interminable Hogarth Papers will be concluded experience has suggested to the weather wise.' in the forthcoming October number of this admirable maga

“I am, Sir, your obedient servant, zine.' As the gossiper on literature and art of the Illustrated

“W. Paterson, Esq.”

"J. F. W. HERSCHELL, London News is known to be the writer of the Hogarth Papers in the Cornhill, this self-condemnation seemed to indicate a ne plus ultra of modesty, rather foreign to the

The collection of magazine papers by the late Mr. ALBERT literary character. Ill-natured rumour will have it that SMITH, entitled “Wild Oats and Dead Leaves," respecting the phrase 'dull verbosity' ought to have been included in which Mr. EDMUND Yates discourses on another page of the inverted commas, and was originally used by Mr. Thackeray present number of the Register, is accompanied by a preface himself, in spite of his well-turned compliment to the by Mr. ARTHUR SMITH, in which the latter announces an biographer of Hogarth in the last of the Roundabout intention to write a memoir of his late brother. Mr. ARTHUR Papers.' Report even goes the length of hinting that we Smith is the author of the recently published book, “ Tha may expect before long a rival to the Cornhill, to be called

Thames Angler.” the Temple-bar Magazine, and edited by no other person than the gossiper of the Illustrated London News and

For the gratification of readers capable of appreciating the biographer of Hogarth in this ' admirable magazine.'” We writings of Mrs. ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, we quote imagine that this“ rumour” and “report” are about as well here the following lines from her pen, on the entry of VICTOR founded as the “report” respecting Mr. DICKENS already EMMANUEL into Florence, in April last. They appeared referred to.

originally in the New York Independent, and have not yet

been much quoted in this country. Since the artiele on “ Weather Theories,” which appears in the latter part of this number, was put in type, the following correspondence between Mr. W. PATERSON and Sir

“ King of us all, we cried to thee, cried to thee, JOHN HERSCHELL has been published :

Trampled to earth by the beasts impure,

Dragged by the chariots which shame as they roll. "Glossop, August 29, 1860. The dust of our torment far and wide to thee “Sir,—I have just heard a report here, to the effect that you had

Went up dark’ning to thy royal soul. predicted that we should have a series of heavy floods during the

Was it not so, Cavour, present month of August, and that people were remarking how

That the King was sad for the people in thrall, fully your predictions had been verified. Perfectly assured that

This King of us all ?

1.

II.

III.

IV.

VI.

sudden death has caused a deep feeling of regret, not only “ King, we cried to thee!-Strong in replying,

among the large circle of his immediate friends, by whom he The word and sword sprang rapid and sure,

was so well known and respected, but among the general Cleaving our way to a nation's place.

public. Mr. Herbert Ingram was born in 1811, at Boston, O! first soldier of Italy, crying

Lincolnshire,--a town in which his earliest years were passed,
Now grateful, exultant, we look in thy face.
Is it not so, Cavour,

which he subsequently represented in parliament, and with That freedom's first soldier, the freed should call

which his after life was intimately associated. After serving an King of them all ?

apprenticeship as a printer in Boston, he removed to Notting.

ham, where he carried on business as printer, bookseller, and « This is our beautiful Italy's birthday:

news-agent, in the conduct of which the same qualities of Generous souls, whether many or fewer,

steadiness, industry, and perseverance, which conduced to his Bring her the gift, and wish her the good;

subsequent successes, were largely manifested. It was while And Heaven presents on this sunny earth-day

in business, moreover, at Nottingham that he conceived the The noble King to the land renewed.

idea and matured the project of the illustrated journal Is it not so, Cavour?

which was destined, many years afterwards, to confer on him Roar, cannon-mouths !-proclaim, install The King of us all!

celebrity and fortune. The native shrewdness which was

so conspicuous a feature in Mr. Ingram's character led “Grave he rides through the Florence gateway,

him to anticipate the most fortunate results from the adoption Clenching his face into calm, to immuro

of the principle of illustration. In accordance with his strong His struggling heart till it half disappeara.

convictions on this point, Mr. Ingram started the Illustrated If he relaxed for a moment, straightway

London News in May, 1842, the progress of which, to an Ho would break out into passionate tears, –

amount of popularity altogether unprecedented, has long (Is it not so, Cavour ?)

been established. In 1852 the retirement of Sir Gilbert Heath. While rings the cry without interval, Live, King of us all !

cote from the representation of Boston gave Mr. Ingram the opportunity of testing the respect and good opinion of his

own townspeople; and though other candidates were also in " Cry, free peoples !-honour the nation By crowning the true man,--and none is true!

the field, his appeal to their favour was successful, and he was Pisa is here, and Livorno is here,

returned by a very large majority. As a representative of And thousands of faces in wild exultation,

Boston, Mr. Ingram ever evinced a praiseworthy interest in Burn over the windows to feel him near,

its local institutions, and in everything connected with its (Is it not so, Cavour ?)

moral, intellectual, and sanitary improvement. At the Burn over from terrace, roof, window, and wall,

general election which occurred on the dissolution in 1857, he On this King of us all.

was returned without opposition. In addition to his senatorial

honours, he was a magistrate for the county of Herts, chairGrave! A good man's ever the graver

man of the Boston and Sleaford Railway, and deputy lieuteFor bearing a nation's trust secure : And he, he thinks of the Heart, beside,

nant for the county of Lincoln. So far, however, as the comWhich broke for Italy, failing to save her,

munity at large is concerned, the memory of Mr. Ingram will And pining away by Oporto's tide.

be mainly associated with the journal he projected, and which Is it not so, Cavour?

has afforded throughout its prosperous career such unmis. That he thinks of his vow on that royal pall,

takable evidence of his sagacity and good management.” This King of us all ?

EMINENT LIVING ARTISTS.-SIR EDWIN “ Flowers, flowers, from the flowery city! Such innocent thanks for a deed so pure,

LANDSEER.
As melting away for joy into flowers

By WALTER THORNBURY, AUTHOR OP “ LIFE IN SPAIN."
The nation invites him to enter his Pitti
And evermore reign on this Florence of ours.

“Sir Edwin," as we, the public, fondly and familiarly call Is it not so, Cavour?

the Shakspeare of animal painters, was born in 1803, and is Ho'll stand where the reptiles were used to crawl,

therefore now little short of sixty, which is some years The King of us all.

beyond the intellectual climacteric, and should be remem. VIII.

bered as a guiding date, when we have to criticize his great "Grave, as the manner of noble men is,

but unequal later works. The deed unfinished will weigh on the doer;

He is an artist by hereditary right and family instinct, And, baring his head to those crape-veiled flagg, being the eldest son of the well-known engraver, John Land. He bows to the grief of the South and Venice.

seer. He began very early, I believe, sketching the Scotch -Let's riddle the last of the yellow to rags, And swear by Cavour

terriers he played with, and studied them in childhood, when That the King shall reign where oppressors fall,

he was rather an equal and fellow-romper than a great True King of us all !”

maestro, and a student of animal philosophy.

An exhibition of his early etchings, some years since, in

London, showed that before fourteen, -as soon as he could Just at the moment of going to press, we receive intelli. think steadily,--already he had learned to observe pigs, dogs, gence of the melancholy death of Mr. HERBERT INGRAM, etc., keenly, to love them before he drew them, and to draw proprietor of the Illustrated London News, and M.P. for them as though he loved them. All the artist's instinct Boston. The following, called forth by this event, appears in showed early in the gifted painter. His eye was quick at a contemporary: We may be able, in a subsequent number, seeing, and true in aiming. He had both the sympathy and to give some original details relating to the remarkable career precision of a perfect artistic marksman. He had an irre. of Mr. INGRAM,--whose successes in connexion with the sistible desire to select, arrange, and compose ; and he had newspaper press have been the greatest that this generation not only the craving, but the power. He not only copied, has seen :

but he began early to compose and invent, which is a higher "By the arrival of the American mail at a late hour last tendency. He not only drew his Scotch Terrier wiry and night, the sad intelligence of the death of Mr. INGRAM,-curly, and arch and shrewd,-his Favourite Spaniel rich and in consequence of a collision between å schooner and the pampered, his Horse and Cart,-and his Wanton Puppy, Lady Elgin steamer, on Lake Superior (a calamity which but he put together his studies and observations into stories occurred on the 8th instant),-is fully corroborated. Three and animal romances,--as in his Fighting Dogs getting Wind handred lives, it is stated,

were lost owing to this catastrophe, (1819), Ratcatchers (1821), Impertinent Puppies dismissed among whom were several English travellers. Mr. Ingram by a Monkey (1822), Prowling Lion (1821), Lion enjoying was on a visit to Canada for the purpose of spending the his Repast, and the Lion enjoying his Meal,--all showing holidays during the recess, and the painful intelligence of his that a painter had arisen with a Scotch, leaden, cold eye for

VII.

colour, but with a mind much more versatile and much more The monkey pictures of Landseer form a class by them. imaginative than vigorous Snyders or coarse Hondekoeter. selves. They exhibit that homunculus, that parody of man, Already be displayed that Æsopian humour, breadth of that devil's miniature model of Adam, as the negro legends knowledge, and rejoicing power, that indicates him the have it, in every condition of life,-playful, angry, envious, emperor of a great branch of art. It was not merely a wilful, and mischievous. He does not draw them as lusus painter that had arisen, -it was an animal painter,one who nature, but as old friends or playmates, whose wills, gam. did not wish to drag down animals to their ordinary serfish bols, tricks, peevishnesses, and pilferings, he knew by heart. posture,--at the foot of men,-but who desired, with all the This was not an ambitious walk of art: Mr. Landseer made earnestness of one with a mission, to elevate the animal in it a grand one, by ruling in it supreme, by conquering it "the social scale,” as the cant is, or rather to show the point thoroughly, and by introducing perpetual variety as the great of contact between the animal and human minds ;-to show popular element. the monkey, witty ; the dog, sarcastic, churlish, tyrannical, But in spite of victories over the deer, the monkey, and the gentle, generous,--that has been the ideal of Landseer's art. borse, it is as a dog painter, perhaps, that Landseer has life. This ideal was a want of forty years ago, and answers become, and will become, best known. It is true that no one -to the desire of Tennyson and our later poets to invest the 'is more wonderful in imitating texture than Sir Edwin. landscape with a human interest, to make trees groan and Veronese is marvellous with the twilled linen of bis bishops weep, and to represent the wind as rejoicing over the ruin it and priests, Titian in his flesh, Teniers in his brass stew.pans, causes, a tendency which some think rather pantheistic and Vandyke in his silks and velvets ; but no one can represent dangerous if carried too far, and the condemnation of which the hair of animals better than Landseer. He knows the by Mr. Ruskin shows that a reaction has arisen against it. exact flexibility and strength of deers' hair, of otters' fur, of

Among the earlier tendencies of Sir Edwin was that of swans' down, or a terrier's stiff curls ; of a horse's coat, of a portraiture; but even here his imagination, vigour, and bird's plumage. He could sweep you in a line, on a clean originality, would never let him fancy copying features ; so he sheet of cartridge paper, and you would not only know at launched out into varieties of costume, and those accidental once what animal it was taken from, but you might almost movements that might convey some sense of the latter's i augur at once what class of animal it was,—what was the peculiarities, age, or rank. Of this class, though, I know temper, age, and “social position" of that animal. An not of what year, I specially remember, with delight and eccentric crony of mine, when he wants to take the portrait admiration, a graceful half-length of a lady in a Spanish of a friend, draws his legs and boots; and I would rather mantilla, falling in a black cascade upon her shoulders. She have a mouth of one of Landseer's dogs than a whole kennel looks out of a window, and exhibits with Vandyke-skill and drawn by a mere imitative and second-rate hand. Dogs, Sir unconsciousness a pair of very exquisite taper hands. The Edwin paints as if he was their father,-paints them lovingly, other is the Naughty Boy. This picture is said to be the chidingly, correctingly, upbraidingly, and sympathizingly. portrait of a sulky boy, who pouted and cried when Land. He seems to applaud the gentlemanly dog and condemn the seer tried to persuade him to sit. There he stands, in beau. low dog. Like a sly moralist, too, he gives us men quiet tiful peevishness,—a fretful English Cupid, -—with his broken lessons of advice, while pretendingly only to be thinking of his slate, and toys strewn around his feet.

dogs. His Jack in Office is a caution to all public servanta, I know nothing of Sir Edwin's youthful studies, but in whether insolent railway clerks or impertinent government 1815 I find him a pupil of poor Haydon's,-just as that enthu. employés. If, indeed, dogs could only think, or rather if they siast had begun his picture of Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, had newspapers, and could communicate their ideas at any now, I believe, in America. Mr. Landseer, the engraver, length to each other, these moral lessons Landseer teaches one day, in 1815, brought his two sons, Edwin and Charles, might be of the greatest service to the dog world. Of all the genius and the mere man of talent, to R. B. Haydon, his dog pictures,-founded on dog portraiture, -Landseer's historical painter, who was, as usual, up to his ears in debt finest is the Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner,-an exquisite bit aud controversies. Mr. Landseer drew near to Haydon, and, of pathos, eloquently lectured on by Mr. Ruskin. as the inimitable Diary, edited so well by Mr. Tom Taylor, Landseer may be said to have immortalized the stag. He mentions, said to the little fierce Napoleonic man,-, has done for it more than Snyders did for our old and not

“When do you let your beard grow, Haydon, and take yet extinct friend, the boar. He has shown us the red deer pupils ? "

in every phase of domestic life, and in every vicissitude of To which Haydon replied,

his existence,-from the time that he gores his rival of the If my instructions are useful or valuable, now." herd to the day when he drips a dead crimson sop over the “Will you let my boys come ?"

back of a rough Highland pony. He has shown us him in At once Haydon agreed. The clever boys were to come rain and sun, joy and sorrow, triumphant and defeated, every Monday to that dim, beleaguered lodging to get a plan trampling the moorland or dead in the forest ;-he has given of work for the week. Edwin took Haydon's dissections of us him as the greasy citizen, browsing about in the heather, the lion at once, and Haydon advised him, with his great and at bay in the Highland lake. He has given as the prose passion for anatomy, to dissect animals, as the only way of and poetry of deer life ; but he has given us the prose in s " acquiring their construction.”

way that only an artist-poet could do; and he has given us It was this visit that lod Haydon, seeing the Landseers their poetry with a truth and vigour that the mere idealist make such rapid propress, to form a school, and endeavour to could not approach. He makes us feel a human interest in establish a better and more regular system of instruction than the deer,--such as the mere aldermanic gloater over a ist even that of the Academy. To this school came William haunch heaving with parasite life could no more understand Harvey, the illustrator, Eastlake (now Sir Charles), and for than he could the feelings of the ten thousand Greeks when none of these pupils did Haydon take a shilling of payment. they saw once more the sea.

Years after, when poor Haydon was lower and lower, his Every deer picture of Sir Edwin's is a poem : it is not s old pupil, Sir Charles, bought the Judgment of Solomon, study of deer in several attitudes. He has given us his Haydon's best picture, that had been gathering dust in bank. friends the deer looming spectrally through the mist; he has rupt warehouses, and retained it as a valuable relic, -as an given us the two kings of the herd, with entangled antlers, unequal man's chef d'æuvre.

dead in the early morning, on the top of some Highland It was not at this early time that Landseer got into his mountain. We have from his hand the deer at bay, the deer later fault of too much humanizing the animal, of making worn out, the deer and the stalker, the does and their atten. his monkeys more old Voltaires than they really are, for the dant fauns. If Sir Edwin were the Greek Acteon himself, sake of the humour,--his costermonger dogs more coster. and had been retransformed into an English artist, he could mongery,-his spaniels more dandy or lady.like. We pardon not know more of deer feelings and habits than he does now. the exaggeration of Asop, because he is writing their He must have watched them long hours from behind granite imagination; but Landseer's Dogs reading the Paper require blocks and fern clumps and slender birch trees, from stealing some indulgence before we can remember that they are mere corners and from Gothic windows. He has associated them, actors, performing at a great canine theatre.

too, so cleverly with the Scotch physiognomy,--the keen eyes,

the high-shouldering cheek bones, the pinched, tight-holding to look forward, and look back; we think of what the man lips, the firm chin. In some of his pictures,--as, for instance, has done, and prophesy no more what he will do. The year Bolton Abbey, that gorgeous bouquet of still life,--the figures of his election, the greatest of Scotch painters since Wilkie are rather conventional landscape figures, sons of the lay exhibited his Poachers Deer Stalking, a robust picture, with figure, and daughters of the stagiest model extant among the heads almost mediæval in their grim concentrated those original thinkers, the older R.A.'s. But this picture strength. The same year appeared his Little Red Riding was an exception, for Sir Edwin's figures are generally admi. Hood, a picture of the Naughty Boy vein of feeling, both to rable, and full of character ;-his crouching gillies, all ear, his my mind being quite equal to Reynolds's cat-like children, rejoicing clansmen and superannuated drovers to wit. Gene- whose archness is exaggerated almost into affectation. 1852 rally speaking, when not painting to order, which kills any saw his Haroking, a Bulwerian, conventional picture, but one, Landseer has as keen a perception of character as still alive in places. This year was also memorable for his Wilkie, and still more fire and life-blood genius in him than Jack in Office, an admirable dog picture, full of character. that cold, uninteresting, calculating man of talent. He has, It represents a low bull.dog of truculent disposition, and too, a broader view of humanity, and paints like a healthy inflated by power, guarding a costermonger's dog's-meat man of action, who has been a bold actor in all the scenes he cart, upon which he is enthroned. He is eyeing, with ferocious paints. But, entangled among the multitudinous and varied caution, a lean greyhound that is skulking suspiciously works of a great man, already I find it better to leave the near the gateway where the barrow is moored. The colour by-path of episode, and return into the broad and beaten is low in tone, but healthy and good : this dog figures in road of general biography.

several of Sir Edwin's pictures. In 1833 appeared Sir Walter In 1826 appears Landseer's Hunting of Chevy Chase, by Scott and his Dogs, a popular picture, in which Sir Walter no means one of his best pictures, but rewarded, as past was rather eclipsed by Maida, and Pepper and Mustard, men's inferior works have generally been, by the doubtful Tray, Blanch, and Sweetheart. In 1834, Bolton Abbey in honour of associateship with the Academy. Sufficient for the olden Time, another Bulwerian convention, gave Landthat body that the rising man could not be trodden down; seer another opportunity, under the mask of spurious methat the mechanical work was good, and the subject a popu. diævalism, to empty his larder before the public; swans, lar one, that did not require any painful thought to como salmon, deer,-all that flood and field could produce,-lay at prehend it. A well-known engraver's son has seldom the feet of some insipid monks and stagy peasants and much difficulty in getting on in art if he has talente retainers. The men were like Lance's men, the women of Landseer was now only twenty-three, and already the the La Sonnambula school ; yet still the public forgave the world opened her arms to him, and rich men were glad sham monks for the sake of the dead zoological garden thus to see so clever a man not too proud to paint their dogs laid out with such Rubens' lavishness before them, and and horses, and other incarnations of wealth. The genius Bolton Abbey still remains a popular picture in print-shop was not too high-flown for them to understand. Had it windows. been, Landseer might have died of poverty, like Spencer. In 1835, in the Drover's Departure, Landseer surpassed In 1827 appeared another scene of Highland life-High- himself in a more congenial and imaginative subject, where landers returning from Deer Stalking,-a processional pic- the animals are admirable, but still properly merely subture, clever, but rather meagre and insipid to my own sidiary. The dog and monkey pictures, the portraits of taste, though not without a certain sense of repose that is animals, were all eclipsed by this admirable tableau of one soothing and quieting. In 1828 came out another of the of the exciting, eventful scenes in Highland life, the Return Æsopian monkey pictures, -The Monkey who had seen the from Hawking. 1857 is a relapse again into drawing-room World. Now, Sir Edwin's texture, finish, and material truth medievalism, from which, however, in the same year Land. of surface does not suit fiction, and in all these fable pic. seer, ever right and true in his best instincts, broke away tures the real and ideal seem to me to jar very unpleasantly. from in his justly.celebrated Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner,“What is this creature who is aping humanity ?" one says ; a most touching episode, full of the peaceful poetry of is it a live model dressed up and placed in an attitude, or humble life, and presenting in a delightful manner the ties does the painter mean to give us a mere illustration of some of affection that sometimes bind the man and the animal. old fable? The abstract animal that Æsop writes of becomes Except when he is spuriously mediæval, Sir Edwin always a mere dancing dog, or organ ape, when represented with knows how to touch the heart. such imitative, unmysterious, speakable fidelity. I much One of this painter's critics, in summing up his pictures, prefer to these clever but still rather vulgar clap-trap pictures divides them into classes : dramatic, as the Otter Spearod ; Landseer's real scenes, heightened by pathos and humour,-portraits, as the King Charles's Spaniels guarding the not the mere horn and dog views, but the Spearing the Otter, Cavalier's Hat, in the Vernon Gallery; or animal stories, as and There's Life in the Old Dog yet, which are, in fact, dra- Laying down the Law and Alexander and Diogenes, the matic tableaux of Highland sporting life, seen only for a former very artificial, the latter very full of character and moment, or only heard of by the painter, and therefore well contrasted. requiring dramatic selections, vigour of treatment, or an Landseer has sold so large a part of his birthright for rich imaginative memory both reflective and luminous.

people's money and for fashionable distinction, has spent so In 1829 appeared the Illicit Highland Whisky Still ; in much time in painting obscure spaniels and forgotten horses, 1830 Highland Music, a piper surrounded by dogs, worthy that he has not produced so many original pictures of pare of Wilkie, and quite as well painted. The piper still blows invention as he might have done had he faced life more out his cheeks for our delight in the Vernon Gallery at boldly, and preserved his independence of thought and action, Brompton. In this picture the man is intensely Scotch, and disdaining the blandishments of a class that can never have quite as good as the dogs. In the same year Landseer any real sympathy with men of intellect and action, whose illustrated a ballad of Scott's, and in a picture called Attach- very existence is a reproof to degenerate peers. At home ment, representing a dog, I think “Collie,” keeping watch among friends and brother workers he would have been a over his master, who has perished in the Helvellyn. In all leader and king; in palaces he was but a clever dependent, these pictures there was a watchful observation of nature employed to wile away an idle hour, or kept at a distance and a thoroughly natural tenacity in making out detail, by the cold iron railing of court etiquette. though the colour was uneqnal, never brilliant, though some In 1845 Landseer delighted the art world with his Pastoral times rich and deep ; and too often it was slaty, cold, and Scene, and in 1846 with the companion pictures of Peace and leaden, as it afterwards became irremediably.

War, now in the Vernon Gallery. These pictures, in which In 1831 Landseer was elected R.A., and about this time animals form a small yet important and artfully introduced his mind seems to have reached its climax of ripeness, in part, are well known and popular. The War represents texture, in colour, in composition, and more especially in a dead cuirassier lying with his grim face turned to heaven invention, selection, and combination. The time had now in the ruins of a garden; the rose-entangled balcony of which come when he was to do his best; till that culminating and the wall lie among other smoking debris; all is chaog period no man's mind can be measured. After that we cease and sulphurous perturbation. Peace represents some pretty

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