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and ride it, and swim their horses over great rivers; thus they shall proceed." Then said Gangleri: "To my thinking the gods did not build the bridge honestly, seeing that it could be broken, and they able to make it as they would." Then Harry replied:" The gods are not deserving of reproof because of this work of skill: a good bridge is Bifrost, but nothing in this world is of such nature that it may be relied on when the sons of Muspell go a-harrying."

XIV. Then said Gangleri: "What did Allfather then do when Asgard was made?" Harry answered: "In the beginning he established rulers, and bade them ordain fates with him, and give counsel concerning the planning of the town; that was in the place which is called Ida-field, in the midst of the town. It was their first work to make that court in which their twelve seats stand, and another, the high-seat which Allfather himself has. That house is the best-made of any on earth, and the greatest; without and within, it is all like one piece of gold; men call it Gladsheim. They made also a second hall: that was a shrine which the goddesses had, and it was a very fair house; men call it Vingolf. Next they fashioned a house, wherein they placed a forge, and made besides a hammer, tongs, and anvil, and by means of these, all other tools. After this they smithied metal and stone and wood, and wrought so abundantly that metal which is called gold,that they had all their household ware and all dishes of gold; and that time is called the Age of Gold, before it was spoiled by the coming of the Women/even those who came out of Jotunheim. Next after this, the gods enthroned themselves in their seats and held judgment, and called to mind whence the dwarves had quickened in the mould and underneath in the earth, even as do maggots in flesh. The dwarves had first received shape and life in the flesh of Ymir, and were then maggots; but by decree of the gods had become conscious with the intelligence of men, and had human shape. And nevertheless they dwell in the earth and in stones. Modsognir was the first, and Durinn the second; so it says in Voluspa.

Then strode all the mighty to the seats of judgment,

The gods most holy, and together held counsel,

Who should of dwarves shape the peoples

From the bloody surge and the Blue One's bones.

They made many in man's likeness,

Dwarves in the earth, as Durinn said.

And these, says the Sibyl, are their names:

Nyi and Nidi, Nordri and Sudrij

Austri, Vestri, Althjofr, Dvalinn;

Nar, Nainn, Nipingr, Dainn,

Bifurr, Bafurr, Bomburr, Nori,

Ori, Onarr, Oinn, Mjodvitnir,

Viggr and Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Thorinn,

Fili, Kili, Fundinn, Vali;

Thror, Throinn, Thekkr, Litr and Vitr,

Nyr, Nyradr, Rekkr, Radsvidr.

And these also are dwarves and dwell in stones, but the first in mould:

Draupnir, Dolgthvari,
Horr, Hugstari, Hledjolfr, Gloinn;
Dori, Ori, Diifr, Andvari,
Heptifili, Harr, Sviarr.

And these proceed from Svarinshaugr to Aurvangar on Joruplain, and thence is Lovarr come; these are their names:

Skirfir, Virfir Skafidr, Ai,
Alfr, Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,
Fair, Frosti, Fidr, Ginnarr."

XV. Then said Gangleri: "Where is the chief abode or holy place of the gods?" Harry answered: "That is at the Ash of Yggdrasill; there the gods must give judgment every day." Then Gangleri asked:" What is to be said concerning that place?" Then said Jafnharr: "The Ash is greatest of all trees and best: its limbs spread out over all the world and stand above heaven. Three roots of the tree uphold it and stand exceeding broad: one is among the .Ssir; another among the Rime-Giants, in that place where aforetime was the Yawning Void; the third stands over Niflheim, and under that root is Hvergelmir, and Nidhoggr gnaws the root from below. But under that root which turns toward the Rime-Giants is Mimir's Well, wherein wisdom and understanding are stored; and he is called Mimir, who keeps the well. He is full of ancient lore, since he drinks of the well from the Gjallar-Horn. Thither came Allfather and craved one drink of the well; but he got it not until he had laid his eye in pledge. So says Voluspa:

All know I, Odin, where the eye thou hiddest,
In the wide-renowned well of Mimir;
Mimir drinks mead every morning
From Valfather's wage. Wit ye yet, or what?

The third root of the Ash stands in heaven; and under that root is the well which is very holy, that is called the Well of Urdr; there the gods hold their tribunal. Each day the iEsir ride thither up over Bifrost, which is also called the iEsir's Bridge. These are the names of the iEsir's steeds: Sleipnir ' is best, which Odin has; he has eight feet. The second is Gladr,2 the third Gyllir,3 the fourth Glenr,4 the fifth Skeidbrimir,5 the sixth Silfrintoppr,6 the seventh Sinir,7 the eighth Gisl,' the ninth Falhofnir,9 the tenth Gulltoppr,I0the eleventh Lettfeti." Baldr's horse was burnt with him; and Thor walks to the judgment, and wades those rivers which are called thus:

Kormt and Ormt and the Kerlaugs twain,

Them shall Thor wade
Every day when he goes to doom

At Ash Yggdrasill;
For the iEsir's Bridge burns all with flame,

And the holy waters howl."

Then said Gangleri: " Does fire burn over Bifrost?" Harry replied: "That which thou seest to be red in the bow is burning fire; the Hill-Giants might go up to heaven, if passage on Bifrost were open to all those who would cross. There are many fair places in heaven, and over everything there a godlike watch is kept. A hall stands there, fair, under the ash by the well, and out of that hall come three maids,who are called thus: Urdr,12 Verdandi,"Skuld;"these maids determine the period of men's lives: we call them Norns; but there are many norns: those who come to each child that is born, to appoint his life; these are of the race of the gods, but the second are of the Elf-people, and the third are of the kindred of the dwarves, as it is said here:

1 The Slipper. 2 Bright or Glad. 'Golden. * The Starer.

s Fleet Courser. 6 Silver-top. 7 Sinewy. 8 Beam, Ray.

> Hairy-hoof. '0 Gold-top. "Light-stepper. a Past.

13 Present. '* Future.

Most sundered in birth I say the Norns are;

They claim no common kin:
Some are of iEsir-kin, some are of Elf-kind,

Some are Dvalinn's daughters."

Then said Gangleri: "If the Norns determine the weirds of men, then they apportion exceeding unevenly, seeing that some have a pleasant and luxurious life, but others have little worldly goods or fame; some have long life, others short." Harr said: "Good norns and of honorable race appoint good life; but those men that suffer evil fortunes are governed by evil norns."

XVI. Then said Gangleri: "What more mighty wonders are to be told of the Ash?" Harry replied: "Much is to be told of it. An eagle sits in the limbs of the Ash, and he has understanding of many a thing; and between his eyes sits the hawk that is called Vedrfolnir. The squirrel called Ratatoskr runs up and down the length of the Ash, bearing envious words between the eagle and Nidhoggr; and four harts run in the limbs of the Ash and bite the leaves. They are called thus: Damn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durathrow. Moreover, so many serpents are in Hvergelmir with Nidhoggr, that no tongue can tell them, as is here said:

Ash Yggdrasill suffers anguish,
More than men know of:

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