Energy in Nature: Being, with Some Additions, the Substance of a Course of Six Lectures Upon the Forces of Nature and Their Mutual Relations. Delivered Under the Auspices of the Gilchrist Educational Trust

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Cassell & Company, 1883 - 212 стор.
 

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Сторінка 101 - Peltier Effect. . — In 1834 Peltier discovered a phenomenon which is the converse of that discovered by Seebeck. He found that if a current of electricity from a battery be passed through a junction of dissimilar metals the junction is either heated or cooled, according to the direction of the current. Thus a current which passes through a bismuth-antimony pair in the direction from bismuth to antimony absorbs heat in passing the junction of these metals, and cools it ; whereas, if the current...
Сторінка 36 - It is hardly necessary to add, that anything which any insulated body, or system of bodies, can continue to furnish without limitation, cannot possibly be a material substance ; and it appears to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communicated in the manner the Heat was excited and communicated in these experiments, except it be MOTION.
Сторінка 59 - ... is perhaps conceivable to regard it as having been always in existence ; but if we regard it rather as a candle that has been lit, we become absolutely certain that it cannot have been burning from eternity, and that a time will come when it will cease to burn. We are led to look to a beginning in which the particles of matter were in a diffuse chaotic state, but endowed with the power of gravitation ; and we are led to look to an end in which the whole Universe will be one equally heated inert...
Сторінка 203 - Sun,' by teaching us to detect everywhere, under its infinite variety of appearances, the same primeval force. To Nature nothing can be added ; from Nature nothing can be taken away ; the sum of her energies is constant, and the utmost man can do in the pursuit of physical truth, or in the applications of physical knowledge, is to shift the constituents of the nevervarying total.
Сторінка 204 - ... thus, when a substance, such as sulphuret of antimony, is electrified, at the instant of electrization it becomes magnetic in directions at right angles to the lines of electric force ; at the same time it becomes heated to an extent greater or less according to the intensity of the electric force. If this intensity be exalted to a certain point the sulphuret becomes luminous, or light is produced: it expands, consequently motion is produced ; and it is decomposed, therefore chemical action is...
Сторінка 149 - A cylindrical bar magnet three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and eight inches and a half in length, had one end just inserted into the end of the helix cylinder (220 feet long) ; then it was quickly thrust in the whole length, and the galvanometer needle moved ; then pulled out, and again the needle moved, but in the opposite direction. This effect was repeated every time the magnet was put in or out...
Сторінка 203 - We analyze the space in which he is immersed, and which is the vehicle of his power. We pass to other systems and other suns, each pouring forth energy like our own, but still without infringement of the law, which reveals immutability in the midst of change, which recognizes incessant transference or conversion, but neither final gain nor loss. This law generalizes the aphorism of Solomon, that there is nothing new under the sun, by teaching us to detect everywhere, under its infinite variety of...
Сторінка 53 - ... favour; secondly, M. Trales found by direct experiment that the ratio of the density of water-vapour to air is 10 to 14.5, instead of 10 to 14; thirdly, although we do not know very exactly the volume occupied by water on passing into the elastic state, we do know, from the experiments of Watt, that a cubic inch of water produces nearly a cubic foot of steam ie, a volume 1728 times as great. Now, adopting...
Сторінка 6 - Force, simply, is any cause which tends to alter a body's natural state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line.
Сторінка 208 - In all phenomena, the more closely they are investigated the more are we convinced that, humanly speaking, neither matter nor force can be created or annihilated, and that an essential cause is unattainable. — Causation is the will, Creation the act, of God.

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