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rushes on and on,-no planet lingering behind, -all deriving light, as a single penumbra. It would seem that some of these spots are for millions of years, from his unwithered countenance, and drinking formed out of the combinations of two or three others comprised in renewed splendour from that central fountain of splendours in the same penumbra. On the 26th of June a group of spots sudlo! meteoric messengers arrive from the outer confines of space, denly made its appearance, which measured in angular extent destined themselves to replenish the replenisher, to re-glorify the one-fifth of the radius of the sun; but since that date it has ex glorifier of all his planetary subordinates. In they rush, with speed perienced continued variation, and on the 29th occupied an analmost inconceivable to mortal men; in they rush, and fresh with gular extent equal to one-fourth of the sun's radius. a splendour greater even than that of the king of luminaries! And Those who connect meteorology with these solar appearances as soon as they have delivered their brightening burden of lumi- are disposed to attribute to them the recent anomalous weather nosity, away they fly,--away, away, thirty-five thousand miles, which we have all so loudly and vainly lamented, while others well nigh as swift as thought! They have done their duty,--fed attribute to them a favourable action on terrestrial temperature. their supreme sovereign; and then they die down into his ordinary These regard them as favourable to the harvest; but there are probrightness, seen and shining no more!

phets of evil who think them ominous of coming judgment, and that But a truce to imagination. What think the unpoetical astro- they are obscure, yet decided, presages of the close of the solar nomers P-the men who deal in sines and co-sines, in ellipses, and dispensation! It may be small consolation to remember that transverse and conjugate diameters? What say these calculating several stars of the first magnitude amongst the small number star-gazers to this astonishing revelation ?

nearest to our system have become suddenly dim, and have One eminent living practical astronomer, Professor C. Piazzi been finally extinguished. Is the same fate in store for the sun ? Smyth, discovers in this revelation the incidence of a luminous In the neighbourhood of great spots, or extensive groups of meteor upon the sun, the resistance it meets with upon its arrival spots, large spaces are sometimes observed to be covered with in the vicinity of the solar surface being such as to arrest and strongļy-marked curved or branching streaks, more luminous determine a velocity of 9,000 miles in one minute. This amount than the remainder. These are named faculæ (Latin for small is obtained by subtracting the observed velocity, 7,000 miles per torches), and among these faculæ spots frequently break out, minute, from the orbital velocity, 16,000 miles per minute. Such if not already existing there. Sir J. Herschell regards them as a deatruction of motion in the meteor must of necessity be accom- the ridges of immense waves in the luminous regions of the panied by the evolution of great heat and intense light. What, sun's atmosphere, indicative of violent agitations in their neighTherefore, imaginative men might have dreamed, practical mon bourhood. really ascertained. This was a feeding of the sun,-a new influx of The spots referred to as recently visible on the sun might he light, a whirl and a rush of glory to glory. In five fortunate viewed through a common piece of smoked glass. A large one minutes, the secret of solar sustentation was revealed to two was observed upon the upper part of the sun's disc, at about ouefortunato gazers. Happy chance and happy coincidence was fourth its diameter. On the right, nearer to the middle of the this. A few minutes, that might have been idly passed, were disc, is another spot nearly of the same size, but not so brilliant. industriously employed. Two gentlemen, who might have been It must be remarked that, although the surfaces of these spots thonghtlessly engaged in wasting time, were busily occupied in may appear black, they are nevertheless more luminous than their celestial work. The reward and the revelation have been platinum in a state of fusion; since a globule of this metal in a state enough for them, and the phenomenon seen during those five of fusion appears red in the solar light, and appears as a spot when minutes has advanced the science at least five years in progress. interposed

between the eye and the sun. Who shall conjecture when such another felicitous conjunction It is questionable whether we can at present draw any very of events shall come to pass ?-when two sun-gazers shåll again probable conclusion from these phenomena as to the true physical look on the sun at the very moment at which fresh meteors shall constitution of the sun itself. The only fairly-sustained conjecfall in, flash intensely, and then die out and away for ever? ture as to the nature of the spots yet hazarded is, that they are

It is a singular confirmation of this phenomenon, and a striking the comparatively dark body of the great luminary laid bare to connexion of it with terrestrial phenomena, that the observations our sight by those vast fluctuations in the luminous regions of its at Kew show that on the very day and at the very hour and atmosphere, to which it seems to be subject. Lalande thought minute of this unexpected solar disturbance, a moderate yet that eminences of the nature of mountains are hereby laid marked magnetic disturbance took place, while four hours after bare, and that they project above the luminous ocean. Sir Wm. the succeeding midnight occurred a storm or great disturbance Herschell, with greater probability, considered the luminous of the magnetic elements, which extended to the southern hemis- strata of the atmosphere to be sustained far above the level of the phere. Here we have a manifest connexion between magnetic solid body by a transparent, elastio medium, carrying on its action and certain phenomena on the sun's disc,-a connexion upper surface (or rather at some considerably lower level within which the observations of Schwabe, compared with the mag. its depth), a cloudy stratum which, being strongly illuminated netical records of our colonial observatories, had already nearly from above, reflects a considerable portion of light to our eyes, established.

and forms a penumbra, while the solid body, shaded by the A rather curious observation relating to the solar spots has clouds, reflects none. He supposes the temporary removal of both been made by a foreign astronomer. He has seen in the neigh- the strata, but of more of the upper than of the lower, etfected by bourhood of the nuclei of large spots, certain patches of light powerful upward currents of the atmosphere, arising, perhaps, which gradually became dark; and he observed that these from spiracles in the body, or from local agitation. primarily luminous and subsequently dark patches were drawn We see, however, several objections to Sir W. Herschell's into the darker spaces of the nuclei, and absorbed by them, as opinions respecting the constitution of the sun, though much deferif by a kind of vortical attraction. Lághter patches are not unfre-enice must naturally be felt to one who had unrivalled means and quently observed within the penumbra and in the nuclei of solar powers of observation. We can hardly conceive, for instance, of spots.

clouds analogous to those of our atmosphere in hot air, Clouds That the spots are not fixed in their positions upon the sun's are the occupants of cold, or at least far colder, regions. Can we disc has long been known and has already been mentioned, suppose them to exist in the immediate vicinity of a fiery body, of But the law of this change has not been rightly conjectured until lustre so intense that it even disparts and dissipates our clouds at of late, and again we are indebted for aid in this direction to a distance of no less than ninety-five millions of miles ? All our Mr. Carrington. From his observations we infer that really clouds are scattered by the increase of a few degrees of heat. We isolated spots are of rare occurrence, and that the spots com fear, therefore, that nothing as yet known can justify us in promonly occur in groups. The components of each group examined nouncing decidedly on these matters. by the above-named gentleman have been found to diverge from We may, nevertheless, fairly conclude that the body of the sun one another; and it appears probable that in groups which con- is in a state of intense ignition, like a stone heated to redness, sist of numerous spots a generation takes place from the centre rather than a condition of actual combustion, like burning fuel. outwards. Of these spots and their motions we may expect to Were this latter the case, the body of the sun would be continually hear more. But there is another class of spots which are the wasting away, while the products of combustion would fill the smallest and the faintest upon the sun's disc, and which are as immense surrounding regions, and obscure the solar light. Solid evanescent as they are faint, that have not yet received that bodies, however, may be in a state of intense ignition, glowing patient attention which could be desired for them. The very with the most fervent heat, while their constituent material is characteristics we have named are barriers to their investigation. unconsumed, and still no fumes arise to obscure their brilliance, Though beheld and sketched one day, they may disappear the next or impede the emission of their heat. At the same time, an ignited and re-appear elsewhere. These fugitive and fainter spots are surface is far better adapted than flame to the radiation of heat, mostly found in the neighbourhood of the larger ones, and appear Other similar considerations tend to the same conclusion. to be in some mysterious way connected with them. of these Nevertheless, there are those who incline to the opinion that a and their motion we have no further indication at present. flaming envelope surrounds the sun, in support of which they cite

The most important kind of motion amongst solar spots ob- arago's statement, that the sun's direct light is not polarized. served by Mr. Carrington is that of drifting, much in the manner Arago's opinion on this point, however, is not universally accepted. of cloud-drifts, which latter indicate the direction of the great observations have been made upon the polarization of the courses of the winds which make swift paths for themselves in our light of the luminous corona by which the sun is surrounded atmosphere. So manifest and so decided is this solar drift, that during eclipses, and such polarization has been affirmed by some Mr. Carrington conceives it to indicate the existence of a system and denied by others; while by others, again, it is explained as of currents

in the solar photosphere (that is, in the luminons shell having its origin in our atmosphere. surrounding the dark matter of the solar globe), analogous to the Dr. Thomas Woods has instituted some experiments of a photopolar and equatorial currents which pervade the atmosphere of graphic kind, in order to aid in conjecturing the probable nature our earth. Moreover, in those regions of the photosphere where of the sun's envelope. It has long been known that the light the upper currents descend, and the lower ones ascend, the spots proceeding from the centre of the sun is more intense than that having large and dark nuclei are found in greater abundance proceeding from its edge. Woods took several pictures of the sun than elsewhere, thereby presenting some analogy to those por- in a camera obscura, by means of a photographic process, exposing: tions of our own atmosphere in which the ascending and descend the prepared surface of the plate to be acted upon for different ing currents present belts or zones of calm and cloud.

periods of time. He took on the same prepared surface six or eight M. Chacoride, who has carefully registered the configuration pictures, each the result of a different length of exposure. On inn and dimensions of the spots on the sun during the last twelve spection, the pictures were found to be of different sizes, the years, assures us that he has never previously beheld the sun's smallest being produced by the shortest exposure, and the indisc so marked by spots as recently. They appear to be spread crease in extent being proportional to the length of time the aperture over two zones, parallel to the solar equator, in ten or twelve was open, np to a certain size. The centre of the pictures was groups, consisting of nearly sixty spots, each surrounded with intensely acted on, and presented the appearance of being what

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photographers call “burnt.” This deep spot was surrounded by | first of three books which will materially assist the beginner. It a ring of light, not so deeply marked. The burnt centre increased is partly similar to a previous book prepared for the Messrs. in size, but not in depth of intensity, with increased length of Chambers by the same author. We have employed it amongst our exposure. The ring about it also increased, but not in proportion own young friends to advantage, and perhaps for cheapness and to the enlargement of the centre. These experiments prove that general excellence it is not yet surpassed. It is, like all Mr. Page's the light from the centre of the sun acts moro energetically than books, plain and straightforward, and pretends to few graces of that from its edges, the latter demanding a longer time to pro- style or flowers of diction. It is merely a book of elementary duce as much effect as the former on a photographic surface. information.

The experimenter then determined to try whether flume would The Advanced Text-book of Geology is a superior as well as å affect a sensitive plate in the same manner as the sun; and if so, larger book, and, as a text-book and nothing more, is deserving whether a solid body, producing light, would differ in action. He of commendation. It is simply a compendium of the principal therefore exposed a prepared surface in a camera in the focus of known facts of the science, arranged in due order, and accom. a lighted candle, and also of a gas jet. In both cases the action panied with references to other, larger, and more detailed books was exactly similar to that of the sun, but more marked as to on the several topics. One of its great advantage is its brief variety of extent, in the size of the pictures produced, because the notation of the industrial applications of rocks and other geololight was not so powerful. In nunerous experiments made with gical formations with relation to agriculture, architecture, and flames, caused to burn steadily lest their wavering might influence trade. In all these points it displays sufficient acquaintance the result, it was always found that their action on the plate was with observed phenomena; and, while we do not agree with similar to that of the rays of the sun's disc, viz., an increased some few of its statements, we can safely commend the book extent of picture for an increased period of exposure.

to the attentive perusal of all students who have advanced The effect of a solid body giving out light but not reflecting it, beyond the alphabet of the science. was now tried. A piece of lime, acted on by the oxyhydrogen Experiencing the great difficulties which beset students in blowpipe, was rendered luminous, and a picture of it thrown upon encountering a large mass of new, hard, and technical terms, the the prepared surface of the camera. In one second a deeply same author has issued a Handbook of Geological Terms and Geology. marked rius was produced, and the size of the picture of the solid | We have carefully examined this volume, having it at hand for was not influenced by the length of time of the exposure. Taking frequent reference during nine days, and, on the whole, we may all these results into consideration, Dr. Woods concludes :--"I applaud the performance. Very many terms are explained in it have no doubt that the light from the centre of flame acts more simply and concisely,

and there is no other book of its kind energetically than that from the edge, on a surface capable of which can compare with it. At the same time, it is often imperreceiving its impression; and that light from a luminous solid fect, and by no means exhaustive of the words which should be body ucts equally powerfully from its centre or its edges; and, explained. We have noticed the absence of several important ther-core, that as the sun affects a sensitive plate similarly with and difficult terms, but there is so much that is useful and really fiume, it is probable that its light-producing portion is of a similar serviceable to beginners in it, that we have welcomed and Lature."

recommended the publication, only hoping that another edition

may be required, in which the deficiences of the first may be RECENT ELEMENTARY BOOKS ON GEOLOGY,

supplied. The chief defect is in the newer terms used by palæon.

tologists, or those who treat of the science of the ancient exist. ONLY second, if second, to astronomy is the science of geology; ences which once dwelt upon our earth. and it is our intention to register the progress of the one as faith. The last publication of Mr. Page is a tract entitled the Geological fully as the progress of the other. There is, indeed, an intimate con Examinator, containing a progressive series of questions adapted nexion between the two sciences; for while astronomy brings down to his own books. Theso seem to serve as an index, and as a light from the celestial spaces to illustrate geology, geology in series of self-examinations. Although they are merely formal urn reflects light back to astronomy. The latter deals with

many and school-like, they will have their uses for those who need them, worlds, the former with one, but in dealing with one, it also, in and will really examine themselves upon the teachings of this several respects, deals with many at the same time; for many author's books. researches relating to this earth have points of community and We have, however, but an indifferent opinion of such a mode of interest with other worlds, in as far as all worlds move and exist attempting a comprehension of geology. Geology is essentially under certain universal laws, and therefore have a common his- and strictly of the quarry and the mine, the mountain and the tory in the past, and, possibly, in part, a common destiny in the valley. Just as we recommend schoolboys to study thoroughly future. No doubt there is a geology of Jupiter, of Saturn, and the one Greek play, -one tragedy, for instance, of Euripides,-rather Moon, and it may be, that, while we are ascertaining the geological than to slur over half-a-dozen, so we advise geological students laws which have governed and are now governing our own globe, rather to make themselves thoroughly acquainted with one good we are, at the same time, touching upon laws which hold sway locality than to acquaint themselves imperfectly and loosely with over other spheres in different degrees, and according to their many. To study this science locally is the true way to study it. different conditions. We might instance hall a dozen topics at Let the beginner select a richly fossiliferous district, and visit it this moment in which there is such intercommunity of interest, - very frequently, and confine himself to it. By this means he such as the astronomical causes of the changes of climate; the will find himself building upon a firm foundation, and advancing amount of light and heat received from the sun in the earlier geo- from the well known to the little known, instead of from the logical epoch, particularly during the formative growth of the little known to the less known. In truth, the British strata and coal planis, and the formation of coal; the relations of heat and fossils are too numerous to be comprehended at first in one geneclimate during what is now known as the glacial epoch ; the sway ral view, and the consequence of aiming too early at such a view and influence of tidal action during the existence of ancient seas is simply confusion. now dried up, and known to us only by their solidified floors To such students as may be willing to pursue local research, whereon we at this day live and walk, and build cities, and we inay commend a very recently issued Sketch of the Geology wherein we shall one day lie sepulchred and forgotten; the the Counties of Gloucester and Hereford, by J. R. Leifchild, A.M. question of the probability of nebular condensation in the forma- This is appended to Black's Tourist's Guide through the counties tion of worlds, and the application of such a theory to the forma- of Gloucester, Hereford, and Monmouth A shilling or two will tion of our earth; the degrees and effects of internal temperature ; secure this little volume, and the student will find in the geolothe possible incandescence of the centre of our globe; the conjec. gical sketch a complete account of the geology of the districts, tural earliest gaseous state of the earth ;-these are the topics of particularly that of the Cotteswold Hills, with notices of the intercommunity of interest which at the moment occur to us, and principal fossils, and of the most productive localities,

quarries, and which associate the two grand sciences, as it were, by so many hill sides; sections of the most important spots; plans for excur. golden links; not to speak of that great law of gravitation which sions arranged to suit the pedestrian's convenience; and notices probably binds all worlds together, and exerts its irresistible of the best collections of the Cotteswold fossils, Within the influence over systems and spheres but dimly seen in the field of counties described a large proportion of the most interesting the most powerful telescope.

secondary strata are comprehended, while the number and beanty Bat, to return to our present specific subject. We commence, of fossil shells procured from the politic beds of the Stroud and appropriately, as we conceive, with the more recent elementary Michinghampton district is truly remarkable. Mr. Leifchild publications on geological science. Having spoken of these, we reckons no less than 362 species of fossil testacea disinterred from shall be prepared in future numbers to advance further and further the Michinghampton beds alone. We believe that no other simi. beyond the mere elements, and to elucidate several of those lar formation in Britain has yielded so many species of testacea strongly attractive themes which engage the attention of accom. from one neighbourhood., This neighbourhood, therefore, is one plished geologists. No question is more frequently addressed in of the very best for careful investigation, to which may be added cultivated society to known and professed geologists than this :- that the surrounding scenery is of

the most delightful character, "What books would you recommend as the best for a beginner in and diversified as delightful. Some of the valleys running the study of your science ?" At least fifty times has this very through the Cotteswolds are among the prettiest on a small question been put to ourselves; and now, imagining that our scale in England, and are but little visited by tourists. readers may be equally and justifiably inquisitive, we shall pass A special geological topic is made the vehicle for elementary in review some of the books which have come before us of late, chapters in Mr. Mackie's First Traces of Life on the Earth, or the as prepared to meet and satisfy this demand.

Fossils of the Bottom Rocks. We rather think we have seen the The first thing that strikes us, in connexion with such publica- matter before in a periodical which the author edits, and on this tions, is that the older books of this kind have been almost entirely account we are the more surprised that he should have allowed superseded. They were written when geology was scarcely a several misprints to have escaped him, and several bombastic science, when speculation outran discretion, and when facts were sentences to have been reprinted. Otherwise this little book is few, and erroneously estimated. All the old “Theories of the serviceable enough to youthful beginners, and has a few fair Earth,” whether by Whitehurst, Woodward, or Burnet, are illustrations. It is, however, curious that the real topic of the exploded theories, and even Calcott on the Deluge has not been book should only be specifically treated of in its last chapters, saved in the ark amidst the flood of modern books, unless a especially as it is important enough and striking enough to trunk may be regarded as an ark, and the inside of a trunk warrant ample explanation and wide imaginative excursions. considered a place of refuge. Au books of this class must be But to deal fairly and fully with such a topic requires a master's regarded as mere literary curiosities.

pen, and we have it not here. Good English is as desirable as Amongst the more recent elementary works which possess a fair good geology; and really they who write clementary books on any claim to attention, we may notice, in the first place, the publications science should havo first mastered elementary books on English of Mr, David Page. His Introductory Text-book to Geology was the composition. Metaphors should be chaste, yet it is hardly so to bid us.“ watch how the morry, dancing waves, as they ebb away its contemplation. Nor does this apply simply to the inorganic from the shore, with playful dalliance leave the impress of their part of nature. The organic kingdoms, with their superiority of last kisses upon the studia"! But the author is a well-meaning form and their wondrous endowment of life, are now known to man, even though it is difficult to find out his nieaning in the stretch back in their existence through periods which even imafollowing sentence: "As this granitized mass was forced up by its gination fails to fathom. Animals of various kinds have lived own expansion, it fissured the semi-crystalline and unchanged and died myriads of ages ago, and the vestiges of their mortality strata above it, dragging up, like a giant, upon its shoulders the are still preserved in those old rocks that have recently disclesed circumambient pasty rock, and, laminating, streaking, and con- so many secrets. Plants of every grade and every shape have torting it in the squeeze and jam of its intermural expression, filled the earth with a luxurious vegetation thousands of times produced its ribboned-structured mica-schist and gneiss." Now over, each to flourish in its turn, and at last to return to the soil If anybody will explain this process we will thank him. Much of and fix its impress there for the generations of men to observe and Buch "intermural expression" as this would soon lead us to an philosophize upon a million of ages afterwards. Sea, and air, and extramural cemetery! Mr. Mackie can do better, and can hardly earth have each been inhabited, innumerable times over, with write worse than this. If he will be content with simplicity, he various forms of living things whose whole race has perisied in may do good service yet.

the lapse of ages, to give place to others, who, in their turn, should of books intended to be elementary, but not really so, we will also disappear. All this the merest tyro in science now knows, mention one of somewhat recent date, though older than the others and no one can be found bold enough to dispute it. One reserve just characterized. We allude to Juke's Manual of Geology, a and one only has been up to the present placed upon this docvolume of goodly yet convenient size. It is a still more advanced trine. Amongst

organic beings, man, it has been

held, is of recent text-book than that of Mr. Page, and it is more scientifically origin. Between six and seven thousand years ago his superior fashioned. Mr. Jukes is well known as a good geologist, and as organization

made its appearance on the globe after an indefinite one of long standing. He has, however, no special faculty for series of centuries had been spent in preparing the way for his making his science generally interesting. The book we are now coming, and the earth for his habitation. speaking of is by no means easy reading, but it is a reliable refer. Within the last few years facts have been brought to light, howence work. The department of geology in which the author is ever, which, if insuficient to demonstrate that the human race has most at home is what is now termed physical geology, and that in existed on the earth for a longer period than is generally imagined, which he is least at home is palæontology:

at least are calculated to somewhat modify the views at present enEvery professed geologist will naturally accumulate in the tertained with respect to this matter. Statements have recently course of time a number of unconnected papers, some of which he been put forth on this subject which, although they may not be may have contributed to periodicals, and others of which may deemed conclusive, arr cortainly deserving of candid

investigation have formed the staple of lectures and popular readings. If a and mature consideration, both from the well-known standing of man chooses to collect and print these, he may easily produce the men from whom they have issued, and also from the number such a book as Mr, Ansted

has just issued under the truly appro- and magnitude of the facts upon which they appear to be based. priate title of Geological Gossip, or Stray Chapters on Earth and That man is the very last creation that has yet appeared there Doean. Stray enough these chapters certainly are; but they are can be no kind of doubt; the perfection of his organization, his plain, easily read, and elementary enough for most persons. position at the very top of the scale of animate beings, and the They treat briefly of a number of interesting geological subjects, absence of his remains at least from the early rocks,-all point to and, if a reader prefers gossip to study, and easy reading to close a comparatively modern origin. But that no traces of him existed thinking, he may peruse this little volume without much loss of till within six or seven thousand years ago, may fairly be open time, and be enabled himself to gossip geologically for two or to question. three days to any one whom he can persuade that he has really The principal argument relied upon in support of the commonly studied the science, or any one good book about it.

accepted theory, has been the entire absence of human fossils even of the author we may observe that his

first books were worthy from the most recently formed deposits. Bones of human beings, of him, and really did him credit, but from the period of their it is admitted, have been often found; but always under such publication he seems to have issued works of which we can only circumstances as allowed of their having found their way to the say that they have grown

spot where they are discovered, at a very recent date, by some “Small by degrees, and miserably less."

sudden and violent change taking place in the locality. Even as

early as 1748, a human body in a fossilized condition was disco. It is much easier to denude and disintegrate a reputation -to vered at Gibraltar by some miners employed in blowing up "rocks, use geological terms, -than to keep it in force and to add to it by for the purpose of raising batteries, about fifty feet above the level still worthier efforts. To descend from the position of a man of of the sea.' It is not at all surprising that, at that time, it excited science to a mere scientific gossip, is not pleasant to one's friends, no interest. Much more recently, a fossil human pelvis was picked nor ultimately profitable to one's self.

up by Dr. Dickeson, at Natchez; but any argument, based upon Thus far have we glanced at most of the elementary works on it, for the antiquity of the race, was at once disposed of by Sir our science which have appeared so recently as to justify our title. Charles Lyell, who suggested that it had fallen from an Indian With other works on geology, both popular and technical, we shall graveyard at the summit of the clif. The same explanation was deal on future occasions, and probably treat in connexion with given of the discovery of a human skull, with other fossils, in a them, on special geological subjects, -affording to our readers sandstone rock at Brazil; though, in this case, the difficulty of such information as may interest them generally, and rob the path such a supposition was greater, because the place where it was of science of some of its ruggedness.

found must have sunk to the bottom of the sea subsequently, and again have been raised to the position in which it was then


Supposing an entire absence, as far as our knowledge extends,

of human fossils from the most recent deposits, it still becomes a The course of science is ever onward. Discoveries are continually very important question whether the assumption that man did not being made, which are not only in themselves startling and live at the period when these deposits were formed, be not somecalculated to revolutionize all our previous opinions, but which what illogical and unjustifiable. It must be remembered that, in prepare the way for revelations even more marvellous than them- the days of Cuvier, no fossil remains of monkeys had been disBelves, and such as had they been but hinted at a few centuries covered, and that the great naturalist himself looked upon their ågo, would have been treated as the most extravagant speculations absence as a proof of recent origin. Now, fossil quadrumanes have of a madman, or the dream of an Arab poet revelling in the since been found in England, France, India, and South America; regions of fancy and romance. So many long cherished theories and although the number at present brought to light is certainly have already given place to sounder and more correct views of not large, yet it is clearly sufficient to prove that these animals nature, through the instrumentality of experiment and induction, existed at a period much earlier than was previously imagined. that the human mind becomes in a manner prepared at any Those discovered in England are stated by Sir Charles Lyell to moment to unlearn the results of years of tuition, at the signal belong to the genus Macacus, and to an extinct species, and have given by some known worshipper in the temple of science. been exhumed from the London clay, associated with crocodiles,

A few years ago, when the grand truths of geology first made turtle, and nautili. Cuvier's conclusions were probably correctly themselves felt amongst the students of nature, the non-scientific drawn from his data, but his premises were wrong. So that if world stood aghast at the boldness of the theories propounded, and no human fossils

had been

at present discovered, it still would the novelty of the facts upon which these theories were based. A not follow that there are none such deposited in the wide range quarter of a century later these doctrines had become universally of unexplored strata, to be brought to light by future industry recognised; all previous opinions regarding the chronology of the and perseverance. earth had been hurried away into the limbo of exploded hypotheses; Moreover, there can be little doubt that large numbers of animals and geology has found its way into the education lists of the most have lived on the earth and have passed away, leaving behind elementary schools. Young ladies talked learnedly of rocks and them no trace of their ever having been in existence. But for the fossils, and geological implements became as well known as chil- plastic nature of the sand on the river's brink in the Connecticut dren's toys. The pulpits resounded with the new truths of the Vale, the colossal birds which, at one period, wandered up and great antiquity of the world, and the press lent its aid in the down beside the stream, would have disappeared, without diffusion of scientific knowledge. The statement of the Rev. Dr. leaving

to subsequent generations the slightest record of their Lightfoot, that the heavens and the earth were created exactly at being. Some of these birds were at least twelve or fifteen feet six o'clock on Sunday morning, in the month of September, at the high; their footprints on the sand are all that remain of them. equinox of the year B.C. 4004, was very correctly looked upon as Still, as no deductions can be drawn but from what is known, being quite akin to some of the whimsical theories which the it may not be amiss to glance at the discoveries

that are believed schoolmen amused themselves by discussing during the middle by many to contain positive evidence of the existence of the ages. The astronomer had said that there were stars so distant in human race, at an earlier period than has been generally recog. the infinity of space, that since their creation a sufficient time had nised. This evidence may be divided into two kinds. In the not elapsed to bring their light to our own small planet, and the first place, there are the direct remains of man himself, said to geologist now proclaimed that the human imagination might have been met with in different parts of the world; and, secondly, wander back over periods vieing in duration with the distances of the traces of human labour, in the form of knives, arrows, and the heavenly bodies, and still be myriads of ages from that point other productions of art, manufaetured generally from flints. To in eternity when creation woke into being. The firm old earth these a third kind of proof has been added by some, more as a upon which we tread all recognise now as having commenced her snpport to the others than as containing much evidence in itself, career in a period 80 remote that human thought is paralyzed in viz., that derived from the study of monuments, inscriptions,

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etc., many of which date their origin prior to the commencement which must have elapsed since the last submersion of the site of of the historic period.

the city : -"He divides the history of this period into three Generally speaking, human fossils have been found in large eras: 1. The era of colossal grasses, trembling prairies, &c., as caves which occur in the calcareous strata. These Ossuaries, or seen in the lagoons,* lakes, and sea-coast. 2. The era of the bone caverns, are met with in the diluvium or drift. Their floors are cypress basins. 3. The era of the present live oak platform." covered with a layer of diluvial clay, and over this a crust of Existing trees, he maintains, show that the development occurred stalagmite has become deposited subsequently. Under this two- in this order. It is, then, supposed that the elevation has taken Sold covering of lime and clay, the bones of innumerable animals, place at about five inches in a century, that being the most rapid some of which have long since disappeared from among the living rate at which the accumulation of detritus in the Nile has ever tribes, are met with; and, intermingled with these, have been been computed to have taken place. This will give 1,500 years found the fossil remains of man. The Kirkdale cave, discovered for the era of aquatic plants, before the appearance of the first in 1821, about twenty-five miles from York, and referred to by Dr. cypress forest. Estimating the cypress trees at ten feet in diaBuckland in his Reliquiæ Diluvianæ, affords an excellent illustra- meter, Dr. Dowler concludes that their age would be about 5,700 tion. It is situated on the declivity of a valley, and occurs in the years. " Thongh many generations of such trees may have grown formation called oolite. It opens by an irregular, narrow passage, and perished in each cypress period,” he “bas assumed only two for a distance of 250 feet into the hill, and, at the end, expands into consecutive growths,” giving 11,400 years. “The maximum age small chambers. The layer of stalagmite which covered the floors, of the oldest tree growing, on the live onk platform is estimated at -and which has been formed by drippings from the roof,--has 1,500 years.” The following table is arrived at:beneath it a bed of sandy micaceous loam, of about two or three

YEARS. feet in thickness. In the lower part of this layer, innumerable Era of aquatic plants

1,500 bones were discovered, belonging to the tiger, bear, wolf, weasel, Era of cypress basin

11,400 elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, deer, water-rat, Era of live oak platform

1,500 and mouse, most of them of extinct species. Dr. Buckland concluded that this cave had been inhabited by hyenas, and that the


14,400 greater number of the remains of animals found there had been Dr. Dowler then goes on to reckon ten other such elevations, dragged in to serve the occupants of the cave as food; and that, which he supposes may have taken place, each of equal duration, in some cases, the hyenas had even preyed upon each other. yielding 158,400 years. The skeleton of a man, together with burnt Other bones, especially the smaller ones, he supposed to have wood, was discovered at the excavations for the gas works, "at drifted in by the current, or to have fallen into the chasm through the depth of eighteen feet," and "beneath the roots of a cypress fissures since closed up by the incrustations of stalactite. This tree belonging to the fourth forest level." "The type of the cranium may serve as a general description of a bone cavern; and the was that of the aboriginal American race." Reckoning, then, the explanation hazarded by the late lamented Dean of Westminster, present era at 14,400 years, and allowing for three other eras of if accepted as satisfactory, effectually gets rid of any evidence of equal duration, that skeleton must have been deposited 57,600 the great antiquity of the

human race arising from the discovery of years ago, while a luxuriant flora must have adorned the country fossil remains of man in such a place. In the cave of Darfoil, in the 100,000 years earlier. Jura, situated in a calcareous mountain 300 feet above the

level of Exception will reasonably enough be taken to this calculation, the sea, human bones were discovered by Mascel de Serres,

in a true as it is based on so much that is hypothetical; still, the bare faci state of fossil, and embedded in a calcareous matrix, The Rev. of human remains being found at such a depth, and under the Mr. M'Enery collected flint knives and human bones from the roots of the cypress trees,--where they could not have found their caves of Torquay, where he discovered them amongst the remains way by means of a current, or any other accidental agency, at of many extinci animals. In the Brixham cavern, Devonshire, least except at a very remote period, will go far towards proving human bones were found which had been evidently gnawed by the great antiquity of the human race, even to those who may hyenas. M. de Cuslobles discovered, and M. de Sevres afterwards feel disposed to dispute the statistics of Dr. Dowler. A far more examined, remains of humanity intermingled with those of the satisfactory, and more moderate, calculation has been made by rhinoceros, bear, hyena, and other animals, embedded in mudwhin the celebrated Agassiz, with regard to human “jaws with perfect stone rock, at Pondres. A fossil human skeleton, dug out

of the teeth, and portions of a foot,” discovered by Count F. de Pourtales, schist rock at Quebec, is still preserved in the museum of that upon the shores of Lake Monroe, in Florida. Professor Agassiz town; whilst the Guadaloupe skeleton, in the British Museum, entered elaborately into the matter in a lecture delivered at Mobile, is familiar to every one. In the “Caverne de Engihoul,” ex- in 1853, and arrived at the conclusion that 10,000 years ago, at amined by Dr. Schmerling, the bones of man occurred with those the lowest computation, mankind peopled that large continent. of extinct species of animals, and appeared to have found, their The second argument is, perhaps, equally important, and is way there at the same peried and under similar circumstances. certainly not less conclusive, being based on the discovery of Tiedmann exhumed human bones from the caverns in Belgium, the workmanship of man in positions that indicate its having mixed with those of bears, hyenas, elephants, wild boars, and been buried at a period prior to the historical epoch. As early horses. The cavo of Gailenruth, in Franconia, and those

of as 1797 a memoir was published by Mr. John Frere, in which Zabuloch and Kuloch, yielded the same products; and their great there is mention made of the discovery of some flint implealevation place them beyond the reach of partial inundations. ments, in a bed of gravel, at Floxen, Suffolk, together with the Many other cases of a similar kind might be quoted, all seeming bones of an animal now

presumed to have been the minimoth. to prove the same fact. To the whole of them it is, however, A series of most important discoveries of this kind were afterobjected, that notwithstanding the circumstances under which wards made by M. Boucher de Perthes. This celebrated archsothese human remains appeared to have been deposited, still they logist pursued his researches for a great number of years at St. were of recent date.

Acheul, near Abbeville, in the South of France, and succeeded There is one method by means of which some slight clue may be in satisfying himself that in the flint implements he discovered, obtained to the age of a bone, not perhaps a very decisive one when there came to light the last vestiges of the handiwork of a people we have

to deal with such extended periods as geology brings be- who inhabited Western Europe at a period long antecedent to that fore us, but one which still may be of some value; at all events it to which any written record refers. No doubt can now possibly may be taken for what it is worth. It consists in treating the be felt, by any one investigating the matter, that the workmanship bone with dilute muriatic acid, which has the effect of dissolving of man has been met with in the diluvian drifts amongst the the earthy portion, and leaving behind simply the gelatinous, or detritus of older rocks, masses of sand and gravel, and bones of animal part. If a very recent bone

be subjected to the action of those extinct quadrupeds generally supposed to belong to an epoch this agent, the earthy matter is removed, and the animal part, prior to the creation of the human race. M. Boucher made numewhich comprises about one-third of the whole bone, still preserves rous excavations in the departments of the Somme, the Pas de the original shape, but is flexible and elastic; so much so, that in Calais, the Oise, the Seine, and the Beine Inferieure ; and although the caso of a rib, a knot may be tied in it. If, on the other hand, the no human fossil rewarded his researches, he fonnd what were, per bone be fossil, and, from the length of time it has been exposed, has haps, equally important,--utensils, weapons, figures, symbols, and lost its gelatinous matter, the muriatic acid will dissolve it entirely other traces of human ingenuity-buried with the remains of away, with effervescence. Now, in some of the cases already elephants and mastodons, at a depth where no traces of man had quoted, this test was applied both to the human and the other bones, been previously suspected. In Celtic and Gaulish burial-places the result arrived at being, that the time of deposit of both was he discovered successive beds

of bones and ashes, with cinerary as nearly the same as could be discovered. Numerous instances urns, belonging

to a period immensely remote. Nor do these disare recorded by Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Smith, in which the coveries now depend simply on the judgment of M. Boucher, bones of man were discovered,

broken and worked up with those who, although a man of great scientific knowledge, patient investiof the lower animals in the same breccia, where the strictest che- gation, and strict veracity, yet might, perhaps, be suspected of mical examination could detect no difference in age.

leaning too much to his favourite hobby. Others have now folIn America, some very remarkable discoveries have taken place, lowed him into the same field. Dr. Rigollot, a celebrated French which, if not conclusive, are, at all events, deserving of the most geologist, after a careful investigation of the whole subject, unbiassed consideration. There is one in particular, described in expressed his concurrence in the views of his

predecessor in the Nott and Gliddon's Types of Mankind, of the skeleton of a man inquiry as to the age of the gravel, -the only point open to doubt, found in the delta of the Mississippi, where, according to the since the fact that the implements were found there, was universally conclusion arrived at in that work, it must have been reposing for admitted. Dr. Rigollot, in a letter to M. Boucher, dated the 29th a period of about fifty-seven thousand years. This supposition of November, 1853, declares his assent to the opinion of the latter, is arrived at as follows :--In excavating on the plain upon which --that it was now clearly proved that the country had been inhathe city of New Orleans is built, successive growths of cypress bited by human beings before "the grand disturbance that caused trees are met with. Such obstacles do these present to digging to the destruction of the elephants and rhinoceroses that lived there." any depth, that on one occasion the Irish spadesmen relinquished Others followed in the same field; and no longer ago than the 26th their work, and the Kentucky axe-men had to be employed to hew of May, last year, Mr. Prestwich read a memoir before the Royal their way downwards. Ten distinct cypress forests have been Society upon the results of his own examinations. He confesses traced, by Messrs. Dickeson and Brown, at different levels

below the that he entered upon the subject full of doubt, but that, having present surface; they are arranged vertically above each other, and examined the matter, his conclusions were the same as those of on the surface over them all stand stately oaks, that have flourished M. Boucher. The gravel beds of St. Acheul he describes as “capfor centuries. Between the growth of each of these ten cypress forests the plain must have been submerged, the soil on which the next forest was to grow being deposited during the submer: better than one huge swamp,--are usually so covered with aquatic plants ?

The lagoons of this part of America - which is for the most part little sion. Dr. Bennet Dowler makes a calculation as to the period tall grasses as to resemble prairies.


ping a low chalk hill,”-“100 feet above the level of the Somme.” existed 9,000 years."--The Timæus. And you will, by obsery. At the top were ten or fifteen feet of brick-earth, containing coins, ing, discover that what have been painted and sculptured there old tombs, etc., but dostitute of organic remains. Then came from (in Egypt) 10,000 years ago,--and I say 10,000 years not as a two to eight feet of whitish marl and sand, full of recent shells, word, but as a fact,--are neither more beautiful nor more ugly etc.; and underneath this, a layer of coarso flint gravel, of from than those turned out of hand at the present day, but are worked six to twelve feet in thickness, the whole deposit resting on chalk. off according to the same art.”-The Laws. Plato's assertions on Now, it was in neither of the upper layers, but in the gravel below, this point have long been disregarded, in consequence of their that these flint implemonts were found in great numbers, and supposed extravagance. Time may prove them to be quite within intermingled with the teeth and bones of tho elephant, ox, deer, the bounds of truth. and horse. As to the age of this gravel there is no dispute. It is of the same

BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED.* period as that at East Croydon, Wandsworth, and many other

Abbot-History of Genghis Khan. By Jacob Abbot. Fcp. 8vo, cloth, 48. 6d. places surrounding London, and dates back to a time long ante.

S. Low, Son, and Co. cedent to that at which it is usually supposed the human race Addison-Wrongs and their Remedies: being a Treatise on the Law of Torts. commenced its career upon the earth. MM. Herbert and Bateaux, By C. G. Addison. Royal 8vo, cInth, Sh. V. and R. Stevens and Sons. French geologists, who have made the tertiary deposits a subject Agar-- From Eve till Morn in Europe. By Mrs. Agar. Cr. dvo, cloth, 10s.da. of special study, examined carefully the position of theso beds, all Right: an oid Maid's Tale. Cr. 8vo, cloth, 58. James Blackwood. and reported that the implements were found “exclusively in the Andros-Pen and Pencil Sketches of a Holiday Scamper in Spain. By A. C. true diluvian,--that is, the deposit which contains the remains of Andros. Cr. Svo, cloth, 78. E. Stanford.

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of 1880); Illustrated by Official Documents from the Papal Archives of the These implements consist of arrow-heads, knives, spear-heads, Revolted Legations. By William Arthur. Cr. 8vo, cloth, 6s. (New York.)

Hamilton and Co. axes, religious emblems, symbols, etc., and bear a very striking Aunt Dorothy's Will. By Cycla. ? vols.cr. 8vo, cloth, 21s. E. Marlborough. resemblance to those discovered by Mr. Squier in the western Bacon, his Writings and his Philosophy. By Geo. L. Craik. New edit. corrected, mounds of America. Many of them appear to have been so 18mo, cloth, 38. Od. R. Griffin and Co. slightly fixed to their cases as to become detached whenever a

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Baker--The Bible Class Book for Schools, Teachers, and Families; with Explawound. They are not always made of flint, but sometimes of gra natory Notes of Places, Costumes, Arts, Antiquities, and Matural History: nite, porphry, basalt, serpentine jasper, and almost every kind of and Poems on the Subjects of the History. "By Charles Baker. 2nd edit.

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Wertheim and Co. The conclusion, then, appears obvious, unless some other ex.

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Balfour. 12mo, sewed 6d. S. W. Partridge. Bunsen's theory, derived from sources of an entirely different Beke-The Source of the Nile: being a General Survey of the Branches of that character, “that a concurrence of facts and traditions demands for River and ist Head-Streams, etc. By Charles T. Beke. 8vo, cloth, 6s. the Noachian period about ten millennia before our era, and for Beveridge-A Comprehensive History of India. Civil, Military, and Social, from

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cloth, 44. Robson and Avery. A third class of evidence was alluded to above, namely, that Black's Picturesque Guide to North Wales. New edit. fcp. Svo, cloth, 3s. 6d. arising from the study of monuments and other works of art. This

A. and C. Black. is perhaps more valuable taken in conjunction

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going anywhere. By E. L. Blanchard. Illustrated. 18mo, bds. Od. H. facts than as an independent guide. Stonehenge stands as a familiar example of a record of a very remote past,-no one knows Bloomfield-Critical Annotations, Additional and Supplementary, on the New how remote; but the lesson that it teaches is anything but definite

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Longman and Co. lar character exist. Call them Celtic or Druidical,--but what does Bond and Free. By the author of Caste, etc. 3 vols. cr. 8vo, cloth, 315.0d. Hurst that mean? That they were erected by those races? They were

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Borissow Commercial Phraseology in English and French and French and ship, but were in all probability as ignorant of their origin as we Boucher-The Volunteer Pifleman and the Ride. In Threo Parts: Science, of the present generation are. Their early history is shrouded in Practice, and the Mechanical Aids. By John Boucher. 3rd edit. greatly obscurity, and we can learn little of them, further than that they Bradshaw Itinerary of Great Britain for Railway and Telegraph Conveyance. have withstood the ravages of time for many centuries.

New edit. for 1860, Map and Ilustrations, sq. kewed, 2s. Bd., cloth, 4s. Adams In Egypt perhaps the prospect is clearer, clouds having recently and Co. broken and passed away; but even there we can learn little ex Bradshaw's Handbook of the Bombay Presidency, and the North-Western Pro. cept by the aid of physical science. True, there stand those

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Bradshaw's Illustrated Handbook of Great Britain and Ireland, with Maps. In mighty monuments of the past, seemingly as eternal as the globe Four Sections: East, West, North, and South. New editions, for 1800, sq. itself,—the Pyramids; but a long interval must have elapsed sewed, 16. each. W.J. Adams. after Egypt became inhabited by human beings ere such works

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June 1860. 12mo, cloth, 6s. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. which Egypt was first inhabited by man, and that of the origin of Braithwaite-The Retrospect of Medicine: being a half-yearly journal, contain. tho pyramids and tombs in the fourth Mephite dynasty, -accord

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June, 1860. 12mo, cloth, 6s. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. thing appears tolerably clear from the monuments and hiero

Broad (The) Line Drawing Book for the Use of Young Children, containing glyphics; but before that time there is nothing but physical Eighty Drawings of Objects, coloured. New edit. Oblong 8vo, cloth, s. science to guide us.

James Blackwood. Mr. Leonard Horner has thrown much light upon this subject.

Buckland-Chriosities of Natural History. Second Series. By Francis T. Buck

land. 12mo, cloth, 6s. R. Bentley. He made nineteen borings into the Nile mud near the site of the Burke-A Second Series of Vicissitudes of Families. By Sir Bernard Burke. ancient city of Memphis, and seventy-eight other borings in other Cr. 8vo, cloth, 19. 04. Longman and Co. parts of the delta of the Nile. It had been previously computed

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Course of Nature. By Joseph Butler. A new and improved edit. with a

complete index. 12mo, cloth, 2. W. Tegg. inches per century, at least for the neighbourhood of Memphis, Carter--The Imitation of our Lord Jesus Christ; a Series of Lectures delivered and yet in this neighbourhood fragments of burnt pottery, pieces at All Saints', Margaret-street, in Lent, 1860. By the Rev.T.T. Carter. 8vo, of carved stone, and other human remains, were brought up from

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Measures. 12mo, cloth, wewed, Is. Cassell and Co. having yet been made. Many of these fragments of human

By the Rev. W. W. Cazalet, A.M.

Cantab. 3rd edit. Is. Bosworth and Harrison. workmanship were obtained from levels below the low-water Chambers's Journal, Vol. XIII. January to June, 1800. Royal 8vo, cloth, 49. Od. mark of the Mediterranean, and must therefore have been

W. and R. Chain bers. brought down by the river from the higher and inhabited part Chapter. Ado Bichiedenthoor

, the Mother's

Assistant in cases of Burns, Scalds of the valley, at a time previous to the formation of that part of the

Cuts, etc. By the Author of A Woman's delta," thus seeming to prove that the higher parts of the valley Cheever-The Guilt of Slavery and the Crime of Slavebolding Demonstrated of the Nile were inhabited by civilized men before the sites of

from Scripture. By Rev. George B. Cheever. Cr. 8vo, cloth, Os. (New some of what we have been accustomed to regard as amongst Christi's 'Minstrels' New Songs, with Choruses in Vocal Score, Symphonies,

York.) Trubner and Co. the most ancient of the Egyptian cities bad yet emerged from and Pianoforte Acconipaniments. Edited by J. Wade. Books 8 and 9. 4to. beneath the waters of the Mediterranean! After all, therefore,

sewed, le. each. Musical Bouquet Office. the assertion of Plato, put into the mouth of an Egyptian priest, Church The) England Magazine, under the superintendence of Clergy meu may underrate rather than overrate the antiquity of the Egyptian June, 1880. Royal Evo, cloth, 5s.6d. W. Hughes. nation :-"And the annals even of our own city (Sais) have been preserved 8,000 years in our sacred writing. I will briefly describe the laws and most illustrious actions of those states which have Eorravings, will appear in future numbers.

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