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whilst the case of “Higginbotham versus Swink Slander" became a cause célebre.
Augustus B. Longstreet, of Mississippi, was the author of “Georgia Scenes, Characters, Incidents, etc., in the First Half-Century of the Republic,” and other sketches. He also wrote a long story entitled “Master William Mitten."
William Tappan Thompson was the author of “Major Jones's Courtship,” “Major Jones's Chronicle of Pineville," “ Major Jones's Sketches of Travel," and other sketches.
Yet another was Dr. George W. Bagby, of Virginia, who succeeded John R. Thompson as editor of The Southern Literary Messenger, and who wrote before the war over the nom de plume of “Mozis Addums.” The quality of his serious work was higher than that of the other sketch-writers enumerated ; and, being wider in its scope, its value was greater than theirs, though his writings were never published in book form until after his death, when two volumes were brought out in Richmond, Virginia. Much of his writing was done after the war, but prior to that period he had accomplished enough to entitle him to the credit of being a literary man at a time when literature in the South was without the compensations by which it was subsequently attended.
Besides these classes of writers there existed another class whose writings not only far exceeded in volume those of the authors who have been mentioned, but were also far more successful.
The chief of these were Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz, Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth, Mrs. Catherine Ann Warfield, and Miss Augusta J. Evans. They were followed by a sisterhood of writers far too numerous for mention, whose work, whatever its permanent value, is entitled to honorable notice as evidencing an ambition on the part of the Southern women to create a Southern literature. There were about two hundred in all, who have written novels, books of travel, sketches, and volumes of poems. If they have not generally soared very high, they have at least lifted themselves above the common level, and are entitled to the respect of the South for their loyal endeavor to do their part towards her elevation. Both Mrs. Hentz and Mrs. Southworth wrote many novels and yet more numerous sketches, the popularity of which in their day was extraordinary. Perhaps the best of Mrs. Hentz's Romances are “ The Mob-Cap” (1848), "Linda” (1850), “Rena" (1851), and “The Planter's Northern Bride.” Mrs. South worth has written over fifty novels, besides shorter stories. Her first book, “Retribution," written for the Washington National Era, was subsequently published in a volume in 1849, and had an immense sale. It was rapidly followed by “The Deserted Wife,” “ The Missing Bride," “Love's Labor Won,” “The Lost Heiress,” “Fallen Pride,” “ Curse of Clifton," etc., to the number above stated. In all of these novels the element of romance is emphasized. Some of Mrs. Southworth's books were vehemently assailed, but, as the public is much more intent on being entertained than on being elevated, they generally attained an extensive popularity. The Southern life is utilized by both these writers, but in so exaggerated or unreal a form that the pictures are too untrue to be relied on. Both authors were of Northern birth, whilst their lives were spent at the South. Is it significant of the fact that the Northern literary press was not in “old times" open to writers of Southern birth, or that the public sentiment was against Southern women publishing, or of both ?
Mrs. Terhune (“Marion Harland”) is entitled to stand in a class by herself, since her books "Alone,” “The Hidden Path," " Moss Side, and “ Nemesis,” which were published before the war, as well as those which have appeared since that time, are in a much higher literary key than those of the authors named. Like the others, she has used the Southern life as material in her work; but she has exhibited a literary sense of a far higher order, and an artistic touch to which the others are strangers.
There existed yet another class, whose work, although not extensive in amount, was yet of a quality to enlist the attention and evoke the respect of American readers. The Southern poets were not numerous : poetry even more peculiarly than prose demands a sympathetic atmosphere. Such was not to be found at the South. The standards there were Shakespeare, Dryden, and Pope; no less would be tolerated. Before Wilde could admit his authorship of "My Life is like the Summer Rose” he had to establish himself as a fine lawyer and an able politician ; Philip Pendleton Cooke, as an offset to “Florence Vane and the “Froissart Ballads," found it necessary to avouch his manhood as the crack turkey-shot of the Valley of Virginia. Yet the poets wrote, if not much, still real poetry, and poetry which will live as a part of the best American literature. In this domain, as in others, Poe soared high above all the rest. He was not profuse; but he was excellent, pre-eminent. He is one of the poets of the Englishspeaking race. Wilde, Cooke, Pinkney, Key, Meek, Lamar, Lipscomb, Vawter, and others have been already referred to. The Sonnet to a Mocking-Bird by the first is as fine as his other more popular poem already mentioned. Mr. Wilde resided in Italy for some time, and published the result of his researches there in a work in two volumes entitled “Conjectures and Researches concerning the Love, Madness, and Imprisonment of Torquato Tasso,” which contains fine translations from Tasso and is otherwise valuable. He also wrote a Life of Dante, and a long poem entitled “Hesperia,” besides a number of translations of Italian lyrics which were not published until after his death. ;
Cooke, besides “Florence Vane," which Poe declared the sweetest lyric ever written in America, and which has been translated into many foreign languages, wrote many other lyrics, of which the most popular and perhaps the best are the “ Lines to my Daughter Lily” and “Rosa Lee." He also wrote a number of sketches, among which are " John Carpe,"
,” “The Gregories of Hackwood,” and “The Crime of Andrew Blair."
He died at the age of thirty-thrée, when his brilliant powers were still in bud.
Edward Coate Pinkney was a member of a family distinguished for literary taste and ability. "His uncle, Ninian Pinkney, as early as 1809 published a book of “ Travels in the South of France and in the In
terior of the Provinces of Provence and Languedoc," of which Leigh Hunt said, " It set all the idle world to going to France to live on the charming banks of the Loire.”
His brother Frederick was also a poet. Pinkney's poems were so exquisite that after their first publication in 1825 he was requested to sit for a portrait to be included in a sketch of “The Five Greatest Poets of the Nation.” “A Health,” and “The Picture Song," have an established place in our literature.
Lanier and Ticknor of Georgia, Thompson of Virginia, Dimitry of Louisiana, Ryan, etc., belong to a later time.
Henry Timrod and Paul H. Hayne perhaps also more properly belong to that period, but before the war they had done work which by its worth and volume entitles them to be ranked of all Southern poets next after Poe.
Hayne in South Carolina was, with Simms and others, inspiring an emulation first before the war which promised a brighter literary future than there had previously been ground to hope for. John R. Thompson as editor of the Southern Literary Messenger was performing the same work for Virginia. Had Hayne and Thompson received greater encouragement, their fine talents might have yielded a return which would have made their native land as proud of her brilliant sons as she should have been.
Besides the authors mentioned in this paper, there were very many others who by occasional essays at literature in prose or in verse attained something more than a local reputation, but they were distinguished rather in other professions than in literature, whilst most of those mentioned are now chiefly distinguished for the literary work they accomplished.
If it shall appear from this very imperfect summary of the literary work done by the South, and of the causes which influenced it, that the amount produced was small, the writer begs to call attention again first to the insignificant number of the educated and slave-holding whites of the South, from whom alone a literature could come, and secondly to the intellectual energy that limited population displayed throughout the entire period of their existence. He believes that the intellectual work they accomplished will compare favorably with that of a similar number of any other race whatsoever during the same period; and he is certain that the thoughtful and dispassionate student, to whatever causes he may deem to be due the absence of a literature by the Southern people, will not attribute it to either mental indigence or mental lassitude.
Thomas Nelson Page.
With banners, robes, and panoply of cost,
M. A. De Wolfe Howe, Jr.
OUR ONE HUNDRED QUESTIONS.
XII. 82. What is the etymology of Mugwump, and when was the word first used in American politics ?
“Mugwump" in the language of the Connecticut Indians meant a captain, a leader, a superior person. The word lingered along the shore of Long Island Sound, meaning at first a man of consequence; secondarily, a man who thought himself of consequence. When Blaine was nominated in 1884 for the Presidency by the Republicans, many members of the party, disapproving the choice, voted the Democratic ticket. For daring to have an opinion of their own, these men were dubbed“ mugwumps” in derision, and accepted the nickname. This definition is by Brander Matthews. Another New-Yorker refers to a petition presented to Stuyvesant by the Indians, and signed by an Esopus chieftain whose name is Dacta, and whose title is "mugwump,” meaning high-minded.
An anecdote is told of its origin as follows: À priest translating the New Testament into an Indian dialect, being puzzled to find a good rendering for “not to think of himself more highly than he ought," consulted an Indian, who answered, " That's easy enough : that's mugwump."
The Hon. Milton Reed, ex-Representative of Massachusetts, says that a mugwump was an Indian who left his own tribe to marry into another and then sought to return to his own. Thus in politics a mugwump is a Republican who voted with the Democrats, then returned to the Republican ranks. But this view is not the usual one, a mugwump being generally considered simply one who leaves his acknowledged party.
C. L. Norton contributed to the American Magazine of History, 1885, an explanation of the term, as follows: “A mugwump is an Independent Republican, one who sets himself up to be better than his fellows,-a Pharisee. On the nomination of Hon. James G. Blaine for the Presidency (June 6, 1884), a strong opposition developed among disaffected Republicans calling themselves 'Independents.' The movement originated at a meeting in Boston, June 7, and was promptly taken up in New York and elsewhere. The supporters of the regular nomination affected to believe that these Independents set themselves up as the superiors of their former associates. They were called 'dudes, pharisees, and hypocrites,' and on June 15, 1884, the New York Sun called them mugwumps.' The word was forth with adopted by the public as curiously appropriate, though for a time its meaning was problematical. It appeared that the term had been in use colloquially in some parts of New England, notably on the Massachusetts coast. Thence it had been carried inland, and was used in large type as a headline in the Indianapolis Sentinel as early as 1872. This is on the authority of H. F. Keenan, who was at the time editor of that journal, and had picked up the word in New England. In this instance it was used to emphasize some local issue. After this the word seems to have lain perdu until resuscitated by the Sun on March 23, 1884, when it in turn applied it to a local issue at Dobbs Ferry, New York, printing ‘Mugwump D. O. Bradley' in large type at the top of one of its prominent columns. After the Independent movement was started the word was launched on its career of popularity, but not until September 6, 1884, was it authoritatively defined. The Critic of that date contained a note from Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, of Hartford, to the effect that the word was of Algonquin origin, and occurred in Eliot's Indian Bible, being used to translate such titles as lord, high captain, chief, great man, leader, or duke. In Matthew vi. 21 (or xxvi. 21) it occurs as mukquomp."
The New York Nation, June 17, 1886, defines it as a man who is unable, for one reason or another, to vote his regular party ticket. The regular party men speak of him as a “holier-than-thou man,'' a "Pharisee," and a " kicker."
As one and the same man is called a patriot by some, a rebel by others, so from one point of view a “mugwump” is a man who thinks himself above others and stands aloof from politics, “superior" in a satirical sense; from another point he is one truly superior to mere party claims, and forming his opinions on moral grounds.—ONE OF A THOUSAND.
83. What is the legend of the palace of Sans Souci, and what amount of historical truth does it contain ?
There is an atmosphere of romance and story in the very name Sans Souci, with its memories of Frederick the Great, the White Lady, and the famous windmill, so that when one is asked for a legend it is almost impossible to know which one is wanted. From time immemorial the superstitious belief has prevailed in Germany that, as a prelude to any catastrophe in the royal family, a female spectre, described as a tall, not ungraceful figure, clothed in long trailing garments of dazzling white, with a bunch of keys depending from a girdle at her waist, appears in some dreary place, at some gloomy hour, to the principal sufferer. It is regarded as a thing of destiny, and the apparition is looked for as a matter of course. This ghostly messenger of ill tidings does not confine herself to any one of the numerous royal residences, and on the occasion of Frederick the Great's death did not neglect to pay her devoirs to him at Sans Souci. The White Lady is one in many, for, besides attaching herself to many noble German families, she appears, under other names, in the legends of many countries. The first recorded instance of her appearance in Germany was in the family of the Hohenzollerns, just before the death of the Elector John George, in 1598; and since that time she has continued her visitations with praiseworthy punctuality, and the visits have been as duly chronicled. No tale so ghostly is so well authenticated. As to the historical identity of the White Lady there are several opinions. By some authorities she is said to be the spirit of Agnes, Countess of Otlamünde, who murdered her children, and, in consequence, was buried alive in one of the palace vaults. According to another story (which has been dramatized in the tragedy of “The White Lady of Berlin Castle" by Winchester), this same Agnes was enamoured of a prince of Parma, and, fancying that her two daughters were her rivals in his affection, she caused them to be murdered, and despatched a love-philtre to the prince. But her butler, thinking the prince was the murderer of the daughters, poisoned the love potion. For these deaths which she had accomplished, Agnes was doomed to wander alone at night through the palaces belonging to her family and proclaim approaching deaths. The most popular account of the White Lady, however, identifies her with Bertha von Rosenberg, the wife of John of Lichtenstein, who cruelly ill-treated her. Her life was one of devotion to the poor, especially orphans, and her spirit is thought to be disturbed lest her bequests to various charities should be forgotten. As to the story of the windmill, it is established as an historical fact. When Frederick was making his plans for the erection of the palace of Sans Souci, in 1763, he found that a windmill, belonging to one of his thrifty subjects, stood just where he wished to extend a portion of the palace gardens. His agent sent for the owner and asked what price he wanted for his mill. But the miller sturdily refused to part with it at any price, saying that his ancestors for many generations had owned it, and he intended that it should remain as a heritage for his own children. The agent, scarcely able to credit what he heard, persisted. “What I will you not sell it at any price ?” he asked. “Could not the king take it from you for nothing, if he wished ?” "Ja, wenn das Reichskammergericht in Berlin nicht wäre," was the answer, which immediately became a popular saying in Germany, Frederick, whose love of justice had caused him to style himself “l'avocat du pauvre,” was delighted with the retort, and ordered the plans for his garden to be altered, so that the mill might be left standing on its knoll, a monument of Prussian justice.” It is said that in later years the recent Emperor was waited upon by å descendant of the miller, who had experienced severe losses and desired to sell the mill. The Emperor inquired into the case, and, finding his story true, furnished him with means to defray his debts, but refused to remove the mill, preferring that it should remain standing. There is some question whether the mill now shown to travellers is the original one, or a more recent erection on the old site.-Davus.