« НазадПродовжити »
of Attire, Tricked-Out. A noisy fellow is called SharkSkin, Braggart, Sheath-Cleaner, Fawner, Brawler, Goodfor-Naught, Worthless One. Common-folk are called Country-folk or People. A thrall is called Kept-Man, Serf, Laborer, Servant.
LXVI. "Each one singly is called man; 't is twain if they are two; three are a thorp; four are a group; a band is five men; if there are six, it is a squad; seven complete a crew; eight men make a panel; nine are'good fellows;'ten are a gang; eleven form an embassy; it is a dozen if twelve go together; thirteen are a crowd; fourteen are an expedition; it is a gathering, when fifteen meet; sixteen make a garrison; seventeen are a congregation; to him who meets eighteen, they seem enemies enough. He who has nineteen men has a company; twenty men are a posse; thirty are a squadron; forty, a community; fifty area shire; sixty are an assembly; seventy are a line;1 eighty are a people; one hundred is a host.
LXVII. "Beside these there are those terms which men prefix to the names of men: we call such terms epithets of possession,2 or true terms, or surnames. It is an epithet of possession when one names a thing by its true name, and calls him whom one desires to periphrase Owner of that thing; or Father or Grandfather of that which was named; Grandsire is a third epithet. Moreover, a son is also called Heir, Heritor, Bairn, Child and Boy, Inheritor. A blood-kinsman is called Brother, Twin, Germane, Consanguine; a relation is also called Nephew, Kinsman, Kin, Kith, Friend, Kin-Stave, Descendant, Family-Prop, Family-Stem, Kin-Branch, Family-Bough, Offshoot, Offspring, Head-Tree, Scion. Kinsmen by marriage are further called Sib-folk, Minglers of Blood. A friend is called CounselMate, Counsel-Giver, Adviser, Secret-Sharer, Converser, Bench-Fellow, Fondling, Seat-Mate; bench-fellow also means Cabin-Mate. A foe is called Adversary, Shooter Against One, Hater, Attacker, Scather, Slayer, HardPresser, Pursuer, Overbearer.
1 Sorvar, plural of sorvi, a lady's necklace.
2 yidktnningar; literally, by-periphrases.
"These terms we call epithets of possession; and so also if a man is known by his dwelling or his ship, which has a name of its own, or by his estate, when a name of its own is given to it.
"This we call true terms: to call a man Wise Man, Man of Thought, Wise in Speech, Sage in Counsel, WealthMunificent, Not Slack, Endower, Illustrious One; these are surnames.
LXVIII. "These are simple terms for women in skaldship: Wife and Bride and Matron are those women who are given to a man. Those who walk in pomp and fine array are called Dame and Lady. They who are witty of speech are called Women of Wisdom.1 They who are gentle are called Girls; they who are of high countenance are called Proud and Haughty Ones. She who is of noble mind is called Gentlewoman;2 she who is richest, Lady. She who is bashful, as young maids are, or those women who are modest, is called Lass. The woman whose husband has departed from the land is called Stay-at-Home. That woman whose husband is slain is called War-Widow: Widow is the term for her whose husband has died of sickness. Maid means, first, every woman, and then carlines that are old. Then there are those terms for women which are libellous: one may find them in songs, though they be not in writing. Those women who have one husband in common are called Concubines. A son's wife is termed Daughter-in-law; the husband's mother is called Motherin-law. A woman may also be called Mother, Grandmother, Great-Grandmother; a Mother is called Dam. Woman is further called Daughter, Bairn, and Child. She is also called Sister, Lady,' and Maiden.1 Woman is also called Bed-Fellow, Speech-Mate, and Secret-Sharer of her husband; and that is an epithet of possession.
1 Snot (plural, Snotir) = a gentlewoman. Cf. S/iofr = wise.A popular etymology.
2 Literally = Plowshare. (See Cl.-Vig., p. 498.)
LXIX. "A man's head is termed thus: [thus should it be periphrased: call it Toil or Burden of the Neck; Land of the Helm, of the Hood, and of the Brain, of the Hair and Brows, of the Scalp, of Ears, Eyes, and Mouth; Sword of Heimdallr, and it is correct to name any term for sword which one desires; and to periphrase it in terms of every one of the names of Heimdallr] 2 the Head, in simple terms, is called Skull, Brain, Temple, Crown. The eyes are termed Vision or Glance, and Regard, Swift-Appraising; (they may be so periphrased as to call them Sun or Moon, Shields and Glass or Jewels or Stones of the Eyelids, of the Brows, the Lashes, or the Forehead]. The ears are called Listeners3 or Hearing;3 [one should periphrase them by calling them Land, or any earth-name, or Mouth, or Canal, or Vision, or Eyes of Hearing, if the metaphors employed are new-coined. The mouth one should periphrase by calling it Land or House of the Tongue or of the Teeth, of Words or of the Palate, of the Lips, or the like; and if the metaphors used are not traditional, then men may call the mouth Ship, and the lips the Planks, and the tongue Oar or Tiller of the Ship. The teeth are sometimes called Gravel or Rocks of Words, of the Mouth, or of the Tongue. The tongue is often called Sword of Speech or of the Mouth) . The hair which stands on the lips is called Beard, Moustache, or Whiskers. Hair is called Nap; the hair of women is called Tresses. Hair is termed Locks. [One may periphrase hair by calling it Forest, or by some tree-name; one may periphrase it in terms of the skull or brain or head; and the beard in terms of chin or cheeks or throat.]
1 Dfs; jodU: properly = sister. For discussion of these words, see under dis in Cl.-Vig., p. 100.
2 This and other passages in brackets are probably spurious.
3 These are the literal meanings; the meanings, in general usage, coincide : both words signify the inner parts of the ear (Cl.-Vig.).
LXX. "The heart is called grain-sheaf; [one should periphrase it by terming it Grain or Stone or Apple or Nut or Ball, or the like, in figures of the breast or of feeling. Moreover, it may be called House or Earth or Mount of Feeling. One should periphrase the breast by calling it House or Garth or Ship of the Heart, of Breath, or of the Liver; Land of Energy, of Feeling, and of Memory) . Feeling is affection and emotion, love, passion, desire, love-longing. [Passion should be periphrased by calling it Wind of TrollWomen; also it is correct to name what one soever is desired, and to name giants, periphrasing giantesses as Woman or Mother or Daughter of the Giants.] Feeling is also called mood, liking, eagerness, courage, activity, memory, understanding, temper, humor, good faith. It is also wrath, enmity, mischievousness, grimness, balefulness, grief, sorrow, ill-will, spite, falseness, faithlessness, fickleness, lightmindedness, baseness, hasty temper, violence.
LXXI. "The hand and fore-arm may be called hand, arm, paw, palm. Parts of the arm are called elbow, upper arm, wolfs joint,1 finger, grip, wrist, nail, finger-tip, hand-edge, quick. [One may term the hand Earth of Weapons or of Defensive Armor; and together with shoulder and arm, the hollow of the hand and the wrist, it may be called Earth of Gold Rings, of the Falcon and the Hawk, and of all the equivalents thereof; and in new-coined metaphors, Leg of the Shoulder-Joint, and Force of the Bow. The legs may be called Tree of the Soles, of the Insteps, of the Ankles, or the like; Running Shaft of the Road or of the Way or the Pace; one may call the leg Tree or Post of all these. The legs are periphrased in metaphors of snowshoes, shoes, and breeks.] The parts of the legs are called thigh, knee, calf, lower leg, upper leg, instep, arch, sole, toe; [one may periphrase the leg in terms of all these, calling it Tree, Mast, and Yard thereof; and in metaphors of them all) .
LXXII. "Speech is called words, language, eloquence, talk, tattle, gibing, controversy, song, spell, recital, idle talk, babbling, din, chatter, squalling, merry noise, wrangling, mocking, quarrelling, wish-wash, boasting, tittle-tattle, nonsense, idiom, vanity, gabbling. It is also termed voice, sound, resonance, articulation, wailing, shriek, dash, crash, alarm, roaring, creaking, swoop, swooping, outburst.
1 This is the wrist-joint.