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summer till the equinox. The month next before winter is called Harvest-Month; the first in winter is the Month of Cattle-Slaughter; then Freezing Month,then Rain-Month, then the Month of Winter's Wane, then Goi;1 then SingleMonth, then Cuckoo-Month and Seed-Time, then Eggtime and Lamb-Weaning-Time; then come Sun-Month and Pasture Month, then Haying-Season; then Reaping Month.]2

LXIII. "What are the simple terms for men? Each, in himself, is Man; the first and highest name by which man is called is Emperor; next to that, King; the next thereto, Earl: these three men possess in common all the following titles: All-Ruler, as this song showeth:

I know all All-Rulers
East and south, o'er the Ships' seat:
Sveinn's son in proof is better
Than any other War-Prince.

Here he is called War-Prince also; for this reason he is called All-Ruler, that he is sole Ruler of all his realm. Host-Arrayer, as Gizurr sang:

The Host-Arrayer feedeth
The wolf and the raven in folk-mote;
Olafr gladdens, in Skogul's sharp showers
Of battle, the geese of Odin.

1 I cannot find the meaning of this word.

2 "This passage, which U lacks, is clearly a later addition." Jonsson, Copenhagen ed. (1900), p. 138, footnote.


"A King is called Host-Arrayer because he divides his
war-host into companies.
Leader, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

The Leader taketh
Odin's loved Wife,
The lordless land;
His a warrior's life.

Lord or Lording, as Arnorr sang:

The Lord of Hjaltland, highest
Of heroes, gained the victory
In every thunderous sword-clash:
The bard will extol his glory.

An earl is called Host-Duke, and a king also is so termed,
forasmuch as he leads his host to battle. Thus sang Thjo-

He who put to shame the Host-Duke

Thrust out the eyes of prisoners,—

He who speeds the sacrifices;

In song I chant his praises.

Signor, or Senor, as Sigvatr sang:

O Norway's gracious Signor,
Grant the wretched, as the happy,
May now enjoy thy wise laws;
Give greatly, hold thy word!

Munificent One, as Markus sang:


The Munificent Prince brought fire's destruction
O'er the base people; to the pirates
Death was fated: Thief-Compeller,
South at Jom highest flame-glow kindle!

Illustrious One, as Hallvardr sang:

No Illustrious One nearer
Under Earth's Hazel liveth
Than thou, O Monks' Upholder:
The Gold-Minisher Danes protecteth.

Land-Driver, as Thjodolfr sang:

The guileless Land-Driver sprinkles
Kraki's gleaming barley,

as was written before;1 he is called so because he drives his host about the lands of other kings, or drives a host out of his own land.

LXIV. "There was a king named Halfdan the Old, who was most famous of all kings. He made a great sacrificial feast at mid-winter, and sacrificed to this end, that he might live three hundred years in his kingdom; but he received these answers: he should not live more than the full life of a man, but for three hundred years there should be no woman and no man in his line who was not of great repute. He was a great warrior, and went on forays far and wide in the Eastern Regions :2 there he slew in single combat the king who was called Sigtryggr. Then he took in marriage that woman named Alvig the Wise, daughter of King Eymundr of Holmgardr:1 they had eighteen sons, nine born at one birth. These were their names: the first, Thengill,2 who was called Manna-Thengill; 2 the second, Rsesir;' the third, Gramr;3 the fourth, Gylfi;3 the fifth, Hilmir;3 the sixth, Jo furr;3 the seventh,Tyggi;3 the eighth, Skyli3 or Skuli;3 the ninth, Harri3 or Herra.3 These nine brothers became so famous in foraying that, in all records since, their names are used as titles of rank, even as the name of King or that of Earl. They had no children, and all fell in battle. Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy:

1 See page 173. 2 That is, in the lands bordering the Baltic.



In his youth stalwart Thengill
Was swift and staunch in battle:
I pray his line endureth;
O'er all men I esteem him.

Thus sang Markus:

The Raesir let the Rhine's Sun shimmer

From the reddened Skull's ship on the Sea-Fells.

Thus sang Egill:

The Gramr the hood hath lifted

From the hair-fenced brows of the Singer.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

He played with the land-folk
Who should have defended;

1 Russia.

2 This word means Prince or King; Manna-Thengill'= Prince of Men.

3 All of these words are poetic names for a Prince or King.

Gylfi the gladsome

Stood 'neath the gold helmet.

Thus sang Glumr Geirason:

Hilmir beneath the helmet
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed.'

Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy:

Let Jofurr hear the beginning

Of his laud: all the king's praises

Shall be maintained, and justly

Let him mark my praise-song's measures.

As Stufr sang:

The glory-ardent Tyggi

South before Niz with two hands

Beat down the band of heroes:

Glad beneath their shields the host went.

Thus sang Hallfredr:

From Skyli I am parted:
This age of swords hath caused it.
'T is greatest of all self-mockings
To hope that the king's guard cometh.

Thus sang Markiis:

I bid the hawklike Danish Harri
Hark to my cunning web of praises.

1 See page 197.

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