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and clowns, felt within him the sadness of sweet music, and read the hearts of daffodils and violets. Who knows Shakespeare? Who can form a conception of his character ? His intimate friends, peers or poets, saw but a part of him ; dimly apprehended that he was greater than they, but knew not how. The greater is not to be apprehended of the less. The highest spirits are the most isolated.

Let me briefly recapitulate. Man is a spirit, moulding his material form. As that form is perishable, the process is infinitely repeated; and the series of forms thus produced is an ascending or descending series, according to the character and tendency of the informing spirit. While spirit and form are connected, man is a sharer of the life of the world; he is akin to all living creatures and things. But he is also akin to the Divinity; and this is shown in the fact that he can stand intellectually alone, and find exercise for his highest faculties in commune with the Invisible—or, as some would say, the Unknowable. How far it is possible for man to know the Divinity is a question which each person must solve for himself. When the Positivist assures me that there cannot be a God, because he cannot conceive one, I admit the force of the argument so far as he is concerned. If you met with a person colour-blind, you would not try to convince him that there is a difference between scarlet and crimson-- both of which to his vision are a dingy black. If you encountered one of those gentleinen incapable of arithmetic, who maintain that the circumference of a circle is 33 times its diameter, you would not try to make him understand the process by which we approximate to . Similarly, if there are philosophers who assure me that as they cannot conceive a God, or, indeed, see any necessity for a God, there therefore is no God, I shall not contradict them, any more than I would contradict Mr. Darwin

when he asserts that the founder of the house of Darwin was an anthropoid ape. When we connect Darwinism with positivism the inference is curious. Says the positivist, Humanity is God: says the Darwinist, Humanity is the gorilla : ergo ....

CHAPTER III.

MODES OF LIFE.

O what a life was in the world astir
When King Apollo was a villager!

I HAVE written that it is necessary to keep the mind always awake and active. How is this to be done in our present state of society by persons of average capacity? How is it even to be approached? To tell an ordinary man that long life depends on ideas, is like telling a sick labourer that he must have generous food and plenty of port wine. • Where am I to find ideas ?' is the obvious rejoinder. They don't grow in this part of the country. Now although I write primarily for men (and women) who have ideas, and who therefore ought to live long, and whose long life would be enjoyment to themselves and advantage to the populace; yet I cannot refuse to take pity on the lower order among us. After all, as Gladstone says, they are our own flesh and blood; and although I prefer my spiritual to my sanguinicarnal relations, I have no wish to leave these latter out in the cold.

My first thesis is, that in England there is now no mode of life healthy enough to secure longevity. We may roughly divide our modes of life into city life and country life; but these have many shades and subdivisions. City life in Park Lane differs from city life in the Ratcliffe Highway; country life by Windermere or on Dartmoor differs from country life in the small and unfragrant hamlet of Pigslush. For my argument, however, these subdivisions have no importance; nor need I enter into any discussion as to whether there is higher civilization at Bath or at Manchester, among the spinners of cotton or the ploughers of land. Both forms

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