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LXXIII. "Understanding is called wisdom, counsel, discernment, memory, speculation, intelligence, arithmetic, far sight,1 craft, word-wit, preeminence. It is called subtlety, wiliness, falsehood, fickleness.

LXXIV. "Expression is of two kinds: that which is called voice, and that which is called manners; manners is also temper. Reidi2 also has double meaning: reidi2 is the illhumor of a man, and reidi' is also the rigging of a ship or the driving-gear of a horse. Far also has double meaning: far2 signifies wrath, and far2 signifies a ship.

"Men have made frequent use of such ambiguous expressions as these; and this practice is called panning. [LitA3 is that part of a man where bones meet; lid is a word for ship; lid means people; when a man renders another assistance, his aid is lid; lid signifies ale. Hlid signifies the gate in a garth; hlidr men call an ox, and hlid signifies a slope. One may make such use of these distinct meanings in skaldship as to make a pun that is hard to interpret, provided one employ other distinctions than those which are indicated by the half-lines which precede. These cases are there, and many others, in which divers things have the same name in common.]"

1 That is, prophecy. s These are properly two different words.

3 Lii.


Cl.-vig. =the Cleasby-Vigfdsson Icelandic-English Dictionary, Oxford, 1874.

Cod. Reg. = Codex Regius, one of the manuscripts in which Snorri's Edda is preserved.

Cod. Worm. = Codex Wormianus, another of the manuscripts.

Cod. Upsal. = Codex Upsaliensis, a third manuscript ( U ).

Yngl. S. = Ynglinga Saga.

Gylfag. = Gylfaginning.

Skalds. = Skaldskaparmal.


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