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cordially joins with Scott in regarding "the downfall of our any kind he could find to help the one kitchen fire,-always a old nobility" as a “jest” at which only fools will laugh. sore point with him. He was found pulling down a crow's.
There is no mirth for “ Ulster" in the toppling over of an nest with this object, complaining of the cruel extravagance ancient house, or the tarnishing of a famed escutcheon. and waste of materials of the birds in the construction of
One of the most remarkable of the stories told in this their homes. He would have a sheep killed, and go on eating volume is Jack Mytton's,-a piece of wildfire, madcap reck. mutton till all was consumed, though the meat was quite lessness, almost without a parallel.
putrid at last, and“ walked about his plate." He gave up A grand old Shropshire family were the Myttons of Halston, sheets,--and, indeed, cleanliness generally,—as much too representing Shrewsbury in parliament in the days of the expensive for him. He went about in rags, and would hardly Plantagenets. In 1486, Thomas Mytton, high sheriff of relinquish these to go to bed. He was always in a panic of Shropshire, captured Stafford, duke of Buckingham,—“off fear lest he should be robbed, and would start from his sleep with his head” Buckingham,—and by that service earned crying, “I will keep my money—I will! Nobody shall rob from Richard III. the duke's forfeited castle and lordship of me of my property!” He died, in 1789, almost of starvation. Cawes. In the civil war, Mytton of Halston was one of the With common indulgence, remarked his physician, he might few gentlemen of his country who followed the parliamentary have lived twenty years more. By his will his enormous standard. Fifth in descent from the parliamentarian general wealth was much divided, five hundred thousand pounds was John Mytton, squire of Halston, born in 1796, and an being bequeathed to his natural sons, John and William orphan at eighteen months old. The property was carefully Elwes. One of his relations, Sir John Henry Elwes, expepursed during a long minority of nearly twenty years, and the rienced some remarkable changes of fortune ; losing within heir, on coming of age, placed in possession of a large sum a few years not only all his wealth, but also every chance of of accumulated savings, and a noble property, producing some retrieving bimself from the difficulties into which bis dissipaten thousand a year. He fully availed himself of the oppor. tion had plunged him, and being almost incessantly the tenant tunity presented to him for playing duck and drake. He was of a debtor's jail. To such extremes did his spendthrift proexpelled from both Harrow and Westminster. He was entered coedings reduce his family, that his eldest son, utterly home. on the books of both Oxford and Cambridge Universities, but less and destitute, was glad to bind himself apprentice to a he matriculated at neither; he got no nearer his degree than collier. Subsequently he was under-boots at the “Queen's sending down three pipes of port, addressed “ Cambridge,' Head Inn,” Morpeth ; then head-waiter, then station-master to assist his reading. He entered the army, and joined his at Longhirst, and, lastly, postmaster, by the gift of Sir George regiment on active service in France. The war over, he lost Grey, at Long Horsley, Northumberland. Changes, these, enormously on the turf, and quitted the army on his marriage, for the son of a baronet! Rich or poor, the Elwes family in 1818. His wife dying two years afterwards, he entered on seem to have beon always dogged by starvation. One hoards, a new career of extravagance. His liabilities assumed threaten. another spends, and the result is pretty much the same in ing proportions. “Be content," advised his agent, “with either case. six thousand pounds a year for six years, and all may yet be Here is a story of another “Jack." well; the beautiful old property shall be saved.”
Jack Robinson was born at Appleby, Westmoreland, about would not give a straw for life on six thousand a year.” In 1727, the son of a huckster. The free grammar school of the fifteen years' time he had flung away half a million of money. town bestowed on him the rudiments of education. A mero He cut down the grand oaks of Halston,-centuries old,-one boy, he enters the service of Sir James Lowther. In a brief tree alone containing ten tons of timber, - altogether to the space, but how or why it is hard to say, he rises to be M.P., first amount of eighty thousand pounds. “If he had had two for the county, and afterwards for the borough of Harwich, hundred thousand pounds a year, he would have been in debt lieutenant-colonel of the Westmoreland Militia, secretary to the in five years." His eccentricities were of the maddest kind; Treasury, and surveyor.general of his Majesty's Woods and he had been known to hunt wild ducks stark naked,-he rode Forests. “When he died,” says one of his biographers, into his own drawing-room mounted on a bear,--he fell asleep “there were upwards of three hundred letters in his writingin an open carriage, counting his winnings at Doncaster, and desk written to him by his sovereign,-some on agricultural his bank notes were blown away by the wind, and lost,-he matters, but many on the American war, -letters proving set fire to the tail of his shirt to frighten away the hiccup, alike the unbounded confidence placed in his head and heart, and was only saved from being burnt to death by the active and that George the Third, as a farmer and politician, was exertions of two persons who happened to be present. At one of the ablest men of the age in which he lived." In the length came the crash,—the Times advertised the sale of all | High-street of Appleby he built an odd-looking, large, his effects at Halston; he fled to Calais, “three couple of oblong, white-washed mansion, and lived there in a sort of bailiffs hard at my brush," as he said. An eye-witness de regal splendour. Ask concerning it of a native, and he scribes him as a round-shouldered, decrepit, tottering old. answers, “Thaat pleaace ? wya! it's t'hoos et Jack belt." young man, bloated by drink.” He is flung into a French He is Jack Robinson to all Appleby now and for over. His prison for a paltry debt. Released, he comes over to England, only child, a daughter, was sought and obtained in marriage by only to be captured and die miserably, horribly, of delirium a Mr. Nevil, afterwards Earl of Abergavenny. At the height tremens, in the King's Bench Prison, at the age of thirty- of Jack's prosperity, however, comes a sudden fall. There is eight.
a threat of inquiry into the Woods and Forests generally, and As a contrast, turn to the story of Jack Moggot, who took a call for accounts which a dozen of reasons, dishonesty not the name of Elwes under the will of Sir Hervey Elwes, and being one of them, make it impossible to ronder. At three half a million of money with the name. He was forty years score and ten Robinson breaks down. After his death, too of age when this good fortuno came to him. He settled in late, it is proved how unjustly he has been treated, and that Suffolk as a country gentleman, kept fox-hounds and a stable the government is his debtor to a large amount. Of his of hunters,—the first in the kingdom,
, -was an indulgent family some curious things are told. One relation turned landlord, an upright magistrate, a conscientious and inde. smuggler, was detected and fed ; and, years afterwards, was pendent member of the House of Commons. Of manners recognised in a guardsman on duty at the foot of the royal "so gentle, so attentivo, so gentlemanly, and so engaging, staircase. His son was an itinerant tailor. The Robinsons that rudeness could not ruffle them, nor ingratitude break their thus fell as rapidly as thoy roso. They have joined again the observance.” Yot this man became aftlicted with miserly middle class reputability of the Browns and Joneses. habits to the extent of a deep-seated disease. He put down Prince George of Denmark, husband of Queen Anne, passed his kennel, his stable, and expense, luxury, comfort of every through Bristol and ordered dinner at the White Lion. A kind. A broken window was mended with brown paper; big, bluff gentleman, by name John Duddlestone, a boddicea hole in the roof was never stopped. To keep him. maker, pushes his way to the illustrious visitor, introduces self warm,-he allowed no fire but in the kitchen,-he paced himself, and proceeds to state, in blunt Bristolian dialect, up and down an old greenhouse ; he gleaned the corn at " that he had waited to see if any of his fellow-townsmen harvest time on the ground of his own tenants ; his morning would be bold enough to ask the prince to dinner, and as the employment was to pick up any bones, chips, or fragments of hearts of all had failed them, he had himself plucked up the necessary courage for the occasion.” The prince eats and Theresa, and becomes his under-groom some time between enjoys the plain substantial fare of the boddice-maker, 1825 and 1830. His skill in the stables attaches him to the and invites his host to return the visit whenever be comes to duke,—who, indeed, exhibits great partiality for the English. London, “and to bring his good lady with him.” In due Suddenly the stable-boy is promoted to the post of valet de course, affairs bring Mr. Duddlestone with his wife to London. chambre,--not so startling a transition after all to those who The worthy couple find out the prince, who receives them have studied the wondrous spruceness and cleanliness, that kindly and courteously, and brings them to the queen. Pleased amount almost to elegance, of the British groom. In 1836 with their rough honesty, the queen takes a gold watch from he occupies the highest position in the dressing room of the her side and gives it to the wife, offering to confer a pension duke, and is, indeed, his most confidential attendant; followon the husband. This he declines, declaring that he has ing him to England, in 1838, to attend the coronation of fifty pounds out at interest, and that he is quite sure her Queen Victoria. About this time the financial affairs of Majesty has no money to spare with such a flock about her. Lucca appear to have been tied up in one of those tremendous Before he is quite aware of it, the worthy gentleman is knots, to untie which seems to be a task of superhuman knighted. Fortune subsequently favouring him, he amasses difficulty. The pecuniary difficulties of an individual are comgreat wealth, and a baronetcy is conferred upon him in 1692. plicated matters enough, but what are they to the monetary Then comes the turning point,-the great storm of No entanglements of a state, with the whole financial world vember, 1704, and the loss of all his property. He dies in rushing madly into panics, and crises, and ruin ? very poor circumstances. His grandson, the second Sir John, Tom Ward is despatched by the Duchess of Lucca on a holds a humble appointment in the Bristol Custom-house. secret mission to Archduke Ferdinand, governor of Gallicia, Then nothing more is heard of the Duddlestones; they and to implore his aid in unravelling the dreadful mysteries of the the baronetoy drop out altogether from history.
cash-books of the state of Lucca. On his road he draws up, In his chapter on the vicissitudes of Bulstrode, the author to help his memory, a statement of the position of the duke's traces the proprietorship of this splendid Buckinghamshire affairs, and of the frauds and pillagings to which he has been property from the Shobingtons, an old Bucks family before perpetually subjected. His enterprise succeeds. Confidence the invasion of the Normans, to the present day, when it is restored; the ruin of the state is postponed until a more pertains to the Dukes of Somerset, having been acquired by convenient opportunity. Ward is offered the portfolio of a them by purchase in 1810. The Lord of Bulstrode, in 1681, minister, which he, point blank, refuses, making, in 1844, was the famous Judge Jeffereys, who commenced humbly his accustomed journey to England, as head of the duke's enough as a law student, and soon afterwards carried off a stables, to purchase Yorkshire horses. citizen's daughter, the fair Mary Nesham, and married her Still, the management of all the duke's affairs naturally, in spite of her father and her friends, thereafter living a life almost necessarily, devolved upon one who was the master of devoted attachment to her, the while he was perverting mind of the household, and Ward was no longer an uneduto murderous ends the sword of justice, driving victims in cated groom. Plain, simple, and modest in dress, manners, berds to the hangman, and dabbling his judge's ermine in and habits, he had been always, and was still; but he could now blood. It is curious to trace the descendants of Jeffereys. converse and write fluently in German, Italian, and French. His son, the second lord, & gamester and debauchée, married Refusal to take office, under all the circumstances of the case, the Earl of Pembroke's daughter. Their only child and could not long be persevered in. He was created a baron and heiress became the wife of Thomas, first Earl of Pomfret, and minister of finance; soon afterwards to take the post of through her, as Sir Bernard tells us, " the blood of the prime minister. His diplomatic tact and address were remarkJeffereys passed not only to the succeeding Earls of Pomfret, able. In 1847, he succeeded in settling, to the advantage of but also to the Carterets, Earls Granville, to the eighth Lucca, a difference between the duke of that state and the Earl of Winchelsea, to Dr. Stuart, Archbishop of Armagh, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Both potentates hastened to cover to General Sir William Gomm, G.C.B., and numerous other him with orders. The Duke of Lucca busied himself in nobles and gentlemen.” The baronetcy and peerage became devising a coat of arms for the ex-groom, proposing to give extinct on the second Lord Jeffereys dying without male him the silver cross of Savoy, with the golden fleur-de-lis of issue, in 1702. Many members of the Jeffereys family France in dexterchief. Ward plainly asked for something were Quakers, the brother of Judge Jeffereys among them. emblematical of his native land, -wished to add to the cross One Quaker marriage seems to have linked two singularly and the lily “English John Bulls" as supporters, and, so we antithetical men. Lady Juliana Fermor, the great-grand are told, the duke acceding to his request, that among the daughter of Jefferoys, was married to Thomas Penn, of arms of Englishmen who have obtained foreign orders Stoke Park, Bucks, the third son of the illustrious Quaker, are to be found those of Baron Ward, thus heraldically William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania.
described :-“On a field gules, a cross argent; in the dexter. With the story of Tom Ward we close our notice.
chief, a field azure, surmounted by a royal crown, and charged In 1809, Mr. Ridsdale, a trainer, at York, had in his service with a fleur-de-lis, or; supporters, two bulls regardant, a stud groom, named William Ward. In the same year was proper.” born Thomas Ward, the son of William Ward and Margaret, In 1847, the Duke of Lucca abdicated his crown. In effect. his wife. The little boy is soon bereft of his mother,-a loss ing the consequent transfer of the state to Tuscany, the indeof which he is only too constantly reminded by his father's fatigable Ward was actively employed. At the conclusion second wife. The homo in time becomes unbearable. It of his labours, however, the duties of sovereignty again must take something to make a child of seven years old devolved upon the duke; for the archduchess Maria Louisa run away from his father's house. The boy finds refuge with died, and he became Duke of Parma. Tom Ward writes, his grandfather, a respectable labouring man, at Howden, in “Now I am settling the liquidation betwixt the Duke of he county of York. He becomes an apt student at the Parma and the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and I have four secre:hurch school, winning a bible as a prize. At twelve years taries and ten writers at this present moment here at of age he is at the national school at York; then he begins Florence under my direction, to get it done as quickly as poso earn his own living in Mr. Ridsdale's stables. A smart sible, as the Duke of Parma wishes me to take part in his ctive Yorkshire lad, -lithe, little, dapper, with fair clear government there. However, I shall retire, if possible. I English complexion, and keen, sparkling gray eyes, and have had enough of this life. They will finish me with bat sort of honest plainness of feature which has something fatigue. I have not a moment's rest, and have much to fear ositively winning about it. A compactly built, sinewy, for my health, as really I feel I cannot go on this way. I ght weight,-just the little man who, on a satin-coated thought it necessary just to give you a sketch of my past life, 'crack," would win gold cups and St. Leger stakes at a not for vanity's sake. I am, and I hope God will maintain ittling pace on Doncaster course. In 1822 he is sent with a me so, always the same; nothing has altered in me, only I brse to Vienna, and enters the service of Prince Aloys Von feel burdened by what many envy me for possessing. In it, lichtenstein. For some years he remains in the stables of the law and honour will be my guide through life. Thongh since. He is then recommended to Charles Louis, Duke of humble, God has raised me above many thousands that Jucca, a Bourbon, and a son of France, a grandson of Maria sneered upon me.
But he has likewise blessed me with a
noble mind, and I feel his blessing in all I do. My path is understanding and true meaning of the book is, after all, this, straightforward, and here they call it talent." These are viz., that princes, lords, counsellors of state, and everybody the plain words and thoughts of a fearless, single-minded should be prudent and cautious in dealing with beggars, and man, going straight to his object, quickly and boldly, as of old, learn that, whereas people will not give and help honest as a jockey, he would have ridden at and cleared a gate. paupers and needy neighbours, as ordained by God, they give, Through all, he most tenderly loved his wife, --chosen from a | by the persuasion of the devil, and contrary to God's judghumble station, but good, and fond, and faithful, -and his ment, ten times as much to vagabonds and desperate rogues, three children, and always remembered his old Yorkshire | -in like manner as we have hitherto done to monasteries, tiends and kinsmen, constantly sending home subsidies to cloisters, churches, chapels, and mendicant friars, forsaking his father, brothers, and uncles, and, above all, to the old all the time the truly poor." grandfather, at Howden, who succoured and sheltered the By its author, the work thus prefaced is described as " runaway child so many years ago, and as oonstantly writing pretty little book, written to the praise and glory of God, for to them full accounts of all his doings, knowi.g tluey would all persons' instruction and benefit, and for the correction and be interested in all that concerned him. Fancy the old conversion of those that practise such knaveries as are shown labourer kept au courant with Parmesan politics !-proud of hereafter; which little book is divided into three parts. Part grandson Tom, the prime minister.
the First shows the several methods by which mendicants and In 1848, Ward represented his master amongst the diplo- tramps get their livelihood, and is subdivided into twenty matists of Vienna, and the soldiers of Radetsky's camp. chapters, et paulo plus,-for there are twenty ways, et ultra,
Events go by steam, and, being reckoned among the tirst whereby men are cheated and fooled. Part the Second gives locomotives, I am constantly at work,” he writes. “A some notabilia which refer to the means of livelihood afore heaven-born diplomatist," Metternich called him. He worked mentioned. The Third Part presents a vocabulary of their hard, honestly, and usefully for the state, and was a great language or gibberish, commonly called Red Welsh, or favourite of the duke, though unpopular with his excitable, Beggar-lingo.” Such is its author's account of the contents mutinous people. Then came 1854, and its strange events, of the book. the mysterous tragedy of the king's violent end, the suc
Part the First commencus with the plain, simple, honest cession of the duchess, her ungrateful cruelty to the minister, beggar, who, through loss of work, or by some calamity, is and his deposition and banishment, as a concession, though obliged to solicit alms, but who, “could he proceed without a useless one, to popular feeling. He lived not to see the it, would soon leave begging behind him.” Of this class of final downfall of the family he had served so faithfully, and beggars there were then, as there are now, very few. “ Conwho had repaid bis services by so strange an ingratitude. clusio : To these beggars it is proper to give, for such alms He stepped back quite naturally to his former position of are well laid out." The next chapter treats of the “Stabülers, humility and retirement. He became proprietor of a farm in or Bread Gatherers," who are less deserving. They are the neighbourhood of Vienna, and, after some few years of beggars by profession, and “never leave off begging, nor do rest, and peace, and happiness, breathed his last in 1858, at their children, from their infancy to the day of their death." the age of forty-nine, in the arms of his affectionate wife and The subjects of the third chapter are the “Lossners, or children, A glory to England, an example of honest hard Liberated Prisoners," who go about the country, carrying work rising by the force of its own merit to the highest places; chains with them, and saying that they have been prisoners of a nature whose greatness was rather enhanced than marred for years amongst the infidels, but have just made their by prosperity. All honour to Tom Ward, stable-boy and escape.
“Not one of them in a thousand speaks the truth; premier!
nor are the “Klenkers, or Cripples," very much better.
Some of these rascals mutilate their own limbs, others apply MARTIN LUTHER'S BOOK OF VAGABONDS AND salves to makecounterfeit wounds, and one, more ingenious than BEGGARS.*
his fellows, once cut off a dead man's leg and exhibited it as In the quaint-looking, but very beautiful, little quarto which his own. These cripples can always run fast enough faom a Mr. John Camden Hotten, its translator and editor, as well constable. “Conclusio: Give them a kick on their hind as its publisher, has just issued with the title given below, parts if thou canst, for they are nought but cheats.” The we have, so far as is known, the earliest treatise written in Dopfers, or Church Mendicants,” beg for money to repair Europe on the tricks of vagrants, and their methods of levy. ruined churches, or to build new ones, or to provide new ing contributions on the benevolent and simple-minded. It church furniture, and spend the money so obtained in drunkseems to have been written "shortly after 1509," and to have enness and dissipation. The “ Kammesierers, or Learned been “frequently reprinted until 1528, when Luther edited Beggars,” are " young scholars, or young students, who do an edition, supplying a preface, and correcting some of the not obey their fathers
and mothers, and do not listen to their passages.” Of the author of the book nothing whatever is master's teaching, and so depart, and fall into the bad comknown. The version before us is translated from the edition pany of such as are learned in the arts of strolling and tramp. edited by Luther, and has prefixed to it, not only a translation ing, and who quickly help them to lose all they have by of Luther's preface, but also a highly interesting introduction gambling, drinking, and revelry;" whereafter they live by by Mr. Ilotten, full of curious information respecting vaga- devoting their learning and talents to the arts of forgery and bonds' tricks and customs, both ancient and modern, and also imposition. The “Strollers" are adventurers who « giving account of some of the more remarkable of the books yellow garments, know the black art, and exorcise the devil which have been written about them.
for hail, for storm, and for witchcraft;" and the “Grantners” Luther's preface occupies only two pages. It is written in are beggars who profess to be afflicted with the falling sick.
“ Some of them fall down the great reformer's well-known pithy and straightforward ness, St. Vitus's dance, etc., etc. style. “This little book about the knaveries of beggars," it before the churches, or in other places, with a piece of soar commences, was first printed by one who called himself in their mouths, whereby the foam rises as big as a fist Erpurtus in Trujis, that is, a fellow right expert in roguery,
and they prick their nostrils with a straw, causing ther
* Nota which the little work very well proves, even though he had to bleed as though they had the falling sickness." not given bimself such a name. But I have thought it a
This is utter knavery." Of the same quality are th good thing," it goes on, “ that such a book should not only " Dutzers,” who say they have been ill for a long tim be printed, but that it should be known everywhere, in order and have promised a difficult pilgrimage to the shrin that men may see and understand how mightily the devil of this or that saint, which they can only perform rules in this world; and I have also thought how such a book the aid of certain alms; and the “Schleppers," or Kammmay help mankind to be wise, and on the look out for him, sierers who pretend to be priests, and who solicit alms fc viz., the devil.” Afterwards Luther adds :-“But the right
some church or chapel, much after the fashion of the Dopfer.
Conclusio : To these knaves give nothing, for it would 'e : The Book of Vagabonds and Beggars : with a Vocabulary of their language. badly laid out.” The “Gickisses” are beggars who affet Edited by Martin Luther in the year 1528. Now first translated into English, blindness; and the “Blickschlahers” are beggars “wb, with Introduction and Noter, by Jous Camdex llorten. London: John| when they come to a town, leave their clothes at the bostels,
Camden Hotten. 1560.
and sit down against the churches naked, and shiver terribly leaf or a piece of paper close to their feet, so that the poor things before the people that they may think they are suffering from held fast to it, and turned and twisted in their endeavours to get great cold. They prick themselves with nettle-seed and other off the pin.
"Now the lady-birds shall read,' said little Inger. 'See how things, whereby they are made to shake. Some say they they turn the paper!" have been robbed by wicked men ; some that they have lain
“As she grew older she became worse instead of better; but ill, and for this reason were compelled to sell their clothes." she was very beautiful, and that was her misfortune. She would The “Voppers” are beggars who allow themselves to be have been punished otherwise, and in the long run she was. led in chains as if they were raving mad," and who tear their " You will bring evil on your own head,' said her mother. clothes, and even go naked, in order to assist the belief that they
'As a little child you used often to tear my aprons; I fear that
when are demoniacs. “There are also some 'Vopperinae, id est,
you are older you will break my heart.'
“And she did so sure enough. women who pretend that they have diseases of the breast.
At length she went into the country to wait on people of disThey take a cow's spleen, and peel it on one side, and then tinetion. They were as kind to her as if she had been one of their lay it upon their bosoms, -the pealed part outside, - besmear- own family: and she was so well dressed that she looked very ing it with blood, in order that people may think it is the pretty, and became extremely arrogant. breast.” Thirteen other kinds of beggars, with their
“When she had been a year in service her employers said to respec
her,tive tricks, are further enumerated in Part the First; but we
“* You should go and visit your relations, little Inger.' have not space to continue the catalogue. Those we leave
She went, resolved to let them see how fine she had become. uumentioned, like those specified above, all have their repre. When, however, she reached the village, and saw the lads and sentatives at the present day.
laşses gossiping together near the pond, and her mother sitting Part the Second occupies only a few pages, and is devoted close by on a stone, resting her head against a bundle of firewood to the enumeration of a few beggars' customs, such as that of which she had picked up in the forest, Inger turned back. borrowing children, and maiming them, in order that they felt ashamed that she who was dressed so artly should have may excite pity, which had been omitted from mention in for her mother such a ragged creature, one who gathered sticks
for her fire. It gave her no concern that she was expected-she Part the First.
was so vexed. The Third and concluding Part consists of a vocabulary of “A half year more had passed. the principal cant words and phrases in use amongst the “ You must go home some day and see your old parents, little beggars of Germany in Luther's time.
Inger,' said the mistress of the house. “Here is a large loaf of It is melancholy to reflect that from the period at which white bread—you can carry this to them: they will be rejoiced to this “Book of Vagabonds” was written to our own day, no
" And Inger pat on her best clothes and her nice new shocs, improvement has taken place in the character of the vagrant and she lifted her dress high, and walked so carefully, that she population of Europe. In the time of Luther, Europe might not soil her garments and her feet. There was no harm at swarmed with mendicants and cheats who, though leading a all in that. But when she came to where the path went over some nomadic life, formed a community and had a language of their damp marshy ground, and there were water and mud in the way, own. Bound by no social tie,-obeying no law, either human she threw the bread into the mud, in order to step upon it and get or divine, --without truth, industry, marriage, or natural over with dry shoes; but just as she had placed one foot on the affections,-simulating everything except the sin in which its bread, and had listed the other up, the bread sank in with her
deeper and deeper, till she went entirely down, and nothing was very heart was steeped, -this class preyed upon a community to be seen but a black bubbling pool. to which it contributed nothing but its vices. It does so “ That is the story. still. Feudalism tried in vain to kill it; it defied the Reforma- “What became of the girl? She went below to the Old Woman tion; and all the revolutions of modern times have left it of the Bogs, who brews down there. The Old Woman of the Bogs untouched. Coercion and kindness have been alike wasted is an aunt of the fairies. They are very well known. Many poems on it. It is as rife now as ever it was. Most of us can say nobody knows anything more of the Old Woman of the Bogs than
have been written about them, and they have been printed; but with the great reformer, “I have myself of late years been that, when the meadows and the ground begin to reek in summer, cheated and befooled by such tramps and liars more than I it is the old woman below who is brewing. Into her brewery it wish to confess,” for the sad truth is, that every town, village, was that Inger sank, and no one could hold out very long there. and hamlet in Europe is still visited by as many imposters as A cesspool is a charming apartment compared with the old Bogit ever was, those of to-day being just as idle, dissolute, and woman's brewery. Every vessel is redolent of horrible smells, depraved as their forefathers were in the days of Henry VIII. which would make any human being faint, and they are packed or Queen Elizabeth. Our “ shivering Jemmies," who may small space among them which one might creep through, it would
closely together and over each other; but even if there were a be seen every day in the metropolis, are the lineal descendants be impossible, on account of all the slimy toads and snakes that of the naked wretches who used to sit by the churches three are always crawling and forcing themselves through. Into this hundred years ago ; nor is there a single trick in the whole place little Inger sank. All this nauseous mess was so ice-cold “ Book of Vagabonds” which is not practised in London that she shivered in every limb. Yes, she became stiffer and every day. There is still the same lying and false prétences, stiffer. The bread stuck fast to her, and it drew her as an amber the same shamming of disease and infirmity, and the same bead draws a slender thread.
“The Old Woman of the Bogs was at home. The brewery was depravity and licentiousness, that there has been ever since that day visited by the devil and his dam, and she was a venomous lisease was first turned into a commodity, since lying first old creature who was never idle. She never went out without lecame a trade, and imposture a profession. Is this seething having some needlework with her. She had brought some nass of iniquity to be tolerated for ever? If not, what can there. She was sewing running leather to put into the shoes of te done towards reducing it ?
human beings, so that they should never be at rest. She em
broidered lies, and worked up into mischief and discord thoughtNEW STORIES BY HANS CHRISTIAN
less words, that would otherwise have fallen to the ground. Yes,
she knew how to sew and embroider and transfer with a ANDERSEN.*
vengeance, that old grandam! Tie best thing we can do with this volume of new tales by
“She beheld Inger, put on her spectacles, and looked at her. Sveden's greatest novelist is to quote from it. At once,
“That is a girl with talents,' said she. I shall ask for her as
a sourenir of my visit here; she may do very well as a statue to then, for the story of
ornament my great-grandchildren's antechamber;' and she took THE GIRL WHO TROD UPON BREAD.
her. "You have doubtless heard of the girl who trod upon bread, not
" It was thus little Inger went to the infernal regions. People to oil her pretty shoes, and what evil this brought upon her. do not generally go straight through the air to them: they can go Thetale is both written and printed.
by a roundabout path when they know the way. “She was a poor child, but proud and vain. She had a bad
"It was an antechamber in an infinity. One became giddy disp sition, people said. When she was little more than an infant there at looking forwards, and giddy at looking backwards, and it was a pleasure to her to catch flies, to pull off their wings, and there stood a crowd of anxious, pining beings, who were waiting main them entirely. She used, when somewhat older, to take and hoping for the time when the gates of grace should be lauly-sirds and beetles, stick them all upon a pin, then put a large opened. They would have long to wait. Hideous, large,
waddling spiders wove thousands of webs over their feet; Sandhills of Jutland. By Hans CEBISTIAN ANDERSEN. London: Bentley. these webs were like gins or foot-screws, and held them as fast as
chains of iron, and were a cause of disquiet to every soul,--a
painful annoyance. Misers stood there, and lamented that they ** But will she never come up again ?' asked the child. had forgotten the keys of their money chests. It would be too The answer was,tiresome to repeat all the complaints and troubles that were “She will never come up again.' poured forth there. Inger thought it shocking to stand there like “ But if she will beg pardon, and promise never to be naughty & statue: she was, as it were, fastened to the ground by the again ?' bread.
“* But she will not beg pardon,' they said. “This comes of wishing to have clean shoes,' said she to "Oh, how I wish she would do it!' sobbed the little girl in herself. “See how they all stare at me.'
great distress. 'I will give my doll, and my doll's-house, too, if “Yes, they did all stare at her ; their evil passions glared from she may come up! It is so shocking for poor little Inger to be their eyes, and spoke, without sound, from the corner of their down there!' mouths: they were frightful.
“These words touched Inger's heart; they seemed almost to ““It must be a pleasure to them to see me,' thought little Inger. make her good. It was the first time any one had said, 'poor *I have a pretty face, and am well dressed ;' and she dried her Inger,' and had not dwelt upon her faults. An innocent child eyes. She had not lost her conceit. She had not then perceived cried and prayed for her. She was so much affected by this that how her fine clothes had been soiled in the brewhouse of the Old she felt inclined to weep herself; but she could not, and this was Woman of the Bogs. Her dress was covered with dabs of nasty an additional pain. matter; a snake had wound itself among her hair, and it dangled “Years passed on in the earth above, but down where she was over her neck; and from every fold in her garment peeped out a there was no change, except that she heard more and more rarely toad, that puffed like an asthmatic lap-dog. It was very disagree sounds from above, and that she herself was more seldom men. ablo. “But all the rest down here look horrid too,' was the reflection tioned. At last one day she heard a sigh, and 'Inger, Inger, how with which she consoled herself.
miserable you have made me! I foretold that you would! These “But the worst of all was the dreadful hunger she felt. Could were her mother's last words on her deathbed. she not stoop down and break off a piece of the bread on which "And again she heard herself named by her former employers, she was standing? No, her back was stiffened; her hands and and her mistress said, her arms were stiffened; her whole body was like a statue of "Perhaps I may meet you once more, Inger. None know stone; she could only move her eyes, and these she could turn whither they are to go.' entirely round, and that was an ugly sight. And flies came and "But Inger knew full well that her excellent mistress would crept over her eyes backwards and forwards. She winked her never come to the place where she was. eyes, but the intruders did not fly away, for they could not,-their "Time passed on, and on, slowly and wretchedly. Then once wings had been pulled off. That was another misery added to the more Inger heard her name mentioned, and she beheld as it were, hunger,-the gnawing hunger that was so terrible to bear! directly above her, two clear stars shining. These were two mild " If this goes on I cannot hold out much longer,' she said. eyes that were closing upon earth. So many years had elapsed
But she had to hold out, and her sufferings became greater. since a little girl had cried in childish sorrow over 'poor Inger,' " Then a warm tear fell upon her head. It trickled over her face that that child had become an old woman, whom our Lord was and her neck, all the way down to the bread. Another tear fell, now about to call to himself. At that hour, when the thoughts then many followed. Who was weeping over little Inger? Had and the actions of a whole life stand in review before the parting she not a mother up yonder on the earth? The tears of anguish soul, she remembered how, as a little child, she had wept bitterly which a mother sheds over her erring child always reach it; but on hearing the history of Inger. That time, and those feelinge, they do not comfort the child,—they burn, they increase the suffer- stood so prominently before the old woman's mind in the hour of ing. And oh! this intolerable hunger; yet not to be able to snatch death, that she cried with intense emotion,one mouthful of the bread she was treading under foot! She "Lord, my God! have not I often, like Inger, trod under foot became as thin, as slender as a reed. Another trial was that she thy blessed gifts, and placed no value on them? Have I not often heard distinctly all that was said of her above on the earth, and it been guilty of pride and vanity in my most secret heart? But was nothing but blame and evil. Though her mother' wept, and Thou, in Thy mercy, didst not let me sink; Thou didst hold me was in much affliction, she still said,
up. Oh, forsake me not in my last hour!' “Pride goes before a fall. That was your great fault, Inger. “And the aged woman's eyes closed, and her spirit's eyes Oh, how miserable you have made your mother!'
opened to what had been formerly invisible; and as Inger had *" Her mother and all who were acquainted with her were well been present in her latest thoughts, she beheld her, and perceived aware of the sin she had committed in treading upon bread. how deep she had been dragged downwards. At that sight the They knew that she had sunk into the bog, and was lost; the gentle being burst into tears; and in the kingdom of heaven she cowherd had told that, for he had seen it himself from the brow of stood like a child, and wept for the fate of the unfortunate Inger. the hill.
Her tears and her prayers sounded like an echo down in the “"What affliction you have brought on your mother, Inger!' hollow form that confined the imprisoned, miserable soul. That exclaimed her mother. ‘Ah, well! I expected no better from you.' soul was overwhelmed by the unexpected love from those realms
""Would that I had never been born! thought Inger; "that afar. One of God's angels wept for her! Why was this vouchsafed would have been much better for me. My mother's whimpering to her? The tortured spirit gathered, as it were, into one thought, can do no good now.'
all the actions of its life,--all that it had done, and it shook with “She heard how the family, the people of distinction who had the violence of its remorse,--remorse such as Inger had never been so kind to her, spoke. “She was a wicked child,' they said; felt. Grief became her predominating feeling. She thought that
she valued not the gifts of our Lord, but trod them under her for her the gates of mercy would never open, and as in deep confeet. It will be difficult for her to get the gates of grace open to trition and self-abasement she thought thus, a ray of brightness admit her.'
penetrated into the dismal abyss,-a ray more vivid and glorious “They ought to have brought me up better,' thought Inger. than the sunbeams which thaw the snow figures that the children "They should have taken the whims out of me, if I had any." make in their gardens. And this ray, more quickly than the snow
"She heard that there was a common ballad made about her, flake that falls upon a child's warm mouth can be melted into a 'the bad girl who trod upon bread, to keep her shoes nicely a drop of water, caused Inger's petrified figure to evaporate, and clean,' and this ballad was sung from one end of the country to a little bird arose, following the zigzag course of the ray, up the other.
towards the world that mankind inhabit. But it seemed afraid any one should have to suffer so much for such as that, and shy of everything around it; it felt ashamed of itself; and -be punished so severely for such a trifle! thought Inger. ‘All apparently wishing to avoid all living creatures, it sought, in these others are punished justly, for no doubt there was a great haste, concealment in a dark recess in a crumbling wall. Here & deal to punish ; but ah, how I suffer!'
sat, and it crept into the farthest corner, trembling all over. It "And her heart became still harder than the substance into could not sing, for it had no voice. For a long time it sat quietly which she had been turned.
there before it ventured to look out and behold all the beaty “No one can be better in such society. I will not grow better around. Yes, it was beauty! The air was so fresh, yet so sok; bere. See how they glare at me!
the moon shone so clearly; the trees and flowers scented 30 “And her heart became still harder, and she felt a hatred sweetly; and it was so comfortable where she sat,-her featter towards all mankind.
garb so clean and nice! How all creation told of love and glory! ** They have a nice story to tell up there now. Oh, how I The grateful thoughts that awoke in the bird's breast she would suffer!'
willingly have poured forth in song, but the power was denied to "She listened, and heard them telling her history as a warning her. Yes, gladly would she have sung as do the cuckoo and the to children, and the little ones called her 'ungodly Inger.' 'She nightingale in spring. Our gracious Lord, who hears the mute was so naughty,' they said, ‘so very wicked, that she deserved to worm's hymn of praise, understood the thanksgiving that lited suffer.'
itself up in the tones of thought, as the psalm floated in David's "The children always spoke harshly of her. One day, however, mind before it resolved itself into words and melody. that bunger and misery were gnawing her most dreadfully, and “As weeks passed on these unexpressed feelings of gratitude she heard her name mentioned, and her story told to an innocent increased. They would surely find a voice some day, witł the child,-a little girl, -olie observed that the child burst into tears first stroke of the wmg, t perform some good act. Bligit uet in her distress for the proud, finely-dressed Inger.
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