Before the European Challenge: The Great Civilizations of Asia and the Middle East

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SUNY Press, 1 січ. 1990 р. - 348 стор.
The West fails to embrace the globe, and the East still looks to its own variegated past. Here is a comparative account of the spirit and development of the main civilizations in Asia before their confrontation with Modern Europe. In many respects, what is going on in Asia and in the Middle East now is a response to the prolonged European challenge. In places it is marked by a selective reception of Western values and techniques, while elsewhere preference is given to inspiration from the domestic tradition. This book aims to contribute to the understanding of these traditions. It takes the form of a historical narrative and gives a comparative insight of the world-views, values, and institutions.
 

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Introduction
1
The Rise of the Levant The Cuneiscript and Pharaonic Civilizations
7
22 The Spirit of Egypt
9
23 The Spirit of Sumer
14
24 Geography and Polity
18
The Struggle for Harmony
21
Between Machiocracy and Hierocracy
26
From the City States to the Empire
31
632 Early Buddhism
173
633 The Spread and Split of Buddhism
177
64 Towards a PanIndian Civilization
180
642 The New Religious Spectrum
182
643 The Maturation of the PanIndian Civilization
189
644 The PanIndian Synthesis and a Look Backwards
192
Hinduism Theravada and Islam
196
652 The Reconstruction of Hinduism and the Syncretic Religions
200

28 The MultiEthnic Cuneiscript
34
29 The Social Structure of Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt
39
The Contrasts of Syria Peoples of the Script and People of the Book
45
312 The Broader Context
50
From the Judges to the Prophets
53
The Constitution of Judaism
59
What Kind of Identity
65
The Great Iranian Ventures The peripeties of Ahura Mazdah
70
42 From Zarathushtra to Mazdaism
74
43 The persian Levantine Empire and the Hellenic Counterstroke
77
44 The Renaissance of Zoroatrianism
80
45 The Heresies and the Orthodoxy
84
46 Revolution and Reform
89
47 Rally Collapse and Transfiguration
96
The Ways of Islam Integration and Disintegration
100
52 From Muhammad to the Umma
102
53 The Umma and the Caliphs and Imams
107
54 From the Caliphs to the Sharia
113
55 From the Sunna to the Sufis
117
56 Islam under a Twofold Attack
122
57 The Social Structure of the Islamic Civilization
128
58 The Contrast in the Spirit of Islam
135
582 The Quest for Knowledge
137
583 The Twilight and the Shadows
141
59 The Thurst into Europe
145
510 The Revival of the Shia in Iran
150
From Indus to Mekong Between Brahma and Buddha
156
62 From Excavations to the Books of Wisdom
161
622 The Sacred Books the Vedas
163
623 The Books of Instruction and the Cosmic Order
165
624 Vedic Society
168
63 The Spell of Novelty
170
653 The Civilization of Theravada
205
654 The Encounter of Civilizations in the Malayan World
211
The Chinese Path The Paradigm of Continuity
215
72 The Roots of Chinese Civilization
219
73 The China of a Hundred Schools
223
74 From the Warring States to the Empire
230
75 China Turns to Confucius
235
76 China Divided
242
762 The Coming of Buddhism and its Subsequent Development
244
763 The Social Face of Divided China
247
77 Towards and Elusive Synthesis
250
78 The Confucian Renaissance and the TechnoEconomical Leap Forward
253
79 The Mongolian Interlude
259
710 A Frustrated Momentum
265
711 China Under Tutelage
272
The Rhythm of the Far East Reception and Adaptation
278
82 The Little Chine of Korea and Her Splendid
280
83 The Long March of Vietnam
282
84 Creative Reception in the Land of the Rising Sun
284
842 Japan under the Spell of the Chinese Civilization
286
The Kamakura Shogunate
288
844 The Domestication of Buddhism in Japan
291
845 The Time of Troubles and the Restructuring of the Society
293
846 The New Structure and the Struggle for a New Type of Polity
296
847 The Tokugawa Solution
298
848 The Twilight of the Old and the Eve of the New Reception
302
Notes and References
305
Bibliography
323
Author Index
334
Subject Index
336
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Про автора (1990)

Jaroslav Krejci was awarded a personal chair at the University of Lancaster. In addition to eighty articles and contributions to compendia, he has published six books.

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