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and declared that he had no hope of workmen. Odin called himself Bolverkr in Baugi's presence; he offered to undertake nine men's work for Baugi, and demanded for his wages one drink of Suttungr's Mead. Baugi declared that he had no control whatever over the mead, and said that Suttungr was determined to have it to himself, but promised to go with Bolverkr and try if they might get the mead. During the summer Bolverkr accomplished nine men's work for Baugi, but when winter came he asked Baugi for his hire. Then they both set out for Suttungr's. Baugi told Suttungr his brother of his bargain with Bolverkr; but Suttungr flatly refused them a single drop of the mead. Then Bolverkr made suggestion to Baugi that they try certain wiles, if perchance they might find means to get at the mead; and Baugi agreed readily. Thereupon Bolverkr drew out the auger called Rati, saying that Baugi must bore the rock, if the auger cut. He did so. At last Baugi said that the rock was bored through, but Bolverkr blew into the auger-hole, and the chips flew up at him. Then he discovered that Baugi would have deceived him, and he bade him bore through the rock. Baugi bored anew; and when Bolverkr blew a second time, then the chips were blown in by the blast. Then Bolverkr turned himself into a serpent and crawled into the auger-hole, but Baugi thrust at him from behind with the auger and missed him. Bolverkr proceeded to the place where Gunnlod was, and lay with her three nights; and then she gave him leave to drink three draughts of the mead. In the first draught he drank every drop out of Odrerir; and in the second, he emptied Bodn; and in the third, Son; and then he had all the mead. Then he turned himself into the shape of an eagle and flew as furiously as he could; but when Suttungr saw the eagle's flight, he too assumed the fashion of an eagle and flew after him. When the JEsk saw Odin flying, straightway they set out their vats in the court; and when Odin came into Asgard, he spat up the mead into the vats. Nevertheless he came so near to being caught by Suttungr that he sent some mead backwards, and no heed was taken of this: whosoever would might have that, and we call that the poetaster's part.1 But Odin gave the mead of Suttungr to the iEsir and to those men who possess the ability to compose. Therefore we call poesy Odin's Booty and Find, and his Drink and Gift, and the Drink of the iEsir."

Then said ./Egir: "In how many ways are the terms of skaldship variously phrased, or how many are the essential elements of the skaldic art?"Then Bragi answered: "The elements into which all poesy is divided are two." jEgir asked: "What two?" Bragi said: " Metaphor and metre." "What manner of metaphor is used for skaldic writing?" "Three are the types of skaldic metaphor." "Which?" "Thus: [first], calling everything by its name; the second type is that which is called 'substitution;' the third type of metaphor is that which is called 'periphrasis,' and this type is employed in such manner: Suppose I take Odin, or Thor, or Tyr, or any of the iEsir or Elves; and to any of them whom I mention, I add the name of a property of some other of the iEsir, or I record certain works of his. Thereupon he becomes owner of the name, and not the one whose name was applied to him: just as when we speak of Victory-Tyr, or Tyr of the Hanged, or Tyr of Cargoes: that then becomes Odin's name: and we call these periphrastic names. So also with the title Tyr of the Wain.2

1 See Burns, The Kirk's Alarm, i ith stanza, for a similar idea.

2 Tyr: see discussion in Cl.-Vig., p. 647. This word as a proper name refers to the one-armed God of War ; but, especially in compounds, it has the sense of God, the God, and is usually applied to Odin. The compounds mentioned here by Snorri are all epithets of Odin. See Gylfaginning, p. 30.

"But now one thing must be said to young skalds, to such as yearn to attain to the craft of poesy and to increase their store of figures with traditional metaphors; or to those who crave to acquire the faculty of discerning what is said in hidden phrase: let such an one, then, interpret this book to his instruction and pleasure. Yet one is not so to forget or discredit these traditions as to remove from poesy those ancient metaphors with which it has pleased Chief Skalds to be content; nor, on the other hand, ought Christian men to believe in heathen gods, nor in the truth of these tales otherwise than precisely as one may find here in the beginning of the book.

II. "Now you may hear examples of the way in which
Chief Skalds have held it becoming to compose, making
use of these simple terms and periphrases: as when Arnorr
Earls' Skald says that Odin is called Allfather:

Now I'll tell men the virtue
Of the terrible Jarl;
Allfather's Song-Surf streams;
Late my sorrows lighten.

Here, moreover, he calls poesy the Song-Surf of Allfather.
Havardr the Halt sang thus:

Now is the flight of eagles

Over the field; the sailors

Of the sea-horses hie them

To the Hanged-God's gifts and feasting.

Thus sang Viga-Glumr:

With the Hanged-God's helmet
The hosts have ceased from going
By the brink; not pleasant
The bravest held the venture.

Thus sang Refr:

Oft the Gracious One came to me
At the holy cup of the Raven-God;
The king of the stem-ploughed sea's gold
From the skald in death is sundered.

Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

And Sigurdr,

He who sated the ravens

Of Cargo-God

With the gore of the host

Of slain Haddings

Of life was spoiled

By the earth-rulers

At Oglo.

Thus sang Glumr Geirason:

There the Tyr of Triumph
Himself inspired the terror
Of ships; the gods of breezes
That favor good men steered them.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

Gondull and Skogull
Gauta-Tyr sent
To choose from kings
Who of Yngvi's kin
Should go with Odin
And be in Valhall.

Thus sang Ulfr Uggason:

Swiftly the Far-Famed rideth,

The Foretelling God, to the fire speeds,

To the wide pyre of his offspring;

Through my cheeks praise-songs are pouring.

Thus sang Thjodolfr of Hvin:

The slain lay there sand-strewing,
Spoil for the Single-Eyed
Dweller in Frigg's bosom;
In such deeds we rejoiced.

Hallfredr sang thus:

The doughty ship-possessor
With sharpened words and soothfast
Lures our land, the patient,
Barley-locked Wife of Thridi.

Here is an example of this metaphor, that in poesy the earth is called the Wife of Odin. Here is told what Eyvindr sang:

Hermodr and Bragi,
Spake Hropta-Tyr,

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