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evolutionists, single globes of jelly, having single organs to perform different functions.
I claim that natural selection could only reproduce a pre-existing type and could not add a new organ or alter the form of the pre-existing one; that mechanical means which could only be externally applied cannot even reproduce an existing type, let alone form an additional organ.
I deny that the use or disuse of one organ or of the combined organs of any living animal can change the whole organism or any part thereof, and thus form a new and distinct animal.
I claim that as all organic life has such a struggle for existence, and as nature has to be always on the alert to select, that it is as much as an organ or an organism can do to keep itself up to the standard of healthy action; that death to the weakest is rather the rule than “survival of the fittest.”
I claim, then, at least, we can only prolong life a certain period by obeying laws, and that as man cannot give to an organ any greater life than what it had stamped upon it originally, neither can nature add a new organ, nor can it be done by mechanics or art. Each organ can be sustained and strengthened and made through successive generations to reach the highest efficiency of organic form and function, but beyond that God himself cannot go, for he is the embodiment of law, and cannot blot out himself.
If any one will study closely the rules for forming a set of artificial teeth, he must see the hand of design running through the whole work. It is not possible to conceive of a mechanism more efficient.
If so, surely the evolutionist must grant that I have produced what was either in existence from the beginning, or that I am a creator.
Give nie any first superior bicuspid, and I can plan the whole jaw of teeth, and no tooth can be changed in its place to give more efficiency. Moreover, this is just as true of the lower animals.
I cannot cite a better illustration of the fallacy and absurdity of evolution than the presumption of one of its advocates in the daring prediction he makes of what the coming man will be. A well-known American naturalist says that, inasmuch as man has lost the superior lateral incisor, he from some cause will continue to be without it until the human jaw will finally reach a higher efficieney. Now, if he could see a set of teeth arranged in perfect model, he would note the greatest change not in a forward but in a regular movement. Such a loss would bring the cuspids forward to fill the breach, and likewise, of course, all the teeth posterior to the cuspids; and this would not only destroy the perfect arch formed by the six teeth, but would bring the cusps of all the bicuspids and molars into direct contact, instead of letting them remain between, interlocking each other as before the laterals were lost. Thus the cusps, in the course of time, and very soon, would be worn completely flat; and instead of a more perfect organization our evolutionist would have a very imperfect one. Had he understood the mechanism of the human teeth he would never have made such a false prediction. Again, if, as he claims, nature would not have made the change back to the superior lateral, there would be no other resort than to the use and disuse of some parts of the jaws or to the action on the gums to reproduce the laterals. But he would hardly invoke nature or art to return them, since the jaw must of necessity be more perfect if they continued to come in that way, agreeably to evolution.
Fig. 1 shows an equilateral triangle of four inches,—the average size of the lower jaw of man,-within its circle, with a vertical line from its summit to its base and at right angles with said base.
Fig. 2.—The first step in the formation of the arch of the six incisors of the lower jaw, made by forming an equilateral triangle with the radius of the circle of the main equilateral triangle of four inches, as in Fig. 1, BCB'. Divide the line B to B" at B'. Form an equilateral triangle of BB'B''. Find the centre of the equilateral triangle at E, and the arc described from Bb to B' will be the normal arch of the six incisors of the average lower jaw, which corresponds with the size of human teeth as found in any jaw of four inches, and is the same as found in Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Fig. 3.-The second step taken in the application of the definite arch as proportioned in Fig. 2. By placing one part of the dividers at E (Fig. 2), the centre of the equilateral triangle BB'B' and the radius of the circle BB'B7' and placing it at E (Fig. 3), and describing the arch aba', intersect said arch a and as by placing one part of the dividers at b. The dividers placed at D and D and at E will also intersect at a and e'. A line is now drawn from A to D on one side and a to d' on the other, which are the lines upon which the bicuspids and molars are found, f and f". being their limit. It will be found that f is equidistant between D and and D and 6, and the length f' to a will be found also to be the mean diameter of the six lower incisors, or the length of the line from ab to a', Fig. 7. Then, as these lines are all equal, we have the six incisors and the two bicuspids and molars on either side, as in Fig. 7, forming an equilateral triangle of aba' and o, or a nearly perfect circle, as in Fig. 6, showing that the circle is not squared by multiplying the diameter by three, corresponding with the rule in mensuration.
Fig. 4 is the third step in showing the equilateral triangle made by the six incisors on one side, or the line from x to ', and the bicuspids and molars on the other lines from x to o and from x'too. The lines from o to x and o to w intersect at a and a', and are fully shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 5 is the fourth step in the design to complete the arch of the lower jaw, giving the width or size of each bicuspid and molar corresponding with the first arch BB'B'' (Fig. 2) and all the succeeding arches in the main equilateral triangle DD'b until the full limit is reached for any efficient tooth.
Fig. 6 shows the six incisors of the lower jaw from ab to al making one-third of the circle (Fig. 2) from BbB'B'', E being the centre. From a to o (Fig. 6) on one side and a' to o on the other are the bicuspids and molars of the lower jaw, which, when drawn into the circle, form very nearly the complete circle; showing that three times the diameter here, as from b to B" (Fig. 2), will not make exactly the circumference BB'B''.
Fig. 7.—The same teeth as in Fig. 6, but when thrown into straight lines they make an equilateral triangle, agreeing with Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Fig. 8 is the hexagon or six equilateral triangles, representing the cell of the honey-bee, which structure cannot be changed to a more perfect shape. The equilateral triangle as found in all these figures corresponds.
Fig. 9 is the normal shape (side views) of the superior and inferior central incisors, marked SI and II; d marks the cutting edge of SI, and e that of II; a is the curved line on the palatal surface of SI which agrees with the angles of the first superior bicuspid in Fig. 10 at a. The width between d and e in Fig. 9 is greater than that between d and e in Fig. 10. Figs. 16 and 17 show that from the centrals the cuspids are not so long nor the grooves so deep as one passes back to the second molar. There could be no cusps on a tooth at D.
Fig. 10.—Normal shapes of first superior and second superior bicuspids which have the angle of the equilateral triangle on grinding surfaces.
Fig. 11 shows superior and inferior central incisors of abnormal “over-bite" from d to e.
Fig. 12.–Superior and inferior molars showing excessive and abnormal "overbite," corresponding with Fig. 11.
Fig. 18.-Abnormal over-bite of the first superior and second inferior bicuspids, corresponding with Figs. 11 and 12.
Fig. 14 shows the first inferior bicuspid with but one true cusp: it should be named unicuspid.
Fig. 15 is a side view of the human teeth from the centrals to the second molars, giving the law of the “over-bite” and length of the cusps, and curvature of the
Fig. 16 shows much plainer the depth of each groove when articulating, from the centrals to the condyloid processes.
Fig. 17.-A back view of the human teeth, showing the process of mastication. As here arranged, the left side is where all the mastication is done; while upon the opposite side (right) only the molars and bicuspids, all the way to the central, touch upon their palatal and buccal sides, merely to hold the jaws, touching perfectly on only one-half the surfaces; on the right side no mastication could take place.
Fig. 18 is a one-fourth size representation of the anatomatical articulator, in which all artificial sets of teeth are placed to have them arranged, obeying the natural law which places the inferior central incisors at the median line four inches from the condyles D and D'. B and B' are removable bows of metal upon which the plaster casts are cemented. These are held firmly by screws S and s. Any number of casts can be articulated on the same base at the same time without des stroying any of them.
W. G. A. Bonwill.
MAGICIANS AND FEATHER-DUSTERS.
To the eyes of a certain traveller in a tropical land the long lines of palmTO
trees looked like row after row of feather-dusters. To another they seemed weird magicians, hoary and solemn, grown old, immeasurably old, in all mysterious knowledge, and conning their strange secrets over, as the sun shone upon them and the wind passed by.
In the one simile we mark something smart and not inapt, the glibness of superficial observation, and the imperturbability which is never afraid to fasten its little price-mark upon anything. Such an observer goes upon his journeys of discovery in an express-train, and gathers material for his notes through the car-window. If any shallowness or inaccuracy of comment-any omission of details that help to explain the whole-is the result, we must blame the rate of speed. It is a fault common enough in our hastening times. As regards the other comparison, it is an expression of that imagination which has a vision of its own. The inward source of living light vivifies the weed, the stone, the way. side pool; for the aspect of the world depends less upon the things seen than upon the one who sees them. Doubtless the ancient maker of fable and legendary lore was a songless poet whose voice the rude age silenced,—who could not bend resignedly to the thought that there were no miracles or marvels, and therefore set to work to create some. It was a rebellion, a pathetic revolt, against living in such a prosaic world. If he was never entirely successful in persuading himself of the reliability of his own inventions, he derived a sort of pleasure from noting the credulity of his fellows. It was something, at least, to make others believe. And, after all, his was not so inexcusable a falsification as the rigid moralist may suppose. “Who can foretell to-morrow?” He lived in hope's land of promise. His eyes never wearied of watching for the haunting naiad of the source. The dragon-fly shimmering with gauzy wings upon the brink might be the forerunner of the fairy-folk. When the tree tossed its boughs and whispered to the wandering breeze, ho started about in the eager hope that he might catch a glimpse of the hidden dryad. The glitter of green and gold in the fence-corner must be a fay snared in the spider's mesh and giving battle with his tiny blade. A sudden pattering over the dead leaves of the woodland meant the skurrying feet of trolls, hastening away in terrified remembrance of the days when Thor was wont to throw his hammer at them. Yonder undulating line across the pool was not the passing of a water-snake, but a kelpie. The sound of piping from the yellowed summer grass might be. the shrilling of elfin trumpets. That sudden gleam of scarlet among the weeds was not the flaunting of some poor wild-flower, but the red cap of a fairy messenger on his way to court.
And as this slave and master of fancy continued to multiply marvels about him, all the more devoutly did the simple folk believe. Mentally incapable themselves of a like creative energy of imagination, it could not occur to them to suspect another of possessing such a gift. Thus his supremacy was established, and they came to him for intelligence of the unseen world whose mysteries they strained their dull eyes in vain to see. He it was who feigned sleep in the magic ring, and ran home breathless at cock-crow, to tell the gaping
neighbors of the brave things he had beheld. Hiding near the cross-roads, upon the stroke of twelve, he spied the fairy procession wending along the highway, headed by the Queen herself, mounted on a snow-white palfrey that moved to the music of golden chimings. He heard the wood-sorrel ringing its silver bells to summon the sprites to their nightly revels, but not the shriek of the mandrake plucked up by the roots,-for that meant madness. The wandering fires of the will-o'-the-wisps lighted up an unknown path he was fain to follow,how vainly he scarce whispered even to his own heart. He parleyed with Robin Goodfellow, and watched the flight of witches through the murk of the dead hours. When some villager disappeared in the depths of the great gloomy forest and was no more seen, the man of second-sight spoke mystic things, 88 the light burned blue, and his listeners huddled around him, shuddering between delight and terror, of mortals lured away to the land of Faery, changed there to birds or beasts, or wrapped in a magic forgetfulness of home and friends. They brought their dreams to him, and he unriddled them, being wise in signs, omens, and portents. He heard the death-watch tick, and knew to a certainty which way the flickering of the corpse-candle pointed. Treading fearlessly the demesne of the graveyard, his only regret was that the ghostly oocupants did not squeak and gibber at his will. He warned his followers that wise men will not stir abroad on Midsummer Night, when“ the world goes a-madding," and told them of weird rites upon which mortal eyes may not gaze unblasted. When one fell sick, and wasted beyond the help of the healing juices expressed from herb or flower, he whispered of the casting of spells by those in league with evil spirits. If his inventions proved fatal, now and then, to some poor, mumbling Goody, we must believe that he was never among the active persecutors of wizardly folk. If he started the hue and cry, it was in all innocence; for he loved mysteries too well to wish to abolish even the least of them. Sometimes, it is to be supposed, he fell a martyr to his magic creed that he scarce believed himself. The superstitious feelings he had evoked turned traitor to him: his own hand, it may be said, lighted the fagots about his funeral pile, and he perished in smoke and flame, for the sake of those pathetic imaginings with which he had tried to enliven the dull colors of every-day life.
The German story of the youth who travelled to learn what shivering means might be taken as an allegorical allusion to a certain human anxiety to be thrilled. The man of second-sight is still among us, and to-day, as ever, he finds it hard to reconcile himself to commonplace conditions. But modern thought has somewhat clipped his wings; his flights never range so far or wildly as of old. Though he has not relinquished the secret hope that each day may bring forth a miracle, he has grown wise enough not to confess it. Taught wariness by the mockery of practical people, if one finds him hunting for elves in the grass he avers that he is pursuing the study of botany. To him a telescope is only an excuse for reading his fortune in the stars. He learns the jargon of the market-place, and speaks it as glibly as the best. But there is always something which betrays him. He has a trick of forgetting his surroundings until some ruder jostling than usual startles him awake, and be stands all adaze, with the tattered filaments of the dream still hanging about him. Out of the ruins of old beliefs he has striven to build himself a cloudy City of Refuge, whither he may flee when the outside toil and strain become too harsh. The child part of his nature has not died. Vain is the effort to console him with the "fairy-tales of science.” What he wants is the unexplainable, the un